G20 summit of October 2021 ends


Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed the G20 summit at sessions on climate change and sustainable development towards the end of the October 2021 G20 Summit.


GS-II: International Relations (Important International Groupings, Foreign Policies and Agreements affecting India’s Interests)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About G20
  2. Structure and functioning of G20
  3. Highlights of the G20 October 2021 Summit
  4. What was said by our Indian PM at the G20 summit?

About G20

  • The G20 is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union, with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
  • The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of global gross domestic product, 80% of global investment, over 75% of global trade and roughly half the world’s land area.
  • The members of the G20 are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
  • Spain as a permanent, non-member invitee, also attends leader summits.

Structure and functioning of G20

  • The G20 Presidency rotates annually according to a system that ensures a regional balance over time.
  • For the selection of presidency, the 19 countries are divided into 5 groups, each having no more than 4 countries. The presidency rotates between each group.
  • Every year the G20 selects a country from another group to be president.
  • India is in Group 2 which also has Russia, South Africa and Turkey.
  • The G20 does not have a permanent secretariat or Headquarters.
  • The work of G20 is divided into two tracks:
    1. The Finance track comprises all meetings with G20 finance ministers and central bank governors and their deputies. Meeting several times throughout the year they focus on monetary and fiscal issues, financial regulations, etc.
    2. The Sherpa track focuses on broader issues such as political engagement, anti-corruption, development, energy, etc.
  • Since 2008, the group convenes at least once a year, with the summits involving each member’s head of government.

Highlights of the G20 October 2021 Summit

The October 2021 G20 summit was the first in-person Summit of the G20 since the outbreak of the COVID pandemic in 2020.

The theme of the 16th G20 Summit 2021 is People, Planet, and Prosperity and it has come from the 2030 UN Agenda for sustainable development.

  1. G20 leaders broadly backed calls to extend debt relief for impoverished countries and pledged to vaccinate 70% of the world’s population against COVID-19 by mid-2022. This comes in addition to providing finances and technology for vaccine production at “mRNA Hubs” in South Africa, Brazil and Argentina.
  2. During the summit, countries also agreed that the World Health Organisation (WHO) will be strengthened to fast-track the process for emergency use authorisation of Covid-19 vaccines.
  3. There was also a decision to pursue the recognition of more vaccines by the World Health Organization under a “One Health approach” for the world.
  4. Leaders of the world’s 20 biggest economies endorsed a global minimum tax aimed at stopping big business from hiding profits in tax havens. The corporate tax deal was hailed as a evidence of renewed multilateral coordination, with major corporations facing a minimum 15% tax wherever they operate from 2023 to prevent them from shielding their profits in off-shore entities.
  5. However, the G20 appeared to be struggling to throw its weight behind the sort of strong new measures that scientists say are needed to avert calamitous global warming. The final communique, which was agreed after negotiations overnight spoke only of the “key relevance of achieving global net zero” on carbon emissions “by or around mid-century”. No time-bound agreements were reached regarding Climate Change, as leaders of the world’s top economies ended the summit in Rome, recommitting to providing $100 billion a year to counter climate change, and pushing for greater vaccine equality to fight the COVID pandemic.

The ‘Rome Declaration’ was adopted

The Rome Declaration consists of 16 mutually agreed principles, which aims to guide joint action for preventing future health crises and to build a safer, equitable and sustainable world. 16 principles are as follows:

  1. Supporting and enhancing the existing multilateral health architecture for detection, response, prevention and preparedness.
  2. Working towards monitoring & implementation of multi-sectoral, evidence-based One Health approach in a bid to address risks emerging due to interface between human, animal & environment.
  3. Fostering all-of-society and health-in-all policies.
  4. Promotion of multilateral trading system
  5. Enabling equitable, affordable and global access to high-quality, safe & effective health systems.
  6. Supporting low and middle-income countries in a bid to build expertise, and develop local & regional manufacturing capacities.
  7. Focus on data sharing, capacity building, voluntary technology and licensing agreements.
  8. Enhancing support to existing preparedness and prevention structures.
  9. Investing in worldwide health & care workforce
  10. Investing in adequate resources, training, and staffing of diagnostic public & animal health laboratories.
  11. Investments for developing and improving inter-operable early warning surveillance, information, and trigger systems
  12. Investments in domestic, international & multilateral cooperation for the purpose of research, development & innovation
  13. Increasing effectiveness of preparedness & response measures by extending support and promoting meaningful & inclusive dialogue
  14. Ensuring effectiveness of financing mechanisms
  15. Coordination on pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures and emergency response with respect to sustainable and equitable recovery
  16. Addressing the need of streamlined, enhanced, sustainable and predictable mechanisms for financing pandemic preparedness, prevention, detection and response in long term.

What was said by our Indian PM at the G20 summit?

  • Prime Minister Modi, in his intervention at the first session of the G20 Summit, highlighted India’s contribution to fighting against COVID-19: mentioning India’s medical supplies to over 150 countries.
  • He also spoke about India’s vision of ‘One Earth, One Health’ which is essentially a collaborative approach in the fight against COVID-19.
  • Indian PM conveyed that India is ready to produce 5 billion vaccine doses by the end of next year.

-Source: The Hindu

Indian farming practices: Learning from the world


A research paper led to the conclusion that small farm holders can grow more food and have reduced environmental footprint using methods like “relay planting”, “strip rotation”, “soil munching” and “no-till”.


GS-III: Agriculture (Agricultural resources and Agricultural Practices)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Relay planting
  2. Strip cropping
  3. Soil mulching
  4. No till agriculture
  5. Challenges
  6. How will these practices benefit India?

Relay planting

  • In relay cropping the second crop is planted even before the first crop is harvested. Thus, both crops share some part of the season. Thus, relay planting means the planting of different crops in the same plot, one right after another, in the same season.
  • In some forms of relay cropping, in the beginning itself two or more crops of different durations are cultivated in the same field. When a crop of shorter duration is harvested the second crop gets better space to grow.
  • Examples of such relay cropping would be planting rice (or wheat), cauliflower, onion, and summer gourd (or potato onion, lady’s fingers and maize), in the same season.


  • Relay planting means less risk since the farmer need not depend only on one crop.
  • It also leads to better distribution of labour since the human intervention will be required at different instances of the crop cycle for the different plants.
  • Also, insects spread less over the varied crops. This will allow for easier pest management.
  • Given that legumes increase soil fertility, use of legumes as relay plants can help enhance agricultural yield.

Strip cropping

  • Strip cropping is a method of farming which involves cultivating a field partitioned into long, narrow strips which are alternated in a crop rotation system.
  • Example: Strip cropping in the U.S. involves growing wheat along with corn and soyabean, in the same farm in an alternative manner.
  • It involves within-field rotation or “strip rotation”, allowing strips for planting other plants (such as grass, fruits) besides the major crop.

Soil mulching

  • The process of covering the open surface of the ground by a layer of some external material, even when the land is in use is called mulching & the material used for covering is called as ‘Mulch.’
  • Soil mulching can be done using naturally available agricultural waste such as crop straw and leaves.


  • Soil mulching can help reduce soil erosion while helping retain soil moisture and beneficial organisms, such as earthworms which can help increase crop productivity.

No till agriculture

  • No-till farming is an agricultural technique for growing crops or pasture without disturbing the soil through tillage.


  • No-till farming decreases the amount of soil erosion tillage causes in certain soils, especially in sandy and dry soils on sloping terrain.
  • No-till farming, in which the soil is left undisturbed by tillage and the residue is left on the soil surface, is the most effective soil conservation system.
  • It can also help in water conservation.


  • Some of the major challenges in relay cropping includes challenges in adoption of mechanisation and also the agricultural management practices also become more complex.
  • Practices like strip cropping are more viable on larger farms and may not be suitable for the small fields.
  • Practices like no till agriculture require special equipments for sowing which could translate into higher upfront cost for the farmers. Also, the practice is prone to fungal diseases.

How will these practices benefit India?

  • India has a significant population of small farmers, many owning less than 2 hectares of land. About 70% of its rural households still depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood, with 82% of farmers being small and marginal. These methods hold immense significance for small farm holders who can grow more food and have a reduced environmental footprint according to the research paper.
  • Also practices like strip cropping involving planting of trees to create shelters can help stabilisize the desert in Western India.

-Source: The Hindu

NCPCR: Protect youth from tobacco addiction


The chairman of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), and representatives from retailers’ associations have appealed to the Central Government to strengthen the tobacco control law to prevent the youth from taking up tobacco use.


GS-II: Social Justice and Governance (Issues related to Children, Government Policies and Initiatives), GS-II: Polity and Constitution (Statutory Bodies)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What are the recommendations of experts regarding tobacco use?
  2. About Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4)
  3. Highlights of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4)
  4. Steps taken by India to reduce tobacco usage
  5. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)
  6. The functions of NCPCR

What are the recommendations of experts regarding tobacco use?

  • In order to prevent children and youth from initiating tobacco use at an early age, the experts have urged the government to:
  • Increase the legal age of sale of tobacco products to 21
  • Impose a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising
  • Promote and ban sale of single sticks of cigarettes/bidis
  • It is scientifically established that if a person is kept away from tobacco till the age of 21 and above, there is a very high probability that he/she will remain tobacco-free for the rest of his life.
  • Several countries had increased the minimum age of sale of tobacco products to 21 and banned sale of single cigarettes to control their easy accessibility and affordability to youth.
  • Pre and post-implementation data show increasing the tobacco age to 21 will help to prevent young people from ever starting to smoke and to reduce the deaths, disease and health care costs caused by tobacco use.
  • Countries are increasingly recognising that almost all those who become long term tobacco users begin tobacco use while they are adolescents.

About Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4)

  • The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4) was conducted in 2019 by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) under the MoHFW.
  • The survey was designed to produce national estimates of tobacco use among school going children aged 13-15 years at the state level and Union Territory (UT) by sex, location of school (rural-urban), and management of school (public-private).
  • The survey’s objective is to provide information on tobacco use, cessation, second-hand smoke, access and availability, exposure to anti-tobacco information, awareness and receptivity to tobacco marketing, knowledge, and attitudes.

Highlights of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4)

  • India has the second largest number (268 million) of tobacco users in the world and of these 13 lakh die every year from tobacco-related diseases.
  • Nearly 27% of all cancers in India are due to tobacco usage.
  • There has been a 42% decline in tobacco use among 13-15 year-old school going children in the last decade.
  • Nearly one-fifth of the students aged 13-15 used any form of the tobacco product (smoking, smokeless, and any other form) in their life.
  • Use of any form of tobacco was higher among boys. Prevalence of tobacco use among boys was 9.6% and among girls was 7.4%.
  • Tobacco use among school going children was highest in Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram and lowest in Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka.
  • More than 29% of students in India were exposed to second-hand smoke.
  • 38% of cigarettes, 47% of bidi smokers and 52% of smokeless tobacco users initiated the use before their tenth birthday.
  • The median age of initiation to cigarette and bidi-smoking, and smokeless tobacco use were 11.5 years, 10.5 years and 9.9 years respectively.
  • 52% of students noticed anti-tobacco messages in the mass media and 18% of students noticed tobacco advertisements or promotions when visiting points of sale.
  • 85% of school heads were aware of the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003 and 83% of schools were aware of the policy to display ‘tobacco-free school’ boards.

Steps taken by India to reduce tobacco usage

  1. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, (COTPA) 2003: replaced the Cigarettes Act of 1975 (largely limited to statutory warnings- ‘Cigarette Smoking is Injurious to Health’ to be displayed on cigarette packs and advertisements. It did not include non-cigarettes). The 2003 Act also included cigars, bidis, cheroots, pipe tobacco, hookah, chewing tobacco, pan masala, and gutka.
  2. Adoption of WHO FCTC: which is the first international treaty negotiated under the auspices of the WHO. It was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic and is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of all people to the highest standard of health.
  3. National Tobacco Quitline Services (NTQLS): with the potential to reach a large number of tobacco users with the sole objective to provide telephone-based information, advice, support, and referrals for tobacco cessation.
  4. Promulgation of the Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes Ordinance, 2019: which prohibits Production, Manufacture, Import, Export, Transport, Sale, Distribution, Storage and Advertisement of e-Cigarettes.

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)

  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is an Indian Statutory Body established by an Act of Parliament, the Commission for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • The Commission works under the aegis of Ministry of Women and Child Development, GoI.
  • The Commission is mandated under section 13 of CPCR Act, 2005 “to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.”
  • As defined by the commission, child includes person up to the age of 18 years.
  • Also, NCPCR cannot enquire into any matter which is pending before a State Commission or any other Commission duly constituted.
  • The commission consist of the following members:
    1. A chairperson who, is a person of eminence and has done a outstanding work for promoting the welfare of children; and
    2. Six members, out of which at least two are woman, from the following fields, is appointed by the Central Government from amongst person of eminence, ability, integrity, standing and experience in:
      • Education,
      • Child health, care, welfare or child development,
      • Juvenile justice or care of neglected or marginalized children or children with disabilities,
      • Elimination of child labour or children in distress
      • Child psychology or sociology
      • Laws relating to children

The functions of NCPCR

  • Examine and review the safeguards provided by or under any law for the time being in force for the protection of child rights and recommend measures
  • Present to the Central Government –  reports upon working of those safeguards
  • Inquire into violation of child rights and recommend initiation of proceedings in such cases
  • Examine all factors that inhibit the enjoyment of rights of children affected by terrorism, communal violence, riots etc., and recommend appropriate remedial measures
  • Look into the matters relating to the children in need of special care and protection including children in distress, marginalized and disadvantaged children
  • Study treaties and other international instruments and undertake periodical review of existing policies, programmes and other activities on child rights and make recommendations
  • Undertake and promote research in the field of child rights
  • Spread child rights literacy among various section of society and promote awareness
  • Inspect or cause to be inspected any juveniles custodial home, or any other place of residence or institution meant for children
  • Inquire into complaints and take suo motu notice of matter relating to:
    1. Deprivation and violation of child rights;
    2. Non implementation of laws providing for protection and development of children;
    3. Noncompliance of policy decisions, guidelines or instructions aimed at mitigating hardships to and ensuring welfare of the children and provide relief to such children;
    4. Or take up the issues arising out of such matters with appropriate authorities.
  • Such other functions as it may consider necessary for the promotion of Child Rights
  • Undertake formal investigation where concern has been expressed either by children themselves or by concerned person on their behalf
  • Promote the incorporation of child rights into the school curriculum, training of teachers or personnel dealing with children

UNEP’s Emissions Gap Report, 2021


Recently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)’s Emissions Gap Report 2021 has been published.


GS-III: Environment and Ecology (Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Conservation of Environment and Ecology, Important International Institutions and their reports)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Emissions Gap Report
  2. Highlights of the Emissions Gap Report 2021

About Emissions Gap Report

  • The UNEP’s Emissions Gap Report gives a yearly review of the difference between where greenhouse emissions are predicted to be in 2030 and where they should be to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.
  • The annual report from UNEP measures the gap between anticipated emissions and levels consistent with the Paris Agreement goals of limiting global warming this century to well below 2°C and pursuing 1.5°C.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

  • The UNEP is a leading global environmental authority established in 1972 and Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.
  • It sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for global environment protection.
  • It sets the global environmental agenda, promotes sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for global environment protection.
  • The UNEP Publishes:
    • Emission Gap Report,
    • Global Environment Outlook,
    • Frontiers,
    • Invest into Healthy Planet.

Highlights of the Emissions Gap Report 2021

  • The twelfth edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2021 informs that the new national climate pledges combined with other mitigation measures put the world on track for a global temperature rise of 2.7°C by the end of the century.
  • Following an unprecedented drop of 5.4 % in 2020, global carbon dioxide emissions are bouncing back to pre-COVID levels, and concentrations of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere continue to rise.
  • New mitigation pledges for 2030 show some progress, but their aggregate effect on global emissions is insufficient.
  • As a group, G20 members are not on track to achieve either their original or new 2030 pledges. Ten G20 members are on track to achieve their previous Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), while seven are off track.
  • Compared to previous unconditional NDCs, the new pledges for 2030 reduce projected 2030 emissions by only 7.5 %, whereas 30 % is needed for 2°C and 55 % is needed for 1.5°C.
  • The long-term net-zero emissions pledged by 50 countries, covering more than half of global emissions show large ambiguities. Net zero emission means that all man-​made greenhouse gas emissions must be removed from the atmosphere through reduction measures, thus reducing the Earth’s net climate balance, after removal via natural and artificial sink.
  • Few of the G20 members’ NDC targets put emissions on a clear path towards net-zero pledges.
  • There is an urgent need to back these pledges up with near-term targets and actions that give confidence that net-zero emissions can ultimately be achieved and the remaining carbon budget kept.
  • At the end of the century global warming is estimated at 2.7°C if all unconditional 2030 pledges are fully implemented and 2.6°C if all conditional pledges are also implemented.
  • If the net-zero emissions pledges are additionally fully implemented, this estimate is lowered to around 2.2°C.
  • Reduction of methane emissions from the fossil fuel, waste and agriculture sectors can contribute significantly to closing the emissions gap and reduce warming in the short term.
  • Carbon market can deliver real emissions abatement and drive ambition, but only when rules are clearly defined, designed to ensure that transactions reflect actual reductions in emissions, and supported by arrangements to track progress and provide transparency.
  • The current atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are higher than at any time in the last two million years.
  • At present, there are no estimates available of total global GHG emissions for 2020. However, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented 5.4 % drop in CO2 emissions in 2020, with a smaller drop in total GHG emissions expected for the year.
  • From 2010 to 2019, GHG emissions grew by 1.3 % per year on average, both with and without land-use change (LUC).

NCRB report: Suicides rose to all-time high in 2020


The Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Report 2020 was released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) recently.


GS-II: Social Justice and Governance, GS-I: Indian Society

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About NCRB
  2. Highlights of the Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Report 2020
  3. What is Suicide and what are suicide related laws in India?

About NCRB

  • NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators based on the recommendations of the Tandon Committee to the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task force (1985).
  • Subsequently, NCRB was entrusted with the responsibility for monitoring, coordinating and implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) project in the year 2009. The project connects 15000+ police stations and 6000 higher offices of police in the country.
  • NCRB launched National Digital Police Portal. It allows search for a criminal / suspect on the CCTNS database apart from providing various services to citizens like filing of complaints online and seeking antecedent verification of tenants, domestic helps, drivers etc.
  • The Bureau has also been entrusted to maintain National Database of Sexual Offenders (NDSO) and has also been designated as the Central Nodal Agency to manage technical and operational functions of the ‘Online Cyber-Crime Reporting Portal’ through which any citizen can lodge a complaint as an evidence of crime related to child pornography, rape/gang rape.
  • NCRB also compiles and publishes National Crime Statistics i.e. Crime in India, Accidental Deaths & Suicides and also Prison Statistics

Highlights of the Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Report 2020

  • Suicides in India rose 10% from 2019 to an all-time high of 1,53,052 in the pandemic year of 2020.
  • The share of daily wage earners among those who died by suicide has doubled between 2014 and 2020, followed by ‘housewives’, self-employed persons, farmers/cultivators and retired persons.
  • Deaths caused by accidents came down from 2019 and the number is the lowest since 2010.
  • The share of students in the total suicides has been rising steadily over the years and has now reached the highest level since 1995.
  • The worst among States continues to be Maharashtra, with 4,006 suicides in the farm sector, including a 15% increase in farm worker suicides.
  • Other States with a poor record include Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Poverty and unemployment registered the biggest increase amongst the causes of suicide that make up at least 1 percent of such deaths, followed by Drug abuse or alcohol addiction, illness, and family problems come next.

What is Suicide and what are suicide related laws in India?

Suicide is defined as death caused by self-directed injurious behaviour with intent to die as a result of the behaviour.

Laws in India

  1. Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) states whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine or both. It is to be noted that the abetting of the commission of suicide (but not the abetting of attempt to commit suicide) is covered under Section 306 IPC and the abetment of suicide of a child is covered under Section 305 IPC.
  2. The Mental Healthcare Act 2017 provides that “Notwithstanding anything contained in section 309 of the IPC, any person who attempts to commit suicide shall be presumed, unless proved otherwise, to have severe stress and shall not be tried and punished under the said Code. However, this law applies only to those suffering from mental illness. There is presumption of severe stress in case of an attempt to die by suicide.

-Source: The Hindu

Mineral in the depths of the Earth in a meteorite


Research on the Katol L6 Chondrite meteorite which had fallen near the town of Katol in Nagpur District of Maharashtra in 2012 shows the presence of a mineral (Bridgmanite) seen in the depths of the Earth.


Prelims, GS-I: Geography (Evolution of the Earth, Structure of the Earth)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Bridgmanite?
  2. What is the significance of discovering Bridgmanite in the meteorite?
  3. What’s the difference between a comet, asteroid and meteor?

What is Bridgmanite?

  • Bridgmanite is the most volumetrically abundant mineral in the interior of the Earth. It is present in the lower mantle (from 660 to 2700 km).
  • Bridgmanite consists of magnesium, iron, calcium and aluminum oxide and has a perovskite structure.
  • A perovskite is any material with a crystal structure similar to the mineral called perovskite, which consists of calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3)
  • Notably, while the crystal structure of natural bridgmanite has been reported in other meteorites such as the Tenham and Suizhou meteorites, their chemical composition does not fully match with the terrestrial bridgmanite present in the Earth’s interior.

What is the significance of discovering Bridgmanite in the meteorite?

  • The understanding of the formation of bridgmanite can help better comprehend the origin and evolution of planetary interiors including that of earth. Hence the study could help understand the formation and evolution of the Earth by helping understand high-pressure phase transformation mechanisms in the deep Earth.
  • The new finding adds evidence to the Moon-forming giant impact hypothesis. As per the Moon-forming giant impact hypothesis, nearly 4.5 billion years ago, the Earth collided with a planet the size of Mars named Thela, and the force of this impact was so huge as to melt the Earth down from the surface to a depth of 750 km to 1,100 km leading to the formation of a magma ocean on earth. As per the hypothesis, the ejecta from the collision led to the formation of the Moon.

What’s the difference between a comet, asteroid and meteor?

  1. Asteroid: A relatively small, inactive, rocky body orbiting the Sun.
  2. Comet: A relatively small, at times active, object whose ices can vaporize in sunlight forming an atmosphere (coma) of dust and gas and, sometimes, a tail of dust and/or gas.
  3. Meteoroid: A small particle from a comet or asteroid orbiting the Sun.
  4. Meteor: The light phenomena which results when a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere and vaporizes; a shooting star.
  5. Meteorite: A meteoroid that survives its passage through the Earth’s atmosphere and lands upon the Earth’s surface.

Guided missile destroyer Visakhapatnam delivered


“Vishakhapatnam” (not to be confused with the port city) is a stealth-guided missile destroyer which was delivered to the Indian Navy recently.


Prelims, GS-III: Internal Security Challenges

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About ‘Vishakhapatnam’ (P15B Guided-Missile Destroyer)

About ‘Vishakhapatnam’ (P15B Guided-Missile Destroyer)

  • Vishakhapatnam is a stealth-guided missile destroyer which has the capability of launching guided anti-aircraft missiles from its deck.
  • As per the Indian Navy, the induction of the destroyer not only enhances the combat readiness of the Indian Navy but will also be a major leap forward towards India’s quest for Aatmanirbhar Bharat (self-reliant India).
  • The contract for the four ships of Project 15B, as the Vishakhapatnam class ships are known, was signed in January 2011. The latest project is a follow-on of the Kolkata Class (Project 15A) destroyers commissioned in the last decade.
  • The four ships, designed by the Directorate of Naval Design and built by Mazagaon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd., Mumbai, are christened after the major cities from all four corners of India, such as Mormugao, Vishakhapatnam, Surat, and Imphal.
  • The overall indigenous content of the project is approx. 75%.




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