• Briefly define Means and Ends.
• Explain Gandhian perspective on the relative importance of Means and Ends.
• Conclude with the relevance of his philosophy in the modern world.
In simple terms, ends are the goals or results. Means are the methods used to achieve goals.
There are differing schools of thought with some justifying any means for achieving the goals while others uphold the need for right means to achieve the objectives in true sense.
For Gandhiji, there is some inviolable connection between means and ends similar to the one between a seed and a tree. Gandhiji, stated that it is means, rather than ends, that provide the standard of morality. As per him, the only thing that is completely within control is the means to achieve the goal. For Gandhi ji, violence and non-violence cannot be different means to serve the same end, since they are morally different in quality and essence, they must necessarily achieve different results.
Gandhiji, in his moral and political thought, gave truth and non-violence the highest importance and said that ‘ahimsa’ is the means to reach ‘satya’, which is the end. His view was that impure means can never lead to a pure end. Gandhiji also said that choosing the rightful means to achieve a goal may appear to be too long, but he was convinced that it is the shortest route.
According to Gandhiji, means are after all everything. He said, ‘as the means, so the ends.’

Gandhiji’s views on ends and means hold ground in view of the fact that India, after gaining independence through his methods of satyagraha, adopted his principle of Sarvodaya (progress of all) and became the largest democracy in the world. It is constantly growing towards becoming a better nation in terms of economy as well human values. Adoption of his view on ends and means will help morality and ethics prevail in the society, which is largely seen missing in personal as well as public life.

(b) Probity is an essential condition of good governance. Explain. (10)
• Define Probity.
• Provide arguments to bring out the significance of probity for good governance.
• Conclude answer.
Probity is the quality of adhering to strong moral principles such as honesty and integrity as well as uprightness, good character and decency. It is the act of following the highest principles and ideals rather than merely avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It balances service to the community against the self-interest of individuals.

Probity and Good Governance
Governance is the act and manner of managing public office. A working paper of the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution noted that probity in governance is an essential and vital requirement for an efficient and effective system of governance and for socioeconomic development. While the constitution and laws provide legal framework for governance,
probity is part of the ethical framework that determine the nature of governance and the relationship between the government and the governed.
Probity is essential for good governance as it:
• Enhances the credibility of the state apparatus: Since probity is concerned with procedures, processes and systems rather than outcomes, it ensures procedural integrity of the institutions.

Thus, efficient and effective system of governance leads to socio-economic development.
• Ensures institutional integrity: Probity maintains ethicality and legality of institutions regardless of the individuals manning them. It involves adopting an ethical and transparent approach, allowing the process to withstand scrutiny.
• Minimizes individual discretions: Strict adherence to the highest moral standards allows institutions as well as the individuals to deal with everyone impartially.
• Curbs corrupt behaviour: Aspects of probity such as – accountability and transparency – prevents abuse of public resources or position in public life for private gain.
• Upholds public confidence: Probity in governance preserves public confidence in the government and governmental processes. It eases the way authority is exercised by the public officials.
Creation of a strong moral framework in governance is essential for good governance. However, procedural probity should not be at the cost of humane aspect of the administration. To ensure probity in public life, a robust culture of integrity and moral standards needs to be cultivated.


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