The story of India’s freedom struggle cannot be complete without recognizing the role that
many leaders of North East India played during the time. Discuss. (150 words) 10

  • Briefly introduce the topic by outlining the start of the British rule in the North- East.
  • Mention leaders from North-East India during the freedom struggle.
  • Highlight the importance of these movements and contributions of these leaders.
    The East India Company’s rule in the North-East region began with the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826
    which ended the First Anglo-Burmese War. However, soon after the British conquest, the people
    from the region opposed the British rule. This opposition continued till Indian independence. Some
    of the prominent freedom fighters from North-East India and their contributions are:

Rani Gaidinliu, a Naga spiritual leader, rose against the British in Manipur in the 1930s. She
was arrested at the age of 16 and was released after independence.

  • Tirot Singh led the Khasi uprising (1829- 1833) against the British who initiated a project of
    road construction through the Khasi hills.
  • Maniram Dewan was hanged for conspiring to restore the Ahom dynasty in Assam during the
    1857 Sepoy Revolt.
  • Shoorvir Pasaltha Khuangchera was the the first Mizo leader to fight the British in 1890 when
    they invaded the Lushai hills.
  • U Kiang Nangbah, a freedom fighter from Meghalaya led an uprising against the British and
    was eventually hanged.
  • Paona Brajbasi from Manipur chose death over treason at the Battle of Khongjom in April
  • Matmur Jamoh from Arunachal Pradesh killed a British officer in 1911, as he was against
    British interference in the day-to-day lives of the people.
  • Kanaklata Barua and Bhogeswari Phuknani from Assam were shot dead by the Britishers
    while trying to unfurl a tricolour flag during the Quit India Movement.
  • Kushal Konwar from Assam was hanged in the last phase of the Quit India Movement (1942)
    for his suspected role in derailment of a military train in which several British soldiers were
  • Moje Riba from Arunachal Pradesh was arrested by the British for participating in the
    independence struggle and distributing pamphlets during the Quit India Movement.
  • Trilochan Pokhrel (Gandhi Pokhrel) from Sikkim participated in many Gandhian movements
    like the Non-cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India
    Movement. He played a vital role in propagating the concept of Swadeshi Movement of Mahatma
    Gandhi among the Sikkimese peasantry.
    Thus, freedom fighters of North East India played a significant role in the independence movement
    and opposed the British rule through various means.


Giving an account of revolutionary activities carried outside India to get freedom from the
British colonial rule, highlight the limitations of such activities. (150 words) 10

  • Introduce by giving a brief account of the revolutionary freedom activities outside India.
  • Discuss in brief the weaknesses of such activities.
  • Support your arguments with appropriate examples.
  • Conclude on the basis of the above points.
    One of the most prominent features of the Indian Independence movement was the prevalence of
    revolutionary activities. They believed that only an armed struggle would deliver independence to
    India from the British rule. These organisations/activities were not only confined within the
    boundaries of India (like Anushilan Samiti, Hindustan Socialist Republican Association etc.), but its
    echoes were also found in distant lands.
    Revolutionary activities carried outside India:
  • India House: It was an informal nationalist organization started by Shyamji Krishna Varma in
    London (1905-1910). The network that the House laid was the key in the nationalist
    revolutionary conspiracy in India during World War I.
  • Ghadar party: It was formed by Lala Hardayal in 1913 in San Francisco, USA. It collaborated
    with the revolutionaries inside India and helped them get arms and ammunition. After the
    outbreak of World War I, its members returned to Punjab to agitate for freedom.
  • Berlin Committee for Indian independence: It was established by Virendra Nath
    Chattopadhya in 1915 under “Zimmerman Plan” with the backing of German foreign office. It
    aimed at mobilising Indian revolutionaries abroad, inciting rebellion among Indian troops
    stationed abroad, sending volunteers and arms to India etc.

Paris Indian Society: The Paris Indian Society was founded in 1905 in Paris by Madam Bhikaji
Cama, M. B. Godrej and S. R. Rana. It was opened as a branch of the Indian Home Rule Society.
Madame Cama was popularly described as the Mother of Indian Revolution. She took an active
part in editing The Indian Sociologist and represented India at the Stuttgart conference of
socialists in 1907.
The major limitations of such activities were:

  • The activities of these groups could not be sustained for longer time as it was not well
    organized. The leaders underestimated the extent and amount of preparation at every level
  • organizational, ideological, strategic, tactical and financial. For example, the Ghadar Movement
    was sustained by the enthusiasm of the revolutionaries than by their effective organization.
  • They failed to generate an effective and sustained leadership that was capable of
    integrating the various aspects of the movement in the country. Due to the lack of any popular
    support from mainstream parties in India, these movements could not gather wide support.
  • These movements could gather support from few discontented immigrants only. They failed to
    establish any contact or support amongst the lakhs of peasants, workers and soldiers in
  • One of the major limitations of these activities was the lack of coherence in ideology and lack
    of consensus over alternate political structures. For instance- Har Dayal who led the Ghadar
    movement did not have any structured ideology aand kept on shifting to various theories that
    attracted him from time to time.
    The task of freeing India which the revolutionaries from abroad tried to achieve was too great in
    comparison to the odds faced by them. Despite all the limitations, they inspired many to join the
    freedom struggle and helped them gain considerable sympathy and support from the people in
    various countries.