Full form : ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

What is it : Heart attack management system in Semi-urban and Rural areas

Conceptualized By : Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences

What is in news : The project has been stuck at the level of identifying a nodal agency to run the project

Details :

  • As heart attack treatment is time-dependent, the main objective is to diagnose at the earliest and initiate treatment. For every 30 minutes delay in initiating treatment for heart attack, the death rate is likely to increase by 7%. This project will significantly reduce mortality rate
  • Under the project, the nodal agency should provide each taluk (spoke) hospital with a heart attack management kit that includes an ECG machine, defibrillator, pulse oximeter, and a mobile phone.
  • The ECG should be immediately transferred to the divisional Jayadeva hospital for a confirmed diagnosis through the cloud system. This will also alert the hospital about the patient’s visit. If the designated taluk hospital is within 30-40 km of the divisional hub (Jayadeva) hospital, the patient will be transferred directly to the hospital in a 108 ambulance



In news : A independent MLA from Gujarat Joins mainstream political party

Tenth schedule : The Tenth Schedule of the Constitution, popularly known as the anti-defection law, specifies the circumstances under which changing of political parties by legislators invites action under the law. It includes situations in which an independent MLA, too, joins a party after the election.

Scenarios under Schedule 10

  • The first is when a member elected on the ticket of a political party “voluntarily gives up” membership of such a party or votes in the House against the wishes of the party. The second is when a legislator who has won his or her seat as an independent candidate joins a political party after the election.
  • In both these instances, the legislator loses the seat in the legislature on changing (or joining) a party.
  • The third scenario relates to nominated MPs. In their case, the law gives them six months to join a political party, after being nominated. If they join a party after such time, they stand to lose their seat in the House


  • Under the anti-defection law, the power to decide the disqualification of an MP or MLA rests with the presiding officer of the legislature. The law does not specify a time frame in which such a decision has to be made.
  • As a result, Speakers of legislatures have sometimes acted very quickly or have delayed the decision for years — and have been accused of political bias in both situations. Last year, the Supreme Court observed that anti-defection cases should be decided by Speakers in three months’ time.



What is in news : Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs launched the seventh consecutive edition of Swachh Survekshan

What is Swachh Survekshan:

  • Launched in 2016.
  • It is meant to monitor the performance of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which was launched on October 2, 2014, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • It was also aimed at inculcating a spirit of healthy competition among cities towards becoming India’s cleanest cities.

About :

  • World’s largest urban cleanliness survey
  • Conducted by:  Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U)
  • Designed with ‘People First’ as its driving philosophy
  • Curated towards capturing the initiatives of cities for the overall welfare and well-being of frontline sanitation workers.
  • Incorporated specific indicators that drive cities to improve working conditions and livelihood opportunities for sanitation workers in urban India’s sanitation journey.
  • Two population categories under 15K and between 15-25K.
  • District rankings have been introduced for the first time.
  • The scope has been expanded to now cover 100% wards for sampling, as compared to 40% in previous years.



What is in news : India’s foreign trade policy (FTP) will be extended for six months, till March 31, 2022

Details : Central government had extended the Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 for one year (till March 31, 2021) on March 31, 2020. Later, it was extended till September 30, 2021.

Features of the FTP

  • Goods– Earlier there were 5 different schemes (Focus Product Scheme, Market Linked Focus Product Scheme, Focus Market Scheme, Agri. Infrastructure Incentive Scrip, VKGUY) for rewarding merchandise exports with different kinds of duty scrips with varying conditions attached to their use.
  • Duty-free scrips are paper authorisations that allow the holder to import inputs which are used to manufacture products that are exported, or to manufacture machinery used for producing such goods, without paying duty equivalent to the printed value of the scrip. For instance, a duty-free scrip valued at Rupees 1 lakh allows the holder to import goods without paying duty of up to Rupees 1 lakh on the goods.
  • Under the new Foreign Trade Policy, all these schemes have been merged into a single scheme, namely the Merchandise Export from India Scheme (“MEIS“)and there is no conditionality attached to scrips issued under the MEIS.
  • Services–
    • The Served From India Scheme has been replaced with the Service Exports from India Scheme (“SEIS“).
    • SEIS is stated to apply to ‘Service Providers located in India’ instead of ‘Indian Service Providers’.
    • Therefore, SEIS rewards to all service providers of notified services, who are providing services from India, regardless of the constitution or profile of the service provider.
  • Special Economic Zones – The policy outlines extended incentives for Special Economic Zones in India
  • Export Houses– The nomenclature of Export House, Star Export House, Trading House, Star Trading House, Premier Trading House certificate has been simplified and changed to One, Two, Three, Four and Five Star Export House.
  • Status Holders– Business leaders who have excelled in international trade and have successfully contributed to India’s foreign trade are proposed to be recognized as Status Holders and given special privileges to facilitate their trade transactions, in order to reduce their transaction costs and time.
  • Resolving Complaints
    • In an effort to resolve quality complaints and trade disputes between exporters and importers, a new chapter on Quality Complaints and Trade Disputes has been incorporated into the Foreign Trade Policy.
    • There would be no conditionality attached to any scrips issued under these schemes.
    • For grant of rewards under MEIS, the countries have been categorized into 3 Groups, whereas the rates of rewards under MEIS range from 2% to 5%.
    • Under SEIS the selected Services would be rewarded at the rates of 3% and 5%.
    • A new institution – Centre for Research in International Trade – is being established not only to strengthen India’s research capabilities in the area of international trade, but also to enable developing countries to articulate their views and concerns from a well-informed position of strength.
    • Two institutional mechanisms are being put in place for regular communication with stake holders- the board of trade and council for trade development (CTD) and promotion. While the board of trade will have an advisory role, the CTD would have representation from states and UT governments.



WHAT : ‘Green’ hydrogen is produced by using renewable energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. In contrast, the conventional process of making hydrogen uses fossil fuels.



  • It is expected that green hydrogen will become competitive to fossil fuel-based hydrogen by about 2030. This will happen because the cost of electrolysers is expected to go down over time and also it is hoped that their efficiency will improve.
  • Demand for “green” hydrogen is going to multiply and in the case of India alone, TERI has estimated that demand for “green” hydrogen will go up from 6 million tonnes today to about 50 mt by 2050. The current world demand, incidentally, is about 70 mt.
  • While our need for “green” hydrogen is imperative if we want to meet our Paris targets, the path for production and utilisation of this form of hydrogen is arduous.


  • After converting electricity to hydrogen, shipping it, storing it, and then converting back to electricity, the delivered energy can be below 30 per cent of what was the initial electricity input. One would, therefore, need huge amounts of electricity from renewable sources which is going to put pressure on land.
  • Transportation of hydrogen:
    • While hydrogen has a very high energy content per unit of mass compared to natural gas, its energy density is low per unit of volume. This means that one would need huge containers to transport hydrogen (as compared to, let’s say, ammonia) having equivalent energy content. It’s possible to convert hydrogen to liquid form to facilitate transportation, but then it has to be cooled to minus 253 degrees Celsius and then reconverted which would require a lot of energy. Alternatively, it can be converted to hydrogen-based fuels before transportation, but this will again require additional energy.
    • If we use electricity from the grid, which at least in the case of India is fossil fuel-based, then the entire purpose of producing green hydrogen, which is to lower carbon emissions, is lost. One can, of course, use pipelines for transportation, even existing pipelines where we can blend it with natural gas. There are, however, limits as to the distance hydrogen can be transported through pipelines. Today, about 85 per cent of the “green” hydrogen that is produced is done so “on-site” so that transportation problems are taken care of.
  • Limitations in certain sectors:
    • While the best suited is the industrial sector (mainly steel, ammonia and refineries), its use in transport and power is somewhat restricted since it has to compete with batteries. Hydrogen, however, can be used in heavy duty, long-distance transportation because batteries have low energy-to-weight ratios and they take a long time to charge compared to fuel cells.
    • For smaller distances, battery-charged vehicles are the most viable option economically. The best use of hydrogen in the power sector is for storage. Hydrogen-based storage is ideal for inter-seasonal storage, that is, storage over several weeks/months to take care of the lean months of renewable generation.
  • Not all countries will find it economically viable to produce “green” hydrogen at home. The International Energy Agency has in its 2021 report cited the example of Japan which would be better off importing “green” hydrogen from Australia. Production is most suited for those countries which have high gas prices and low cost of renewable generation. Going by this, India is ideally placed for making “green” hydrogen domestically. For the Persian Gulf countries, which have low gas prices, it would be prudent to go in for gas-based “green” hydrogen and then apply CCUS to reduce the carbon footprints. So each country will have to chart out its own course depending on its ground realities.


  • India has the advantage of producing cheap electricity from renewable sources and thus, we have the potential of becoming hydrogen exporters and should not lose this opportunity as we have lost in the case of solar cells and batteries.
  • We need to draw up a road map for “green” hydrogen and also bear in mind that we have to make huge investments in research and development to lower the cost of electrolysers and make India a manufacturing hub. Additionally, we need to incentivise the private sector to move towards “green” hydrogen. A lot of work will also be required to lay down standards for large-scale use of hydrogen besides framing safety regulations.
  • The recently announced Hydrogen Mission will swing into action immediately and finalise the next course of action after consulting all stakeholders



What is in news : 17th Foundation Day celebrations of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was recently celebrated

About :

  • Headed by the Prime Minister of India
  • Apex body for Disaster Management in India
  • Create an enabling environment for institutional mechanisms at the State and District levels is mandated by the Disaster Management Act, 2005
  • Mandated to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management. India envisions the development of an ethos of Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness and Response.
  • Strives to promote a national resolve to mitigate the damage and destruction caused by natural and man-made disasters, through sustained and collective efforts of all Government agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations and People’s participation. This is planned to be accomplished by adopting a Technology-Driven, Pro-Active, Multi-Hazard and Multi-Sectoral strategy for building a Safer, Disaster Resilient and Dynamic India.
  • NDMA Logo reflects the aspirations of this National Vision, of empowering all stakeholders to improve the effectiveness of Disaster Management in India. NDMA has 5 major divisions viz. Policy & Plans, Mitigation , Operations & Communications & Information & Technology , Administration and Finance.


Aapada Mitra scheme

  • To train able-bodied community volunteers in disaster response (flood relief and rescue) at the taluka/block level in each of the project districts. These trained volunteers will be called as “Aapda Mitra”.
  • To develop standardized training modules for the set of trainings under the scheme.
  • To train the volunteers in life saving skills of disaster response, coordination and assistance, and protective equipment and emergency responder kit.
  • To disseminate training and education tools developed under the project to more number of flood prone districts in subsequent phases of the scheme


What is in news : The 34th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA), the PSU under Ministry of New & Renewable Energy was held recently

About :

  • Established in 1987
  • Mini Ratna PSU (Category – I)
  • Non-Banking Financial Institution
  • Works on the motto “Energy for Ever.”
  • Conferred with the “Green Urja Award” for being the Leading Public Institution in the Financing Institution for Renewable Energy by the Indian Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
  • Headquarters are located in New Delhi
  • Committed to providing innovative financing in Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency/Conservation and Environmental Technologies


What : Earth Monitoring Satellite

By : NASA and the US Geological Survey (USGS)

Brief :

  • The first Landsat satellite was launched in 1972 and since then, Landsat satellites have collected images of our planet and helped understand how land usage has changed over the decades.
  • In 2008, it was decided that all Landsat images will be free and publicly available and the policy has helped scores of researchers, farmers, policy analysts, glaciologists, and seismologists. Landsat images have been used to study the health of Forest’s , coral reefs, monitor water quality and melting glaciers.

What is new about Landsat 9:

  • The Landsat 9 joins Landsat 8 that was launched in 2013 and the satellites together will collect images of Earth’s surface. It takes 8 days to capture the whole Earth.
  • Landsat 9 carries instruments similar to the other Landsat satellites, but it is the most technologically advanced satellite of its generation. It can see more colour shades with greater depths than the previous satellites, helping scientists capture more details about our ever-changing planet.
  • The instruments aboard Landsat 9 are the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2). They will measure different wavelengths of light reflected off the Earth’s surface.
  • OLI-2 can see the light that we can’t see too. It captures sunlight reflected off Earth’s surface and studies the visible, near-infrared, and short wave infrared portions of the spectrum.
  • TIRS-2 has a four-element refractive telescope and photosensitive detectors that capture thermal radiation and help study the Earth’s surface temperature.
  • As the satellite orbits, these instruments will take pictures across 185 kilometers and each pixel will represent an area of about 30 meter X 30 meter.
  • Landsat 9 will provide data that can help make science-based decisions on key issues such as impacts of wildfire, coral reef degradation, the retreat of glaciers, and deforestation.

How will the satellite help monitor climate change:

  • Decode the areas at risk
  • During a wildfire, will capture the plumes of smoke and help study the extent of a burning.
  • Help recovery experts plan sites for replanting.
  • Identify water bodies affected by potentially harmful algal blooms.
  • Landsat images have helped glaciologists study the melting ice sheets of the Antarctic and Arctic regions. The images can help track cracks in the glaciers, movement of glaciers, and decode how further global warming will impact them.

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What is in news : Digital Health Card mission has been rolled out under Aysuhman Bharath

What is the unique health ID, and how does one get it?

  • If a person wants to be part of the ABDM, she must create a health ID, which is a randomly generated 14-digit number. The ID will be broadly used for three purposes: unique identification, authentication, and threading of the beneficiary’s health records, only with their informed consent, across multiple systems and stakeholders.
  • One can get a health ID by self-registration on the portal or by downloading the ABMD Health Records app on one’s mobile. Additionally, one can also request the creation of a health ID at a participating health facility, which may include government or private hospitals, community health centres, and wellness centres of the government across IndiA
  • The beneficiary will also have to set up a Personal Health Records (PHR) address for consent management, and for future sharing of health records.

What is a PHR address:

  • It is a simple self-declared username, which the beneficiary is required to sign into a Health Information Exchange and Consent Manager (HIE-CM). Each health ID will require linkage to a consent manager to enable sharing of health records data.
  • An HIE-CM is an application that enables sharing and linking of personal health records for a user. At present, one can use the health ID to sign up on the HIE-CM; the National Health Authority (NHA), however, says multiple consent managers are likely to be available for patients to choose from in the near future.

Are personal health records secure:

  • The NHA says ABDM does not store any of the beneficiary health records.
  • The records are stored with healthcare information providers as per their “retention policies”, and are “shared” over the ABDM network “with encryption mechanisms” only after the beneficiary express consent.

What facilities are available to beneficiaries:

  • You can access your digital health records right from admission through treatment and discharge.
  • Second, you can access and link your personal health records with your health ID to create a longitudinal health history.

What other features will be rolled out : Upcoming new features will enable access to verified doctors across the country. The beneficiary can create a health ID for her child, and digital health records right from birth. Third, she can add a nominee to access her health ID and view or help manage the personal health records. Also, there will be much inclusive access, with the health ID available to people who don’t have phones, using assisted methods.

How do private players get associated with a government digital ID:

  • The NHA has launched the NDHM Sandbox: a digital architecture that allows helps private players to be part of the National Digital Health Ecosystem as health information providers or health information users.
  • The private player sends a request to NHA to test its system with the Sandbox environment. The NHA then gives the private player a key to access the Sandbox environment and the health ID application programming interface (API). The private player then has to create a Sandbox health ID, integrate its software with the API; and register the software to test link records and process health data consent requests. Once the system is tested, the system will ask for a demo to the NHA to move forward. After a successful demo, the NHA certifies and empanels the private hospital.

Why is this initiative significant:

  • Has the potential to “increase the ease of living” along with “simplifying the procedures in hospitals”.
  • Use of digital health ID in hospitals is currently limited to only one hospital or to a single group, and mostly concentrated in large private chains. The new initiative will bring the entire ecosystem on a single platform.
  • For instance, if a patient is getting treated at AIIMS, Delhi, and wants to move to another hospital in a different city, and if that hospital is also on the centralised ecosystem, the patient does not have to carry physical health records or files of several years of treatment, as the medical history is readily available.
  • The system also makes it easier to find doctors and specialists nearest to you. Currently, many patients rely on recommendations from family and friends for medical consultation, but now the new platform will tell the patient who to reach out to, and who is the nearest. Also, labs and drug stores will be easily identified for better tests using the new platform.


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