JAN 31


  • About the Report:
    • The report analysed expenditure, vacancies, representation of women, human resources, infrastructure, workload, diversity across 18 large and medium-sized states with a population of over 1 crore and 7 small states.
  • Findings:
    • Overall Ranking:
      • The overall ranking is a result of a state’s ranking across the four pillars of justice delivery system – Judiciary, Police, Prisons and Legal aid.
      • Maharashtra was ranked topmost among 18 states for the second time in a row, followed by Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Uttar Pradesh remains last.
      • Amongst the smaller states, Goa remained at the top and Arunachal Pradesh at the bottom.
    • Women Ratio in Police Force:
      • Bihar leads the list of 25 states for employing most women in its police force which is 25.3%.
      • It is the only state to have more than 20% women in the police force. However, women account for only 6.1% in the officer category.
      • Tamil Nadu has the highest percentage of women police officers (24.8%), followed by Mizoram (20.1%).
    • Women Ratio in Judiciary:
      • Overall, only 29% judges in High Courts across the country are women, but no state except Sikkim has over 20% women judges.
      • Four states – Bihar, Uttarakhand, Tripura and Meghalaya have no woman judges in high courts.
    • Social Justice:
      • Karnataka is the only state to meet its quotas for SC, ST and OBC in both officer cadre and constabulary.
      • Chhattisgarh being the only other state that meets the diversity requirements for constabulary.
    • Lack of Finances:
      • In the last 25 years, only 1.5 crore people have received legal aid with the Centre spending Rs. 1.05 per capita in 2019-20.
    • High Proportion of Undertrials:
      • Two-thirds of all prisoners are undertrials awaiting a conviction.
        • A person who is being held in custody awaiting trial for a crime.
    • Causes of Poor Justice Delivery:
      • Legal services institutions remain affected by a lack of infrastructure, uneven human resource distribution, poor utilization of central funds and an inability to effectively harness Lok Adalats to ease the burden on the judiciary


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