News Analysis



The Government of India in its Annual Budget 2016-17 set a policy target of doubling farmers’ income by 2022.

Key Points

  • About:
    • Agriculture sustains livelihood for more than half of India’s total population. Doubling farmers’ income in such a short period is an overwhelming task for decision makers, scientists and policy makers because of its continued role in employment, income and most importantly in national food security.
    • Doubling farmers’ income is possible through increasing total output and better price realization in the market, reduction in production costs,diversification of product, efficient post-harvest management, value addition, etc.

Government Schemes:

  • Institutional Reforms:
    • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai YojanaSoil health cardand Prampragat Krishi Vikas Yojana: Aiming to raise output and reduce cost.
    • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana: To provide insurance against crop and income loss and to encourage investment in farming.
    • Interlinking of rivers – To raise output and farm incomes.
    • Operation Greens: To address price volatility of perishable commodities like Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP).
    • PM Kisan Sampada Yojana: To promote food processing in a holistic manner.
  • Technological Reforms:
    • Initiating E-NAM: The National Agriculture Market (eNAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
    • Technology mission on cotton: It aims to increase the income of the cotton growers by reducing the cost of cultivation as well as by increasing the yield per hectare through proper transfer of technology to the growers.
    • Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize (TMOPM): Few schemes implemented under TMOPM are: Oilseeds Production Programme (OPP), National Pulses Development Project (NPDP), etc.
    • Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH): It is a scheme for the holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo.
    • Sugar Technology Mission: Aimed at reducing the cost of production of sugar and improving sugar quality through steps for improvements in productivity, energy conservation and improvements in capital output ratio.
    • National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture: It aims at promoting sustainable agriculture through a series of adaptation measures focusing on ten key dimensions encompassing Indian agriculture namely; ‘Improved crop seeds, livestock and fish cultures’, ‘Water Use Efficiency’, ‘Pest Management’, ‘Improved Farm Practices’, ‘Nutrient Management’, ‘Agricultural insurance’, ‘Credit support’, ‘Markets’, ‘Access to Information’ and ‘Livelihood diversification’.
    • In addition, schemes relating to tree plantation (Har Medh Par Ped), Bee Keeping, Dairy and Fisheries are also implemented.


Recently, the Parliament has passed the Major Port Authorities Bill, 2020. The Bill seeks to provide greater autonomy in decision-making to 12 major ports in the country and professionalise their governance by setting up boards.

  • It also seeks to replace the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963.
  • India has 12 major ports – Deendayal (erstwhile Kandla), Mumbai, JNPT, Marmugao, New Mangalore, Cochin, Chennai, Kamarajar (earlier Ennore), V O Chidambarnar, Visakhapatnam, Paradip and Kolkata (including Haldia).

Key Points

  • Salient Features:
    • Board of Major Port Authority:
      • About: The Bill provides for the creation of a Board of Major Port Authority for each major port. These Boards will replace the existing Port Trusts.
        • Under the 1963 Act, all major ports are managed by the respective Board of Port Trusts that have members appointed by the central government.
      • Composition:
        • Provision has been made for inclusion of representatives of State Government in which the Major Port is situated, Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Defence and Customs, Department of Revenue as Members in the Board.
        • It will also include a Government Nominee Member and a Member representing the employees of the Major Port Authority.
      • Powers:
        • The Bill allows the Board to use its property, assets and funds as deemed fit for the development of the major port.
        • It will also have the powers to fix reference tariffs for various port services.
          • Further, PPP (Public Private Partnership) operators will be free to fix tariff- based on market conditions.
        • Provisions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) & development of infrastructure by the Port Authority have been introduced.
    • Adjudicatory Board:
      • An Adjudicatory Board will be created to carry out the residual function of the erstwhile TAMP (Tariff Authority for Major Ports), to look into disputes between ports and PPP concessionaires.
        • TAMP has been a multi-member statutory body with a mandate to fix tariffs levied by major port trusts under the control of the Centre and private terminals, therein.
    • Penalties:
      • Any person contravening any provision of the Bill or any rules or regulations will be punished with a fine of up to one lakh rupees.
  • Aims:
    • Decentralization: Decentralizing decision making and to infuse professionalism in governance of major ports.
    • Trade and Commerce: To promote the expansion of port infrastructure and facilitate trade and commerce.
    • Decision Making: It imparts faster and transparent decision making benefiting the stakeholders and better project execution capability.
    • Reorienting Models: Reorienting the governance model in central ports to landlord port model in line with the successful global practice.
  • Significance:
    • Level-Playing Field:
      • This Bill is going to create a level-playing field not just between major and private ports but also between major port terminals and PPP terminals.
      • Within major ports, PPP terminal players, too, have had to take tariff approvals from the TAMP. The Bill, however, eliminates taking approval from the body.
      • Due to this, investment in PPP is expected to go up at major ports in the coming years.
    • In Line with Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan:
      • The move will certainly pave the way for driving the country’s vision towards Aatmanirbhar Bharat and making India a global manufacturing hub.
      • In terms of volume, 70% of cargo movement is through ports while 90% in value terms.
  • Criticism:
    • It has been alleged that the Bill is aimed at privatising the ports and diluting the powers of the states on land use.


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