Define agricultural biotechnology and elaborate on its associated advantages and disadvantages. (15 marks, 250 words) [GS-3: Science & Technology]


Agricultural biotechnology encompasses a diverse range of techniques that manipulate living organisms or their components to enhance agricultural productivity, improve product quality, and address various challenges in the agricultural sector. This includes both traditional breeding methods and modern genetic engineering tools.

For Producers:

  • Safe and efficient pest control and weed management: Notably, the introduction of BT Brinjal has reduced the need for chemical pesticides.
  • Enhanced crop yields and productivity: Innovations like flood-tolerant “Scuba Rice” enable crops to withstand adverse weather conditions, leading to increased yields.
  • Improved quality traits: Golden rice, fortified with Vitamin A, addresses nutritional deficiencies.

For Consumers:

  • Longer shelf life for foods: The Flavr Savr tomato, for instance, offers foods with extended freshness.
  • Enhanced nutrition through food fortification: Iodine-fortified salt is a prime example, combatting iodine deficiency disorders.
  • Lower levels of toxicants in food: Biotechnological advancements can reduce harmful substances in food, promoting health.

For Researchers:

  • Understanding fundamental biological processes: Agricultural biotechnology aids in unraveling the mysteries of living organisms, advancing scientific knowledge.
  • Development of potent antibiotics and vaccines: Researchers harness biotechnology to create new tools in the fight against diseases affecting crops.

For the Environment:

  • Herbicide-tolerant crops: These crops, compatible with reduced tillage systems, help preserve topsoil from erosion, as seen in HT Mustard.
  • Phyto-remediation: The utilization of plants like poplar for handling heavy metal pollution showcases biotechnology’s environmental benefits.

Risks Associated:

  • Insufficient research on human health impacts: The potential emergence of new diseases and allergies raises concerns.
  • Environmental effects and ecosystem disruptions: The impact on non-target organisms and the overall environment remains a subject of debate.
  • Antimicrobial resistance: Instances like BT cotton’s resistance to pink bollworms underline the challenge of managing resistance.
  • Monopolization through patent rights: The concept of terminator seeds, where seeds become sterile after one use, has implications for farmers’ dependence.
  • Farmers’ economic vulnerability: The adoption of GM crops could lead to indebtedness among farmers due to the high costs associated with biotechnology.


Agricultural biotechnology holds immense potential to revolutionize the agricultural sector, but its responsible and sustainable application is paramount.

Adequate safeguards, comprehensive research, and awareness programs are necessary to address the apprehensions of all stakeholders.
Striking a balance between harnessing biotechnology’s benefits and mitigating its risks is essential for the future of agriculture in India.