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Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is all set to launch its third lunar exploration mission, Chandrayaan-3. The mission aims to achieve what Chandrayaan 2 could not, i.e., land softly on the lunar surface and explore it with a rover. A successful soft landing will make India the fourth country, after the United States, Russia, and China, to achieve the feat. A successful landing will not only give the country an edge in the space exploration race, but would also contribute to the economy.

How the Chandrayaan-3 mission is going to be different from the Chandrayaan-2 mission:

Points of DifferenceChandrayaan-2Chandrayaan-3
ComponentsIt mainly consisted of an orbiter, Lander, and Rover.  It consists of a Lander module (LM), a Propulsion module (PM), and a Rover.
Experiments on boardIt consisted of 8 experiments on the orbiter, 4 on the lander and 2 on the rover.Same experiments on lander and rover as chandrayaan 2, however, a new experimental payload is added to the propulsion module i.e., Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE).SHAPE will look for smaller planets that might be habitable in the reflected light.
Landing siteThe landing of this mission was supposed to take place on a plateau between two craters.For chandrayaan-3 the site have been moved slightly from the previous location.The site, at around 70 degrees S near the Southern pole of the moon is selected as there are several craters here that remain permanently in shade and can be the storehouse of water ice and precious minerals.
Changes in the LanderChandrayaan-2 carried only one lander hazard detection and avoidance camera.It will carry 2 such cameras, further Chandrayaan-3’s cameras are designed to be more robust than its predecessor.The lander has also been provided more fuel so it can travel longer distances to the landing site.ISRO has also included a new sensor on the lander called the laser Doppler velocity meter. This sensor will help study the lunar surface by using laser technology to measure different components of velocity.
Time-periodChandrayaan-2 was planned for a total of 48 days.Chandrayaan-3 mission is likely to take less time, i.e., around 42 days.

Significance of Chandrayaan-3 for the Indian economy:

  • Investment boost: The successful launch of Chandrayaan-3 could bolster investor confidence and attract more private investment in space technology. This will benefit the industry in a way that it promotes the cost-efficient and highly reliable space-grade hardware that the Indian space industry has supplied for this mission, increasing revenue flow and investments into the industry. It also validates our industry to become suppliers to lunar programs in other countries.
  • Creation of new jobs: The rapid growth in India’s space-tech ecosystem has created thousands of jobs over the past few years. As the Chandrayaan-3 sets a path to many more missions to the moon, one can expect several thousand jobs to be generated by both the Indian government and private lunar programs.
  • Boost to space start-ups: The Chandrayaan-3 mission will also open up commercial opportunities for Indian companies and startups in the space sector. This can attract joint ventures into India and can help Indian companies and startups design and manufacture space systems and subsystems for the world.
  • Global positioning: The success of the mission would position India among the top four technologically advanced space nations. This will pave the way for important international collaborations, similar to the recent Artemis Accord signing between ISRO and NASA.

Therefore, despite being a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan 2, the Chandrayaan 3 mission has undergone significant improvements and modifications to showcase a safe landing and roving on the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-3 mission is a testament to the country’s remarkable progress in space exploration and technology. It offers opportunities for India to lead the world’s response to the moon’s growing importance in the scientific and political milieus.


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