National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) to finally see light of day


Prime Minister Narendra Modi is soon expected to launch the National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID that aims to provide a “cutting-edge technology to enhance India’s counter-terror capabilities”.


GS-III: Internal Security Challenges (Various Agencies and other interventions regarding Internal Security and their mandate), GS-II: Polity and Governance (Government Policies and Interventions)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID)
  2. Other Measure for tracking: Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS)

National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID)

  • NATGRID initially started in 2009 is an online database for collating scattered pieces of information and putting them together on one platform.
  • It links at least 10 Central government Intelligence and investigation agencies, such as the Intelligence Bureau, Research and Analysis Wing and others have access to the data on a secured platform.
  • NATGRID is exempted from the Right to Information Act, 2005 under sub-section (2) of Section 24.
  • The NATGRID enables multiple security and intelligence agencies to access a database related to immigration entry and exit, banking and telephone details, among others, from a common platform.
  • The 10 user agencies will be linked independently with certain databases which will be procured from 21 providing organisations including telecom, tax records, bank, immigration etc. to generate intelligence inputs.

Other Measure for tracking: Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS)

  • Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) is a project initiated in June 2009 which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level. This will be done through adoption of principles of e-Governance, and creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for evolution of IT-enabled state-of-the-art tracking system around “investigation of crime and detection of criminals”. CCTNS is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan of Govt. of India.
  • The Full implementation of the Project with all the new components would lead to a Central citizen portal having linkages with State level citizen portals that will provide a number of citizen friendly services like Police Verification for various purposes including passport verification, reporting a crime including cyber-crime and online tracking of the case progress etc.

-Source: The Hindu

Centre appoints new members to NCLT, ITAT


The government has appointed 31 people as judicial, technical and accountant members at the NCLT and the ITAT, amid the Supreme Court flagging concerns about vacancies in various tribunals.


GS-III: Indian Economy (Capital Market, Statutory Bodies)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. ITAT
  2. NCLT
  3. NCLAT
  4. Differences between NCLT and NCLAT


  • India’s Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) was set up in 1941, and it was the first experiment in tribunalization in the history of India.
  • It is second appellate authority under the direct taxes and first independent forum in its appellate hierarchy.
  • The orders passed by the ITAT can be subjected to appellate challenge, on substantial questions of law, before the respective High Court.
  • With a view to ensure highest degree of independence of the ITAT, it functions under the Department of Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Law and Justice, and is KEPT AWAY FROM any kind of control by the Ministry of Finance.
  • The appeals before the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal are generally heard by a division bench- consisting of one judicial member and one accountant member.
  • In case of conflict of opinions by the division benches on the issues involved in an appeal, the appeals are sometimes heard by the special benches consisting of three of more members- at least one of which must be a judicial member and at least one of which must be an accountant member.
  • The Indian Income Tax Appellate Tribunal is considered to be a very successful experiment in tribunalization and is often cited to justify more steps in this direction.


  • The National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies.
  • The tribunal was established under the Companies Act 2013 and was constituted on 1 June 2016 by the government of India. Hence, NCLT is a Statutory Body.
  • All proceedings under the Companies Act, including proceedings relating to arbitration, compromise, arrangements and reconstruction and winding up of companies shall be disposed of by the National Company Law Tribunal.
  • The National Company Law Tribunal is the adjudicating authority for insolvency resolution process of companies and limited liability partnerships under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.
  • No criminal court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered to determine by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal.


  • The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) is a tribunal which was formed by the Central Government of India under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013. Hence, NCLAT is also a Statutory Body.
  • The tribunal is responsible for hearing appeals from the orders of National Company Law Tribunal(s) (NCLT), starting on 1 June, 2016.
  • The tribunal also hears appeals from orders issued by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India under Section 202 and Section 211 of IBC.
  • It also hears appeals from any direction issued, decision made, or order passed by the Competition Commission of India.

Differences between NCLT and NCLAT

  • NCLT makes the judgement on the insolvency resolution proceedings. NCLAT makes judgement on the decisions made by the NCLT.
  • NCLT is the primary Tribunal and NCLAT is the appellate tribunal.
  • NCLT analyzes the evidences that are presented by the insolvent debtor or their creditors. NCLAT analyzes the decisions that are made by the NCLT.

-Source: The Hindu

India, U.S. agree to collaborate on emerging fuels


Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas and U.S. Secretary of Energy  co-chaired a virtual Ministerial meeting and launched the revamped U.S.-India Strategic Clean Energy Partnership (SCEP).


GS-II: International Relations (Important Foreign Policies and Agreements affecting India’s interests)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Highlights of the India U.S. meeting on Emerging Fuels

Highlights of the India U.S. meeting on Emerging Fuels

  • In the meeting, both the sides reviewed progress & major accomplishments and prioritized new areas for cooperation across several pillars.
  • Indian side noted that, this revamped clean energy partnership will intensify the efforts to take advantage of complementarities that exists between both the countries.
  • On the occasion, a new India-US Task Force on Biofuels was also announced in order to build the scope of work on cooperation in biofuels sector.

US-India Agenda 2030 Partnership

  • The aim is to create stronger bilateral cooperation on actions in the current decade to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.
  • The Partnership will proceed along two main tracks: the Strategic Clean Energy Partnership and the Climate Action and Finance Mobilization Dialogue.
  • India elevated the India-US energy dialogue to a strategic energy partnership in 2018.

Revamped Strategic Clean Energy Partnership (SCEP)

  • Addition of a fifth Pillar on Emerging Fuels (cleaner energy fuels).
  • With this, the SCEP inter-governmental engagement now spreads across five pillars of cooperation – Power and Energy Efficiency, Responsible Oil and Gas, Renewable Energy, Sustainable Growth and Emerging Fuels.
  • Support India in achieving its goal of installing 450GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030.
  • A new India-U.S. Task Force on Biofuels was also announced.

Reviewed India-US Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation

  • The Indo-US nuclear cooperation agreement was signed in 2008.
  • A major aspect of the Deal was that the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) gave a special waiver to India that enabled it to sign cooperation agreements with a dozen countries.

Transformation of the Gas Task Force

  • It will be the India-US Low Emissions Gas Task Force.
  • It will focus on addressing India’s natural gas policy, technology, and regulatory barriers by promoting efficient and market-driven solutions aimed at meeting India’s growing energy demand, and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets

Institutionalism of India Energy Modeling Forum

  • Six Task Forces were constituted for carrying out research and modelling in different areas.
  • There will be deliberations on Energy Data Management, Low Carbon Technologies and Just Transition in the Coal Sector.

Expanded the Scope of (PACE)-R Initiative

  • Agreed to include smart grid and grid storage as part of the second phase of the Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE)-R initiative anchored on the Indian side by the Department of Science & Technology.



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