Northeastern India: Historical Linkages 

Syllabus :GS1/Geography /GS2/Governance

In News 

  • Recently, it is highlighted that The Northeast was ‘invented’ via a series of ad hoc decisions aimed at governing the erstwhile frontier region.

About North Eastern Region (NER)

  • It comprises eight States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura.
  • The North Eastern Council is the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the North Eastern Region which consists these States
    • It was constituted in 1971 by an Act of Parliament.
Historical Linkages :Pre Independence The extant identity of Northeast India as a region has evolved over the years following the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826 between the British and the Burmese. In 1874, Assam became a separate province under the control of a commission.In 1919 Assam was brought under the rule of the Governor according to the Government of India Act 1919. Post Independence By the 1960s, national security concerns were heightened. India lost a border war with China in 1962, with the Chinese entering all the way into Assam, and the movement for Naga independence was in full swing.India and Pakistan fought a war in 1965, and the Mizo rebellion began the following year. The shape of Northeast India formed during the colonial period largely continued to exist until the 1960s with the formation of Nagaland state and reorganisation of Assam in the 1970s. In December 1971, two laws — the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act and the North-Eastern Council Act — were enacted by Parliament.Four states of Northeast India emerged from the state of Assam – Nagaland in 1963, Meghalaya in 1972, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram in 1987 (they became Union Territories in 1972). Two of them – Manipur and Tripura were princely states during the colonial period. Arunachal Pradesh existed in the form of an administrative unit known as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA)Sikkim was a country prior to joining India as a state in 1975.


  • Northeast India is a crucial region in the Indian Union because of its unique geographical and socio-ethnic profile. 
  • It has 5,484 km of international border viz. Bangladesh , Myanmar , China , Bhutan and Nepal. 
  • It covers 7.97% of the country’s geographical area and 3.78% of its population. 
  • It is culturally and ethnically diverse having more than 200 ethnic groups which have distinct languages, dialects and socio-cultural identities. 
  • Petroleum and tea are two significant resources harnessed in the region. 
  • At the same time, agriculture, horticulture and handloom continue to be the main activities.

Issues and Challenges

  • The terrain, the state of socio-economic development and historical factors such as language/ ethnicity, tribal rivalry, migration, control over local resources and long and porous international borders have resulted in a fragile security situation in the North Eastern States. 
  • This has resulted in violence, extortion and diverse demands by various Indian Insurgent Groups (IIGs) which maintain safe havens/camps in neighbouring countries. 

Various Initiatives 

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs is taking all possible steps to address the genuine demands of various ethnic groups for development and for autonomy in managing their affairs. 
  • The infrastructural developments like road, rail link, power supply, water supply etc. are dealt with by Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region and various other line Ministries
  • The issues relating to strengthening of security, rehabilitation of people affected by militancy, bringing underground outfits to the main-stream through negotiations etc. are looked after by the North East Division.
  • In this regard, various border dispute settlement agreements and peace accords have been signed with relevant stakeholders. 
  • Further, with the help of the armed forces, satellite camps of insurgent groups operating from foreign soil have also been neutralized at scale.
  • The security situation in the North-Eastern states has considerably improved since 2014. 
  • The government is committed to the all-round development of the Northeast region and making it an economic hub connecting Southeast Asia under the Act East Policy. 
    • ‘Act East Policy’ announced in November 2014 is the upgrade of the ‘Look East Policy’ which was promulgated in 1992. 
  • A new scheme, The Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for the North-East (PM-DevINE), was announced in the Union Budget 2022-23 with an initial allocation of Rs 1,500 crore.

Way Ahead 

  • Over the last few years, the Union Government has been extremely responsive to the needs of this region, by making enhanced connectivity, improved infrastructure and people’s welfare part of its core development agenda. 
  • From being on the margins of the India story, the Northeast is quickly becoming one of the country’s growth engines.
  • Still ,There is need to take more steps to make the North East a developed region and bring it on par with the rest of India


India-South Korea (RoK) Relations

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


  • General Manoj Pande, Chief of the Army Staff of India, recently visited the Republic of Korea.


  • The deep-rooted connections between India and South Korea (RoK) can be traced back to 48 AD, as documented in the 13th-century Korean text “SamgukYusa.”
    • It tells the story of Princess Suriratna of Ayodhya (later Queen Heo Hwang-ok), who married King Kim-Suro of the ancient Gaya Confederacy in Korea.
  • Diplomatic relations established in 1973, further strengthened to a “Special Strategic Partnership” in 2015.
    • Year 2023  marked the 50th anniversary of the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between India and RoK. 

Areas of Cooperation

Economic Cooperation:

  • FDI: South Korea is the 13th largest foreign direct investment (FDI) source in India, investing US$ 5.4 billion between April 2000 to December 2022, as per Invest India.
    • Companies like Samsung, LG, and Hyundai have established manufacturing and service facilities.
  • Bilateral trade: It has grown significantly, reaching over $17 billion in 2013 and exceeding $23 billion in 2022.
  • CEPA: India and Korea signed the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) in 2010, further boosting trade and investment.

Technological Collaboration:

  • Both countries are actively involved in knowledge sharing and joint research initiatives in areas like information technology, biotechnology, and renewable energy.
  • Collaboration in space exploration and satellite technology is also gaining momentum.

Security and Defense:

  • Regular military exchanges and joint exercises to enhance cooperation and understanding on regional security issues.
  • Partnerships in defense technology development and procurement.

Cultural and Educational Exchange:

  • Growing popularity of Korean pop culture (K-pop) and dramas in India, fostering cultural understanding and people-to-people exchanges.
  • Increasing student mobility and academic partnerships between universities in both countries.


  • Rising nationalism and protectionist tendencies in both countries can pose challenges to further economic integration.
  • North Korea’s nuclear program remains a concern for both India and South Korea, requiring coordinated efforts for regional stability.
  • The emerging coalition of North Korea, China, and Russia poses a new serious challenge to collaborative efforts between the two nations.
    • Divergent stances may arise, necessitating a nuanced appraisal of each party’s strategic imperatives.
  • A challenge is the absence of a shared vision for a new comprehensive defence framework to construct a novel and sustainable emerging regional order
  • The unwavering focus of the Korean defence establishment on profit-driven weapons sales to India, devoid of strategic considerations, may prove shortsighted in the face of fast-changing geopolitical dynamics. 


  • Explore technological collaborations: Leveraging their technological capabilities, India and South Korea should aim to collaborate in developing advanced defence systems and equipment. 
  • Explore opportunities: In an era where defence against space warfare, information warfare, and cybersecurity is paramount, both nations can further explore opportunities for cooperation.
  • Tech arena: Given Korea’s status as an advanced high-tech digital superpower, vast opportunities exist in the development of robust security measures to effectively counter emerging threats in the digital domain.
  • Counter terrorism: Strengthening coordinated efforts to counter terrorism aligns seamlessly with the shared concerns of India and South Korea. 
  • Maritime security: There is potential for collaboration in maritime security, including joint patrolling and information sharing, given the significant maritime interests both countries have in the Indian Ocean.
  • Peacekeeping and exercises: India and South Korea can leverage their United Nations peacekeeping expertise for collaborative efforts through sharing insights and resources in peacekeeping operations. 

Way Ahead

  • The imperative for India and Korea is to transcend the confines of bilateral cooperation, and embrace a paradigm shift that cultivates a more profound understanding of their roles in the swiftly evolving global scenario.
  • strategic, balanced approach, coupled with adaptability to the evolving geopolitical landscape is key to unlocking a robust and enduring defence collaboration. 
  • Overall, India and South Korea share a strong and multifaceted partnership. Addressing existing challenges and exploring new avenues of collaboration will further strengthen this strategic relationship in the years to come.

Source: TH

FIU IND Act Against Virtual Asset Providers

Syllabus :GS 3/Economy /Money Laundering  

In News 

  • The Financial Intelligence Unit India (FIU IND) issued  compliance show cause notices to nine offshore Virtual Digital Asset Service Providers (VDA SPs).

About compliance action 

  • As part of compliance action against the offshore entities,FIU IND issued show-cause notices to offshore virtual digital asset service providers (VDA SPs) for “operating illegally” without complying with the provisions of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA).
  • FIU IND has written to the Secretary of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, urging the blocking of URLs associated with these offshore entities.
    • This move aims to prevent their continued operation in India without adhering to the regulatory obligations outlined in the PMLA.
Financial Intelligence Unit – India (FIU-IND) It was set by the Government of India in  2004 as the central national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions. It  is an independent body reporting directly to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headed by the Finance Minister.It is a multi disciplinary body with a sanctioned strength of 75 personnel. These are being inducted from different organizations namely Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT), Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC), Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Department of Legal Affairs and Intelligence agencies.It is not a law enforcement agency and does not maintain any regional office or employees outside its office at New Delhi, India


  • In March 2023, Virtual Digital Asset Service Providers (VDA SPs) in India were brought under anti-money laundering/counter financing of terrorism regulations. 
  • They were mandated to comply with PMLA 2002, verify the identities of onboarded clients, and maintain records of their financial positions and potentially suspicious transactions. 
  • This obligation applies to all VDA SPs operating in India irrespective of physical presence and engaged in activities like exchange between virtual digital assets and fiat currencies, transfer of virtual digital assets, safekeeping or administration of virtual digital assets or instruments enabling control over virtual digital assets etc. are required to be registered with FIU IND as Reporting Entity 


  • The objective of the PMLA and its reporting obligation are to enable monitoring and tracking of financial transactions to curb money laundering and terror financing. 
  • Recent move comes as part of the broader effort to bring Virtual Digital Assets Service Providers under the Anti Money Laundering/Counter Financing of Terrorism (AML-CFT) framework, 

Present Status  and Challenges

  • Till date 31 VDA SPs have registered with FIU IND. 
  • However, several offshore entities, though catering to a substantial part of Indian users, were not getting registered and coming under the Anti Money Laundering (AML) and Counter Financing of Terrorism (CFT) framework.

Other steps to regulate VDAs

  • The Bureau for International Settlements (BIS), which is the global forum for cooperation among central banks, in a report about financial stability from crypto assets in emerging economies (August 2023) observed three high-level policy options under consideration. 
    • These include an outright ban, containment and regulation. BIS observed that an outright ban may not prove enforceable. 
    • This is because of the pseudo-anonymous nature of crypto markets. There could be a possibility that regulators lose all sight of the market, further shrinking their transparency and making them less predictable. 
  • Containment would imply controlling the flows between crypto markets and traditional financial systems.
    •  However, BIS argued that the strategy would not address the vulnerabilities inherent in the crypto markets and could result in financial stability risks.

Conclusion and Way Forward 

  • As the cryptocurrency landscape continues to evolve globally, regulatory interventions become imperative to protect investors and prevent illicit financial activities. 
  • The actions taken by the Indian government signal a proactive stance in addressing potential risks associated with the use of virtual digital assets. 
  • The cryptocurrency community will keenly observe the developments to gauge the impact on the industry’s regulatory landscape in India.


India, Pakistan Exchange List of Nuclear Installations

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


  • India and Pakistan exchanged the list of nuclear installations and facilities through diplomatic channels simultaneously at New Delhi and Islamabad.


  • The nuclear installations and facilities are covered under the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan.
  • It is the 33rd consecutive exchange of such lists between the two countries, the first one having taken place on January 01, 1992.

The Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities:

  • It is also known as the India-Pakistan Non-Attack Agreement, that was signed on 31 December 1988 and entered into force on 27 January 1991.
  • It provides that India and Pakistan inform each other of the nuclear installations and facilities to be covered under the Agreement on the first of January of every calendar year.
  • Each party shall refrain from undertaking, encouraging or participating in, directly or indirectly, any action aimed at causing the destruction of, or damage to, any nuclear installation or facility in the other country.
  • The term ‘nuclear installation or facility’ includes nuclear power and research reactors, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, isotopes separation and reprocessing facilities as well as any other installations with fresh or irradiated nuclear fuel and materials in any form and establishments storing significant quantities of radio-active materials.

Significance of the Agreement:

  • Both the countries reaffirm their commitment to durable peace and the development of friendly and harmonious bilateral relations.
  • They are conscious of the role of confidence building measures in promoting such bilateral relations based on mutual trust and goodwill.
  • Even a small nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan could kill 20 million people in a week. If a nuclear winter is triggered, nearly 2 billion people in the developing world would be at risk from death by starvation.

Nuclear Power: India and Pakistan


  • India tested its first nuclear weapon in 1974, becoming the sixth country to detonate a nuclear weapon, and it has approximately 164 nuclear warheads, and has land-based, sea-based and air-launch nuclear capabilities.
  • India had declared a No First Use policy, which means they have vowed to never use nuclear weapons first in a conflict.
    • However, as of August 2019, India said they are reconsidering this policy.
  • India is pursuing membership to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and became a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)  in 2016.
    • India has not signed the  Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty nor The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.


  • Pakistan became a nuclear power in 1998, becoming the world’s 7th state to officially test a nuclear weapon and has approximately 170 warheads.
    • This number exceeds the projection made by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency in 1999 that Pakistan would have 60-80 warheads by 2020.
    • If the current growth trend continues, Pakistan’s arsenal could grow to 220 to 250 warheads by 2025.
  • Unlike India, Pakistan has not declared a No First Use policy, and instead has opted to emphasise smaller battlefield or ‘tactical’ nuclear weapons as a counter to India’s larger and superior conventional forces.
    • However, it has adopted a position of  ‘no first use’  against non-nuclear weapon states. 
    • Pakistan keeps its nuclear warheads stored separately from its missiles and will only assemble one if it will be used.
  • Pakistan’s declared strategic nuclear policy claims to avoid conflict through ‘full spectrum deterrence’ while maintaining minimum credible deterrence against India’s nuclear and superior conventional forces.
  • Similar to India, Pakistan is not a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

Source: TH

India’s 1991 Economic Crisis

Syllabus: GS3/Indian Economy

In Context

  • S.Venkitaramanan, who served as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) from 1990 to1992 passed away recently. 

About S.Venkitaramanan

  • He was appointed as the 18th Governor of RBI by the government in 1990. 
  • He navigated the Reserve Bank of India through the crucial years of the 1990 balance of payment crisis, subsequent economic reforms and the Harshad Mehta scam. 
  • He played a pivotal role not only in crisis management but also in implementing subsequent reforms under then PM Manmohan Singh.

1991 Economic Crisis in India

  • Balance of Payments Crisis: India faced a severe balance of payments crisis in 1991. The country’s foreign exchange reserves were depleted, and it struggled to meet its international payment obligations.
  • External Debt: India had accumulated a substantial external debt, and servicing this debt became increasingly challenging. The country was at risk of defaulting on its debt payments.
  • Stagnant Growth: The Indian economy was experiencing slow growth, and various sectors were characterized by inefficiencies, lack of competitiveness, and bureaucratic hurdles.
    • The industrial licensing system, which required government approval for private investment in many sectors, stifled economic activity.
  • Fiscal Deficit: The fiscal deficit was high, and the government was running large budgetary imbalances.
    • This led to increased borrowing, contributing to the overall economic stress.
  • Global Factors: The global economic environment, including rising oil prices after the Gulf War and economic sanctions on India in response to its nuclear program, added to the economic challenges.

Immediate Step Taken by Government

  • Pledging gold holdings to shore up forex reserves: With the foreign exchange reserves going below the critical $1-billion mark, the Government decided to sell confiscated gold.
    • Nearly 47 tonnes of gold was shipped off to destinations abroad in four tranches. 
    • This helped raise about $400 million for the government.
    • The entire operation, cloaked in secrecy, was conducted by State Bank of India. 
  • Devaluation of the Indian Rupee: To address the balance of payments crisis and improve export competitiveness, the government devalued the Indian rupee by about 20% against major foreign currencies.

Reforms by Government of India

  • Liberalization: The government initiated economic liberalization by reducing trade barriers, promoting foreign direct investment (FDI), and dismantling the license raj, which had restricted private sector participation in various industries.
  • Privatization: The government started privatizing state-owned enterprises to improve efficiency and competitiveness.
    • This was a significant departure from the previous policy of state control in various sectors.
  • Deregulation: The government eased regulations and bureaucratic hurdles, making it easier for businesses to operate. This contributed to increased competition and efficiency in the economy.
  • Fiscal Reforms: Efforts were made to address the fiscal deficit by reducing government expenditure and increasing revenue generation. 
  • Creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs): The concept of Special Economic Zones was introduced to attract foreign investment and promote export-oriented industries.
    • These zones were granted certain exemptions and benefits to encourage economic activity.
  • Initiation of Structural Reforms: The government embarked on a broader program of structural reforms, addressing issues such as taxation, labor laws, and infrastructure development to create a more conducive environment for economic growth.
  • Budget 1991-92: Presented by Manmohan Singh, the budget was a continuation of the reform measures undertaken by the Indian government.
    • The budget increased corporate tax rates by 5 percentage points to 45 per cent and introduced the concept of tax deducted at source for some financial transactions like bank deposits.
    • A scheme for people to declare unaccounted wealth was also announced. People were given immunity from prosecution and from the levy of interest and penalty.


  • These reforms marked a paradigm shift in India’s economic policy, leading to higher economic growth, increased foreign investment, and improved economic indicators in the subsequent years. 
  • The year 1991 is often considered a turning point in India’s economic trajectory, as it set the stage for the country’s emergence as one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world.

Source: TH

Increase in Coal Production in India

Syllabus: GS3/Energy


  • The coal production in the country has shot up to over 664 million tonnes during the financial year 2023-24.


  • It is a robust 12.29 percent increase over the corresponding figure of over 591 million tonnes for the same period of the previous year.
    • The government aims to further increase production to reach 1 billion million tonnes by 2030.
  • This increase ensures a consistent and robust coal supply to meet the energy needs of the power sector, highlighting the effectiveness of the coal supply chain.

Current Status of Coal Reserve 

  • India has rich deposits of coal in the world. Total estimated reserves of coal as on 01-04-2022 were 361.41 billion tonnes.
    • The top three states with highest coal reserves in India are Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, which accounts for approximately 69% of the total coal reserves in the country. 
  • India is the second largest producer and consumer of coal globally after China, surpassing the USA in 2022.

Reasons for High Production

  • Reliance on coal for electricity generation: Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) generated 74.3% of India’s electricity during FY 2022-2023.
  • Industrial demand: Industries like steel and cement heavily rely on coal as a fuel source.
  • Limited domestic alternatives: Renewable energy sources like solar and wind are still not developed enough to fully replace coal.
    • Only 10.4% of the 36.44 exajoules of India’s primary energy consumption in 2022 are from renewables (hydroelectric, solar, and wind); coal and oil gas account for 55.1% and 33.3%, respectively. 

Arguments in favour of India’s continued reliance of coal

  • India’s cumulative emissions from fossil fuels like coal between the start of the industrial revolution in 1750 and the end of 2021 are only 3.3% of the global total, far behind those of Europe (31%), the U.S. (24.3%), and China (14.4%).
  • Fulfilling the development needs of 17% of the world’s population, which lives in India, is also a fundamental duty to which must  be attended, failing which ‘sustainable development’ will simply be an empty catchphrase.
  • Ninety-six percent of the coal used by TPPs in India comes from domestic mines and is key to why electricity is so affordable in India.

Challenges and Concerns

  • Environmental impact: Coal mining and burning contribute significantly to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water contamination.
    • Coal deposits in India generally contain high levels of ash (35-50%). Burning coal with more ash leads to pollution.
    • Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) are responsible for nearly 70% of India’s greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Health impacts: Air pollution from coal combustion has severe health consequences like respiratory illnesses.
  • Climate change: Continued dependence on coal hinders India’s progress towards carbon neutrality goals and commitments.
  • Social impacts: Coal mining affects communities near mines, raising concerns about displacement, livelihood loss, and environmental degradation.

Way Ahead

  • For India’s long-term goal of reaching net-zero by 2070, the country must continue to implement clean coal technologies to reduce the power sector’s emissions.
  • India must focus on increasing the efficiency of its TPPs(Thermal Power Plants) to reduce emissions while ramping up nuclear, solar and wind energy into the grid.
  • Coal production is expected to continue increasing in the near future. However, the long-term outlook for coal remains uncertain, with growing emphasis on clean energy transition and climate change mitigation.
  • Diversifying energy sources, adopting cleaner technologies, and addressing social and environmental concerns are crucial for India’s sustainable energy future.

Source: AIR

Radiocarbon Dating

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology

In Context

  • Radiocarbon dating helped establish the age and authenticity of the famous Dead Sea.

Radiocarbon Dating

  • Radiocarbon dating, or carbon-14 dating, is a scientific method that can accurately determine the age of organic materials.
  • It was developed in the late 1940s by Willard Libby, the technique is based on the decay of the carbon-14 isotope. 

How does radiocarbon dating work?

  • It starts with cosmic rays—subatomic particles of matter that continuously rain upon Earth from all directions. 
  • When cosmic rays reach Earth’s upper atmosphere, physical and chemical interactions form the radioactive isotope carbon-14.
  • Living organisms absorb this carbon-14 into their tissue. Once they die, the absorption stops, and the carbon-14 begins very slowly to change into other atoms at a predictable rate.
  • By measuring how much carbon-14 remains, scientists can estimate how long a particular organic object has been dead.

What are the limitations of carbon-14 dating?

  • Radiocarbon dating works on organic materials up to about 60,000 years of age.
  • Conventional radiocarbon dating requires samples of 10 to 100 grams (0.35 to 3.5 ounces) of an object, depending on the material in question.
    • Newer forms of dating can use much smaller amounts, down to 20 to 50 milligrams or 0.0007 to 0.0018 ounces.
  • Radiocarbon samples are also easily contaminated, so to provide accurate dates, they must be clean and well-preserved. 

Has radiocarbon dating improved over the years?

  • Technological and analytical advances have made radiocarbon dating faster and much more precise—and expanded its range of uses by reducing the size of the sample needed. 
  • The latest form of radiocarbon dating, called accelerator mass spectrometry, needs samples of only 20 to 50 milligrams however, it is also more expensive.
  • Another newer development is Bayesian statistical modeling, which applies probability analytics to radiocarbon dates, which always involve an error margin.

What discoveries has carbon-14 testing revealed?

  • The breakthrough introduced a new scientific rigor to archaeology, allowing archaeologists to put together a history of humans across the world. 
  • Carbon dating has helped us reveal how our bodies work, to understand the climate of the Earth and reconstruct its history, and to track the sun’s activity and the Earth’s magnetic fields. 
  • Radiocarbon dating was also instrumental in the discovery of human-caused climate change, as scientists used it to track the sources of carbon in the atmosphere over time.

Source: TH

News in Shorts

PLI Scheme for Automobile Sector

Syllabus :GS 3/Economy 

In News

  • The government has extended the tenure of the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Automobile and Auto Components by one year with partial amendments.

About the Scheme 

  • The Union Cabinet approved the PLI-Auto Scheme in 2021 with budgetary outlay of Rupee 25,938 crore for a period of 5 years (FY2022-23 to FY2026-27). 
  • The PLI-AUTO Scheme will boost manufacturing of Advanced Automotive Technology (AAT) Products. 
  • This scheme will also help to facilitate and promote deep localization for AAT products and enable creation of domestic as well as global supply chain.
  • The Scheme is focused on Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) i.e. Battery Electric Vehicle and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle. 

Recent amendment 

  • Under the amended scheme, the incentive will be applicable for a total of five consecutive financial years, starting from the financial year 2023-24. 
  • The disbursement of the incentive will take place in the following financial year 2024-25. 
  • The scheme also specifies that an approved applicant will be eligible for benefits for five consecutive financial years, but not beyond the financial year ending on 31st of March, 2028.
  • As per amendments, if an approved company fails to meet the threshold for an increase in Determined Sales Value over the first year’s threshold, it will not receive any incentive for that year. 

Source: Air 

Psychoanalysis Test

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology

In Context

  • Delhi Police conducted psychoanalysis tests of the six individuals accused in the Parliament breach incident in order to ascertain their motives.

What is a Psychoanalysis Test?

  • Psychoanalysis means psychological assessment, which is done on undertrials to understand their habits, routine, and behaviour.
  • Psychoanalysis tests are conducted to understand the psychology of people accused of committing crimes. 
  • The tests have a question-answer format and are conducted by psychiatrists.
  • On the basis of the answers given by the accused, the psychiatrists and investigators try to figure out the purpose behind committing a crime.