Give an account of Jain architecture that developed in various parts of the country during
different periods. (150 words) 10

  • Give brief introduction about evolution of Jain Architecture in India.
  • Give some examples of Jain architecture found in various parts of India.
  • Highlight key features of Jain architecture and give an appropriate conclusion.
    Jainism arose around 6th century BC and has influenced the architecture of the time. Early Jain
    architecture is less easy to differentiate as it imitated Buddhist and Hindu styles. However, it later
    developed certain distinct features of its own such as Maru-Gurajara architecture

Initially, Jain temples were made next to Buddhist temples following the Buddhist rock-cut style.
The use of bricks in these temples was almost negligible. For example- Udaigiri-Khandagiri caves
in Odisha were used as monasteries by Jain monks. Jain Ellora caves in Maharashtra imitated the
floor plan of Kailasa temple. The Jain Viharas have small and plain cells and do not have assembly or
prayer halls surrounded by cells unlike their Buddhist counterparts or had small and plain cells.
However, in the later years, Jains employed the concept of mountains of immortality and deviated
from Hindu and Buddhist sites and started building temple cities on hills, such as Dilwara Temple
(Mount Abu). These holy hills were ornamented with a crown of eternal Arhat chaityas (tabernacles
of saints) shining with the splendor of jewels.
Such Jain architecture developed in various parts of India such as:

  • Rajasthan hosts some prominent examples including Dilwara temples at Mount Abu (11th-
    13th century), Temple of Adinatha at Ranakpur (15th century), Nasiyan Jain Temple in
    Ajmer (19th Century).
  • Maharashtra: The change in architectural type and material in construction of Jain temples can
    be seen here from the development of Ellora caves (9-10th Century) and Anjaneri temples to
    recently constructed Digamber Jain temple in Shirdi.
  • Madhya Pradesh: Bawangaja is known for the world’s largest megalithic statue of Lord
    Adinatha. Adinatha temple located at Khajuraho is part of UNESCO World Heritage Site along
    with other temples in Khajuraho Group of Monuments.
  • Karnataka: The famous statue of Gomateshwara at Shravanabelagola is an example of rich
    heritage of Jain architecture. Various temples are found in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu as
  • Gujarat: Palitana temples (9th-10th Century) located on Shetrunjaya hills in Palitana have a
    unique architectural style. The ornamentation is such that in sunlight their appear to have been
    made up of ivory.
    Jain architecture, especially Jain temples have certain key features which can be described as
  • Dedicated to Tirthankaras: Jainism preferred to situate images of the tirthankaras within the
    precincts of the temple. All of the Jain temples are dedicated to one of the 24 Tirthankaras.
  • Chaumukh design: In Jain temple, Chaumukh design is seen frequently. In this, the image of a
    Tirthankar faces four cardinal directions and entry into these temples is also from four doors
    that face the cardinal directions.
  • Use of pillars: Jain temples have numerous pillars having a well designed structure, forming
    squares which contains the image of a deity. From the pillars, a false arch/bracket springs about
    two thirds of the way up.
  • Domed roofs: Domes or shikharas are usually more curved than the ones found in Hindu
    temples, which gives to Jain temple cities a very distinct skyline of multiple dome points
    reaching toward the sky.
  • Ornamentation: The pillars as well as the domed roof are richly decorated with intricate
    Thus, Jain architecture starting from its nascent stage evolved to immensely contribute to the
    diversity of Indian architecture


Curzon’s domestic and foreign policies were motivated by the urge to further strengthen the
British position in India. Discuss. (150 words) 10

  • In the introduction briefly mention the timeline of Curzon’s reign in India and its objectives.
  • Discuss how Curzon’s foreign and domestic policies were motivated by the urge to further
    strengthen the British position in India.
  • Conclude by briefly stating the consequences of his repressive policies in India.

Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India from 1899 – 1905. His policies were aimed at strengthening
British position in India, although, they caused great resentment among the Indians.
Curzon’s domestic policies:

  • Partition of Bengal: He believed that Bengal was the nerve-center of Indian nationalism.
    Partition of Bengal on communal lines into East and West Bengal was meant to halt the
    nationalist movement.
  • Disfavoured consolidation of any region: For example, he was averse to incorporating Berar
    into the province of Bombay, as it might lead to solidarity of the Maratha community.
  • Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899: It reduced the strength of elected members from India, thus
    giving English members majority in Calcutta Corporation.
  • Indian Universities Act of 1904. The Act aimed to curb rising nationalism in the universities.
  • Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act (1904): One of the main purposes of the Act was to
    muzzle the voice of nationalist publications. It curtailed the freedom of the press.
  • Critical approach towards Congress: He adopted harsh and repressive measures to deal with
    the nationalist leaders of Congress. In 1900, he declared that one of his great ambitions was to
    ensure the demise of Congress.
    His key foreign policies and actions were:
  • British military expedition to Tibet: The British expedition to Tibet under Major
    Younghusband was intended to counter Russia’s perceived ambitions in the East and possible
    invasion of British India. The Anglo-Tibetan Treaty of Lhasa (1904) prohibited Tibet to have no
    relations with any other foreign powers, effectively converting Tibet into a British protectorate.
  • British military expedition to Persian Gulf: Curzon subdued the growth of any power that
    could challenge the British supremacy in Persian Gulf. Curzon sent military expedition to Persia
    and brought them under control.
  • Curzon’s policy of ‘buffer zones’: Curzon advocated ‘buffer zones’ between rival and
    competing empires. For example, Thailand was to buffer the expanding the French empire,
    similarly Afghanistan for the Russian empire, and Tibet for the Chinese empire.
  • Curzon’s frontier policies: Curzon recognized the impracticality of administering the turbulent
    frontier region. For example, in 1901 he created a new North-West Frontier Province (Khyber
    Pakhtunkhwa) under a British Chief Commissioner responsible directly to the Viceroy. By
    instituting a policy of regular payments to frontier tribes, the new province reduced border
    These policies adopted by Lord Curzon further fuelled nationalism in India. Partition of Bengal led
    to the beginning of the Swadeshi movement Government repression and frustration caused by the
    failure of the political struggle ultimately resulted in revolutionary terrorism.