Discuss the key takeaways from the recently adopted “New Delhi declaration” during the G20 summit.
(GS-2, International Relations, 250 words)


  • Introduce your answer by elaborating on the G20 and “New Delhi Declaration”.
  • In the body, mention various takeaways from the recently adopted New Delhi Declaration.
  • Conclude your answer accordingly.

Model Answer:

The G20 or Group of 20 is an intergovernmental forum founded in 1999, comprising 19 sovereign countries, the European Union (EU), and the African Union (AU). G20 members account for 80% of world GDP, 75% of international trade and two-thirds of the global population. During India’s G20 presidency, the “New Delhi Declaration” was adopted, which forged a consensus between the members on a range of political, economic, and environmental issues.

Key takeaways from the recently adopted New Delhi Declaration can be seen as:

  • Growth, economy and jobs: The declaration realises that the global economy is at a fragile moment. It says G20 members will commit themselves to implementing well-calibrated monetary, fiscal, financial, and structural policies to promote growth, reduce inequalities and maintain macroeconomic and financial stability.
    • The Delhi Declaration also sees a key role for the private sector and commits to creating inclusive, sustainable, and resilient global value chains.
    • It further aims to support developing countries to move up the value chain, facilitating investments, promoting the ease of doing business, and recognising the role of startups and MSMEs.
    • It also recognises the importance of addressing skill gaps, ensuring decent work, and providing social protection policies.
  • Financial Inclusion and Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI): A big takeaway from the Delhi Declaration, is the endorsement of advancing financial inclusion and productivity gains through DPI.  
    • The agreement also welcomed the G20 Framework for Systems of Digital Public Infrastructure and India’s plan to build and maintain a Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR).
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The Delhi Declaration recognised that there has been a setback in achieving SDGs and commits to redressing this weakness. To do so, the leaders have reaffirmed their commitment to mobilising affordable, adequate and accessible financing from all sources to support developing countries and scale up sustainable finance.
    • On hunger, the G20 declaration has adopted the Deccan High-Level Principles on Food Security and Nutrition.
    • On health, the leaders have committed to strengthening primary health care and health workforce and improving essential health services and health systems to better than pre-pandemic levels. 
    • On education, the declaration commits G20 countries to inclusive, equitable, high-quality education and skills training for all, including for those in vulnerable situations.
  • Climate: The Delhi Declaration also stands out for its green development pact, with G20 members saying they will urgently accelerate actions to address environmental crises and challenges, including climate change. This will be done by strengthening the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement.
    • Members have also clearly committed to achieving net-zero emissions/carbon neutrality by around 2050.
    • It has also endorsed the G20 high-level principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable Development to make the battle against climate crisis a mass movement by ensuring sustainable lifestyles.
    • The summit recognized the importance of sustainable biofuels and noted the setting up of a Global Biofuels Alliance.
    • On climate finance, the Indian presidency has recognised that developing countries need $5.8-5.9 trillion in the pre-2030 period to implement their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and another $4 trillion per year for clean energy technologies by 2030 to reach net zero emissions by 2050.
  • Reforming International Financial Institutions: One of the big themes has been to evolve and strengthen the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to address the global challenges of the 21st century with a focus on addressing the development needs of low- and middle-income countries.
    • The leaders also endorsed the G20 roadmap for implementing the recommendations of the capital adequacy framework (CAF).
  • Women-led development: The declaration also commits G20 to women-led development and enhancing their full, equal, effective, and meaningful participation as decision-makers.
    • G20 leaders also agreed to create a new working group on the empowerment of women.
  • Creating a more inclusive world: The African Union was included as a permanent member of the G20. This will further promote the developmental agenda of the Global South by providing a voice to the developing and underdeveloped countries on a permanent platform.

The G20 members via the New Delhi Declaration determined to steer the world out of its current challenges and build a safer, stronger, more resilient, inclusive, and healthier future for people and the planet. India’s successful holding of the G20 presidency has not only helped the heavily divided bloc reach a consensus, but also laid the ground for deeper future cooperation.