1. Padma award and the recipient’s consent:

GS Paper 2: Government policies and issues arising out of their implementation.


The Padma Awards are one of the highest civilian honours of India announced annually on the eve of Republic Day. The Awards are given in three categories: Padma Vibhushan (for exceptional and distinguished service), Padma Bhushan (distinguished service of higher order) and Padma Shri (distinguished service). The award seeks to recognize achievements in all fields of activities or disciplines where an element of public service is involved.

Padma awards will be given to 128 persons this year, including seasoned politicians, businesspeople, scientists, and physicians, as well as artists and ordinary people involved in public service, according to the announcement of the awardees.

While the majority of recipients accepted their prizes with elegance, former West Bengal chief minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee declined to do so.

What exactly are the Padma Awards?

  • After the Bharat Ratna, they are the second-highest civilian honour bestowed by the Indian government.
  • It was established in 1954, along with the Bharat Ratna award.
  • Award categories include the Padma Vibhushan (for extraordinary and distinguished service), the Padma Bhushan (for distinguished service of higher level), and the Padma Shri (for distinguished service of the highest degree) (distinguished service).
  • Efforts to recognise accomplishments in all spheres of activity or disciplines where an element of public service is present are the goal of the award programme.

Limitations and exclusions include:

  • The honorees do not get a monetary prize, but instead receive a certificate signed by the President, as well as a medallion, which they can display at public and government gatherings and ceremonies.
  • The awards, on the other hand, do not bestow a title, and it is intended that the recipients would not use them as a prefix or suffix to their given names.
  • A Padma awardee can be upgraded to a higher level of recognition only when five years have passed after the initial award was awarded.
  • A total of 120 prizes can be given out in a calendar year, although this does not include posthumous honours or awards granted to non-resident Indians and foreign nationals.


  • There are no restrictions on who can apply for these prizes based on their race, occupation, status, or sexual orientation. These prizes, however, are not open to government employees, including those employed by public sector organisations (PSUs), with the exception of doctors and scientists.
  • The award is granted for “exceptional services,” rather than simply for “long service.’
  • In order to qualify, the qualifications must be more than just excellence in a specific field; rather, they must be “excellence plus.”

Who makes the nominations for the awardees?

  • Any Indian citizen has the ability to propose a possible recipient.
  • One can even recommend one’s own self for consideration.
  • All nominations must be submitted online, where a form must be completed with the name and contact information of the person or organisation being nominated.
  • It is also necessary to submit an 800-word essay explaining the work done by the possible awardee for the nomination to be taken into consideration.

Who is in charge of selecting the awardees?

  • All nominations for Padma awards are presented to the Padma Awards Committee, which is appointed by the Prime Minister each year and consists of members from many fields.
  • The Padma Awards Committee is chaired by the Cabinet Secretary and consists of the Home Secretary, the Secretary to the President, and four to six renowned individuals as members. The Cabinet Secretary is the chairman of the committee.
  • The recommendations of the committee are forwarded to the Prime Minister of India and the President of India for their consideration and endorsement.

Is it necessary to obtain the consent of the recipient?

  • A written or formal approval from the recipient before the prize is announced is not provided for under the terms of the agreement. Every beneficiary, however, receives a phone call from the Ministry of Home Affairs prior to the announcement, telling him or her of the selection. If a person expresses a request to be removed from the award list, the name of the recipient is removed from the list.

2. Mysore King Tipu Sultan

GS1 – Modern Indian History Significant Events Personalities

Currently in the news

  • Mysore King Tipu Sultan has found himself in the centre of a recent scuffle in Mumbai.

What is the source of the controversy?

  • A playground in the Muslim-dominated Malwani neighbourhood of Mumbai will be named after the 17th-century king, Tipu Sultan, according to a Mumbai Minister.
  • Ideological differences exist between the right-wing BJP and the other political parties in India. It is the former’s desire that the stadium not be named after a guy who is responsible for the deaths of a significant number of Hindus.
  • Tipu Sultan is a fictional character created by writer Tipu Sultan.
  • In 1750, Devanahalli, Karnataka, was the site of his birth.
  • A memorial with a tiny plaque is 150 metres south-west of the Devanahalli fort, and the area around the enclosure is known as Khas Bagh. The memorial is marked with a modest plaque.
  • The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has recognised both the fort and Tipu’s birthplace as protected monuments, according to a press release (National Heritage).
  • Even though he was Muslim, Tipu was an effective general and administrator who managed to maintain the devotion of his Hindu people.
  • He was the monarch of Mysore, which had gained in power under the leadership of prominent rulers such as his father Haidar Ali, who reigned from 1761 to 1782, and himself, who ruled from 1782 to 1799. He was the son of Haidar Ali, who ruled from 1761 to 1782 and himself, who ruled from 1782 to 1799.
  • The year was 1761, and Hyder Ali was already a Commander-in-Chief of the Indian army when he assumed control of the state of Mysore.
  • Tipu succeeded his father as Sultan of Mysore in December 1782, and in 1784, he signed a peace treaty with the British, assuming the title of the Sultan of Mysore.
  • Mysore was in command of the lucrative commerce along the Malabar coast, from which the Company purchased pepper and cardamom for its own use.

The following are the most significant contributions:

  • Economically, he built banking networks and cooperatives in which money was obtained from the general public (in a manner similar to banks soliciting deposits), the principle was kept on an annual basis, and the interest (or ‘nafa’) was repaid to the general public.
  • He developed trade houses for Mysore items all over the world, in locations like Puducherry, Kutch, Karachi, Oman, Baghdad, and Constantinople, among others. He also founded trading houses for Mysore products in India.
  • He preferred to conduct barter transactions rather than cash transactions for two reasons: one was to open up a market for Mysorean goods and labourers in foreign markets, and the other, more important reason was to prevent the transfer of wealth out of India, which the Europeans, particularly the British, were notorious for doing at the time.
  • He saw that dealing in currencies would eventually deplete Mysore’s purchasing power, and he prepared himself accordingly.
  • During his reign, he put a halt to the export of sandalwood, pepper, and cardamom via the ports of his realm and forbade local merchants from doing business with the East India Company.
  • In the collecting of land income, he did away with the need for middlemen.

Political: He ruled that some critical industries will be monopolised by the government long before the Nehruvian boost to public sector enterprises (PSUs). Sugar, salt, iron, tobacco, sandalwood, and the mining of silver, gold, and precious stones were among the products produced.

  • In order to fight the British, he allied himself with the French, which caused him to become attracted by the Jacobin Club (popular political group of the French Revolution that identified with egalitarianism and violence).
  • In Srirangapatna, he wished to establish a Republic along the lines of the one in Bangalore.

Art, culture, and literature: His library, according to reports, was crammed with translations of international literature, and he was rumoured to have kept a journal of his views of various lands.

  • He urged the Persians to come to India and teach the craftsmen the skill of producing wooden toys, which they were willing to accomplish (now famous as Channapatna toys).
  • As part of his efforts, he brought in professionals from all around the world to help develop the silk cottage industry that Mysore has become famous for.

Technological: Ships coming at his port in Mangalore would carry a variety of equipment, including as telescopes and barometers, to use on the ship.

  • It is possible that he was the first king to see that there was a significant difference between Europe in the 1700s and Europe in the 1790s as a result of scientific advancements.
  • After seeing the potential of technology when paired with discipline, Taramandalpet established four innovation centres (similar to modern-day tech parks) in Bengaluru and Chitradurga, as well as Srirangapatna and Bidanur, which he named Taramandalpets (Taramandra).
  • Strategically, he also had a tight working relationship with the French in India, and with their assistance, he modernised his army.
  • His manufacturing centres took use of India’s lengthy history of producing and handling ferrous metals such as iron and steel to develop the precursor to the modern rocket, which was more effective than the Chinese “firecracker-like missiles.”
  • Gunpowder was placed inside iron tubes, which he hoisted on flags or bamboo poles, and then erected on ramps to improve the accuracy and range of his weapons.

Infrastructure and development: He set the groundwork for the construction of the Krishnaraja Sagar dam in Mandya, which is now under construction.

  • Tipu’s industrial belt stretched over the whole state of Mysore, from Bengaluru to Srirangapatna, ensuring that citizens could find work no matter where they lived. Even if the British assaulted one centre, Tipu maintained authority over the others.
  • The fourth Anglo-Mysore War claimed his life on May 4, 1799, while defending his capital, Seringapatam, in the city of Bangalore.
  • Mysore was subordinated to the old reigning dynasty of the Wodeyars, and the kingdom was forced to join a subsidiary alliance with them.

Mysore Wars

  • This was a series of four military engagements between the British and the monarchs of Mysore in India during the nineteenth century.
  • In order to control and destroy Haidar and Tipu as ambitious, arrogant, and dangerous monarchs, the British waged four wars with Mysore between 1767 and 1769, 1780 to 1784, 1790 to 1792, and 1799. Haidar and Tipu were defeated in all four conflicts.
  • Only in the last battle, the Battle of Seringapatam, could the Company finally claim victory for themselves.

First Anglo-Mysore War

  • The First Anglo-Mysore War was fought between Britain and India (1767-69)
  • In exchange for the cession of the Northern Sarkars, the East India Company (EIC) sided with the Nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad in the fight against Hyder Ali in the year 1766.
  • The Nizam, on the other hand, withdrew from the war in 1768, leaving the British to battle Hyder Ali on their own.
  • In 1769, Hyder Ali stood before the authorities of the British East India Company in Madras (now Chennai) and demanded peace on the basis of the existing status quo in the region.

The Second Anglo-Mysore War

  • The Second Anglo-Mysore War was fought between the British and the Mysore Kingdom (1780-84)
  • In 1780, Hyder Ali joined forces with the Marathas and wreaked havoc on the state of Karnataka once more.
  • The arrival of British reinforcements from Calcutta (now Kolkata) and the death of Hyder Ali in December 1782 helped to reverse the course of the conflict.
  • The arrival of French assistance was too late to make a difference. The Treaty of Mangalore brought about peace between Hyder Ali and his son Tippu Sultan (1784).
  • Tipu, with the assistance of his rockets, defeated Col. John Brathwaite on the banks of the Kollidam (Coleroon) River during this conflict. This was the first time the British were defeated in India.
  • Tipu’s rockets have been preserved in their entirety in England.

The Third Anglo-Mysore War

  • The Third Anglo-Mysore War was fought between 1857 and 1861. (1790-92)
  • In 1789, he precipitated the British invasion by fighting the raja of Travancore, a British ally in the region.
  • As a result, in 1790, Governor-General Lord Cornwallis removed his name from the list of the company’s “friends,” which precipitated the outbreak of the conflict.
  • Tipu Sultan kept the British at bay for more than two years, but the Treaty of Seringapatam (March 1792) forced him to yield half of his dominions to the British.

The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War

  • The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War was fought between Britain and India (1799)
  • Despite the end of the third war, Tipu remained restless and enabled the British to learn about his contacts with the French government.
  • The governor-general, Lord Mornington (after the marquess of Wellesley), used this excuse to declare war on the United Kingdom.
  • When the British-led forces besieged Seringapatam, Tipu’s capital, he was killed while leading his soldiers into the breach, according to legend.


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