SC lifts Stay on Haryana Quota for Private Jobs


The Supreme Court set aside a Punjab and Haryana High Court order staying a controversial State law which provides 75% reservation for local youth in private sector jobs paying less than ₹30,000 a month.


GS II- Governance

Dimensions of the article:
  1. What was the reservation law?
  2. Who challenged the state government’s law and why?
  3. The Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Bill, 2020

What was the reservation law?

  • In November 2020, the Haryana Assembly passed The Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Bill, 2020, which provided for 75 per cent reservation for local people in private sector jobs offering a monthly salary of less than Rs 30,000 (originally Rs 50,000).
  • March 2021, the Governor gave his assent to the Bill. The law came into effect from January 15 this year.
  • Before Haryana, the Andhra Pradesh Assembly had in November 2019, passed The Andhra Pradesh Employment of Local candidates in the Industries/Factories Bill, 2019, reserving three-fourths of jobs for local candidates within three years of the commencement of the Act.
  • The Andhra law was challenged in the High Court, which observed that “it may be unconstitutional”.
  • Several other states around the country are in the process of formulating similar laws.

Who challenged the state government’s law and why?

  • The Faridabad Industries Association and other associations from Haryana challenged the law.
  • Another petitioner in the case, the Gurgaon Industrial Association, had earlier contended that Haryana wanted to create reservation in private sector by introducing a policy of “sons of the soil”, which was an infringement of the constitutional rights of employers.
  • It was also argued that private sector jobs were purely based on skills and analytical bent of mind, and employees had a fundamental right to work in any part of India.
  • “The act of the respondent (government) forcing the employers to employ local candidates in private sector vide this bill impugned Act is the violation of the federal structure framed by the Constitution of India, whereby the government cannot act contrary to public interest and cannot benefit one class,” the petition said.

The Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Bill, 2020:

  • It provided for 75 per cent reservation for local people in private sector jobs offering a monthly salary of less than Rs 30,000 (originally Rs 50,000).
  •  All companies, societies, trusts, limited liability partnership firms, partnership firms, and large individual employers are covered under the ambit of the Act.
  • The definition of “employer” in the Act covers a company registered under The Companies Act, 2013; a society registered under The Haryana Registration and Regulation of Societies Act, 2012; a Limited Liability Partnership Firm as defined under the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008; a Trust defined under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882; and a Partnership Firm as defined under The Indian Partnership Act, 1932.
  • The law also covers any person employing 10 or more persons on salary, wages or other remuneration for the purpose of manufacturing or providing any service; as well as any such entity as may be notified by the government from time to time.
  • Central or state governments, or any organisation owned by these governments are outside the ambit of the Act.
  • According to the law, a candidate “who is domiciled in State of Haryana” is called a “local candidate” and shall be able to avail the benefit of this reservation while seeking employment in the private sector.
  • Such candidates are required to register themselves on a designated online portal to seek benefit of the reservation. Employers are required to make recruitments only through this portal.

Would that mean that 75% of the total work force of a private sector employer would have to be from Haryana?

  • No. The 75 per cent quota is for jobs where the gross monthly salary or wages are not more than Rs 50,000, or as notified by the government from time to time. (This was brought down to Rs 30,000 later.)
  • The local candidates can be from any district of Haryana, but the employer has the discretion to restrict employment of local candidates from any district to 10 per cent of the total number of local candidates. It is, however, also within the employer’s right to recruit more than 10 per cent of employees from any particular district.

Can an employer claim exemption from this 75% recruitment restriction?

  • Yes, but only after going through a long procedure and only if the government-appointed officers believes that the employer’s request seeking exemption holds merit.

How is the law supposed to be implemented?

  • Every employer is required to furnish a quarterly report on the designated portal with details of local candidates employed and appointed during that period. The reports are to be scrutinised by authorised officers, who have the power to call for documents or verification. The employer is liable to be fined between Rs 10,000 and Rs 2 lakh for violation of the Act.

New India Literacy Programme


Government approved a new scheme “New India Literacy Programme”  for the period FYs 2022-2027 to cover all the aspects of Adult Education to align with National Education Policy 2020 and Budget Announcements 2021-22. 

  • The National Education Policy 2020 has recommendations for Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.

GS II- Education, GS II- Government Policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About New India Literacy Programme
  2. Objectives of the scheme
  3. Salient Features of the scheme

About New India Literacy Programme

  • The scheme will cover non-literates of the age of 15 years and above in all state/UTs in the country.
  • The scheme will be implemented through volunteerism through online mode.
  • The training, orientation, workshops of volunteers, may be organized through face-to-face mode.
  • All material and resources shall be provided digitally for easy access to registered volunteers through easily accessible digital modes, viz, TV, radio, cell phone-based free/open-source Apps/portals, etc. 
  • The target for Foundational Literacy and Numeracy for FYs 2022-27 is 5 (five) crore learners @ 1.00 crore per year by using “Online Teaching, Learning and Assessment System (OTLAS)” in collaboration with National Informatics Centre, NCERT and NIOS in which a learner may register him/herself with essential information like name, date of birth, gender, Aadhaar number, mobile number etc.
  • As a progressive step, it has also been decided that from now onwards that the term “Education For All” will be used in place of “Adult Education” by the Ministry in view of the fact that the terminology “Adult Education” is not incorporating appropriately all non-literates of 15 years and above age group.

Objectives of the scheme

  • To impart foundational literacy and numeracy
  • To impart critical life skills (including financial literacy, digital literacy, commercial skills, health care and awareness, child care and education, and family welfare);
  • Vocational skills development (with a view towards obtaining local employment);
  • Basic education (including preparatory, middle, and secondary stage equivalency);
  • Continuing education (including engaging holistic adult education courses in arts, sciences, technology, culture, sports, and recreation, as well as other topics of interest or use to local learners, such as more advanced material on critical life skills).

 Salient Features of the scheme

  • School will be Unit for implementation of the scheme.
  • Schools to be used for conducting survey of beneficiaries and Voluntary Teachers (VTs).
  • Different strategies are to be adopted for different age cohorts. Flexibility for States/UTs will be provided to undertake innovative activities.
  • Use of Technologies to impart Adult Education for wider coverage of the scheme.
  • Performance Grading Index (PGI) for State/UT and district level will show the performance of States and UTs to implement the scheme and achievements on yearly basis by weighing both the physical and financial progress through UDISE portal.
  • CSR/Philanthropic Support may be received by hosting ICT support, providing volunteer support, opening facilitation centres for learners and for providing IT access to economically weak learners in the form of cell phones, etc
  • There will be involvement of community, participation of philanthropic/CSR organizations through volunteerism and through Vidyanjali portal.
  • States/UTs will promote individual/ family/ village/ district success stories through various platforms.
  • It will utilize all types of media – Electronic, Print, Folk & Inter-personal platforms including social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, YouTube, TV channels, radio, etc.
  • Annual Achievement Survey of Learning Outcomes by samples of 500-1000 randomly selected learners from each state/UT and Outcome-Output Monitoring Framework (OOMF).
Need for this scheme
  • As per Census 2011, the absolute number of non-literates of the country in 15 years and above age group is 25.76 crore (Male 9.08 crore, Female 16.68 crore).
  • Even after the Saakshar Bharat programme implemented during 2009-10 to 2017-18, it is estimated that currently around 18.12 crore adults are still non-literate in India.

A Miracle Cure Against HIV


There is considerable excitement in the world of medicine after scientists reported that a woman living with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and administered an experimental treatment is likely ‘cured’. Only three people so far are known to have been cured of HIV.


GS II- Health

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. What is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?
  2. About the recent treatment
  3. What is the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in India?

What is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?

  • HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
  • It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infection.
  • This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers.


  • AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • It is the final stage of infection with HIV.
  • It happens when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS.
HIV can spread in different ways:
  • Through unprotected sex with a person with HIV. This is the most common way that it spreads.
  • By sharing drug needles
  • Through contact with the blood of a person with HIV
  • From mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Rash
  • Night sweats
  • Muscle aches
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Mouth ulcers
Antiretroviral therapy (ART):
  • It can make HIV infection a manageable chronic condition.
  • It also reduces the risk of spreading the virus to others.
  • Most people with HIV live long and healthy lives if they get and stay on ART.

About the recent treatment:

  • At a Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Colorado, United States researchers described the case of a 60-year-old African American woman who was diagnosed with an HIV infection in 2013 was started on the standard HIV treatment regimen of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) therapy consisting of tenofovir, emtricitabine and raltegravir.
  • She was also later diagnosed with leukemia in 2017
  • In that year she received cord blood, or embryonic stem cells, from a donor with a rare mutation that naturally blocks the HIV virus from infecting cells.
  • She was also given blood stem cells, or adult stem cells, from a relative.
  • The adult stem cells boosted the patient’s immunity and possibly helped the cord blood cells fully integrate with the lady’s immune system.
  • A little over three years after the transplant, the lady discontinued the ART and more than 14 months down, her doctors report that she has no sign of HIV in her blood and also has no detectable antibodies to the virus.
  • Embryonic stem cells are potentially able to grow into any kind of cell and hence their appeal as therapy, though there is no explanation for why this mode of treatment appeared to be more effective.
  • This treatment IS NOT the long-sought cure for AIDS.

Stem cell therapy:

  • It is a cumbersome exercise and barely accessible to most HIV patients in the world.
  • Moreover, this requires stem cells from that rare group of individuals with the beneficial mutation.
  • Anti-retroviral therapy, through the years, has now ensured that HIV/AIDS isn’t always a death sentence and many with access to proper treatment have lifespans comparable to those without HIV.
  • A vaccine for HIV or a drug that eliminates the virus is still elusive and would be the long sought ‘cure’ for HIV/AIDS.

What is the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in India?

  • As per the India HIV Estimation 2019 report, the estimated adult (15 to 49 years) HIV prevalence trend has been declining in India since the epidemic’s peak in the year 2000 and has been stabilising in recent years.
  •  In 2019, HIV prevalence among adult males (15–49 years) was estimated at 0.24% and among adult females at 0.20% of the population.
  • There were 23.48 lakh Indians living with HIV in 2019.
  • Maharashtra had the maximum at 3.96 lakh followed by Andhra Pradesh (3.14 lakh) and Karnataka.
  • India’s National Aids Control Organisation says that ART is “freely available” to all those who require and there are deputed centres across the country where they can be availed from.

Green Hydrogen/ Green Ammonia Policy


Ministry of Power notified Green Hydrogen/ Green Ammonia Policy.


GS II- Government Policies and Interventions, GS III- Environment

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About the Green Hydrogen/ Green Ammonia Policy
  2. Benefits under policy

About the Green Hydrogen/ Green Ammonia Policy:

  • Hydrogen and Ammonia are envisaged to be the future fuels to replace fossil fuels.
  • Production of these fuels by using power from renewable energy, termed as green hydrogen and green ammonia.
  • It is one of the major requirements towards environmentally sustainable energy security of the nation.
  • Aim: To emerge as an export Hub for Green Hydrogen and Green Ammonia. 
The policy provides as follows:
  • Green Hydrogen / Ammonia manufacturers may purchase renewable power from the power exchange or set up renewable energy capacity themselves or through any other, developer, anywhere.
  • Open access will be granted within 15 days of receipt of application.
  • The Green Hydrogen / Ammonia manufacturer can bank his unconsumed renewable power, up to 30 days, with distribution company and take it back when required.
  • Distribution licensees can also procure and supply Renewable Energy to the manufacturers of Green Hydrogen / Green Ammonia in their States at concessional prices which will only include the cost of procurement, wheeling charges and a small margin as determined by the State Commission.
  • Waiver of inter-state transmission charges for a period of 25 years will be allowed to the manufacturers of Green Hydrogen and Green Ammonia for the projects commissioned before 30th June 2025.
  • The manufacturers of Green Hydrogen / Ammonia and the renewable energy plant shall be given connectivity to the grid on priority basis to avoid any procedural delays.
  • The benefit of Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) will be granted incentive to the hydrogen/Ammonia manufacturer and the Distribution licensee for consumption of renewable power.
  • To ensure ease of doing business a single portal for carrying out all the activities including statutory clearances in a time bound manner will be set up by MNRE.
  • Manufacturers of Green Hydrogen / Green Ammonia shall be allowed to set up bunkers near Ports for storage of Green Ammonia for export / use by shipping. The land for the storage for this purpose shall be provided by the respective Port Authorities at applicable charges.

Benefits under policy

  • The implementation of this Policy will provide clean fuel to the common people of the country.
  • This will reduce dependence on fossil fuel and also reduce crude oil imports.
  • The policy promotes Renewable Energy (RE) generation as RE will be the basic ingredient in making green hydrogen. 
  • This in turn will help in meeting the international commitments for clean energy.

India-UAE to Sign Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA)


India and the United Arab Emirates will sign the first-ever bilateral Free Trade Agreement between the two countries.


GS-III: Indian Economy (International trade), GS-II: International Relations (Foreign Policies and Agreements Affecting India’s Interests)

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About India’s CEPA agreements
  2. India-UAE Relations
  3. Recent Developments in India-UAE relations

About India’s CEPA agreements

  • India has signed CEPAs with South Korea and Japan and the one with UAE  is expected to increase bilateral trade in goods to USD 100 billion within five years of the signed agreement and increase trade in services to USD 15 billion, leading to wider social and economic opportunities in both nations.
  • CEPAs are a kind of free trade pacts but these agreements or cooperation agreements are more comprehensive than Free Trade Agreements.
  • CEPA usually covers negotiation on the trade in services and investment, and other areas of economic partnership. It may even consider negotiation on areas such as trade facilitation and customs cooperation, competition, and Intellectual Property Rights. It also looks into the regulatory aspect of trade and encompasses an agreement covering the regulatory issues.
Difference between CECA and CEPA
  • CECA – Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement
  • CEPA – Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement
  • The major “technical” difference between a CECA and CEPA is that CECA involve only “tariff reduction/elimination in a phased manner on listed/all items except the negative list and tariff rate quota (TRQ) items. CEPA also covers the trade in services and investment and other areas of economic partnership”.
  • Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement is a wider term than Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement and has the widest coverage.

India-UAE Relations

  • The UAE and India had enjoyed close and friendly ties based on historic and cultural ties. People-to-people contacts and barter trade for clothes and spices from India in exchange for dates and pearls from the region have existed for centuries.
  • India–United Arab Emirates (UAE) relations have a strong basis on the fact that Indians make up the largest minority ethnic group in the UAE making up roughly 38% of UAE’s total residents.
  • The UAE is India’s top trading partner in the entire West Asia and North Africa region.
  • Indian exports to the UAE account for 6% of India’s global exports.
  • UAE has been one of India’s leading sources of FDIs – UAE is the eighth-largest investor in India. Also, investment by Indian companies in the UAE is valued at around $85 billion.
  • UAE is India’s third largest trade partner after China and the United States.
  • The UAE accounts for 8 percent of India’s oil imports and was fifth largest supplier of crude oil to India.
  • Major exports to the UAE comprise of stones, petroleum products, precious metals, gems and jewellery, minerals, food items like sugar, cereals, fruits & vegetables, meat, tea, meat & seafood, textiles, chemicals and engineering & machinery products.
  • India imports crude petroleum and petroleum products, precious metals, minerals, stones, gems & jewellery, chemicals & wood and wood products from UAE.
  • Another significant pillar of India-UAE ties is reflected in their growing cooperation in security and defense sector.

Other Recent Developments in India-UAE relations

  • Since 2014, India has worked with UAE on various counter-terrorism issues.
  • In 2018, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between India and the UAE on Technical Cooperation in the Rail Sector. It provided a platform for Indian Railways to interact and share their latest developments and knowledge in the railway sector.
  • In 2018, Indian PM Modi described UAE’s humanitarian support for those affected by the Kerala floods that year as “[reflecting] the special ties between governments and people of India and UAE”.
  • 2021, UAE and India signed an agreement under which faculty members from Indian universities will spend six to 10 months every year for undertaking research and teaching social sciences in Abu Dhabi. This agreement was aimed at deepening the academic and cultural ties between the two nations.
  • India-UAE relations has become a pivot of India’s Extended Neighborhood and Look West Policy in the region.
  • The recent signing of The Abraham Accords have created a fresh opportunity for even greater India-UAE coordination and cooperation.


No comments yet. Why don’t you start the discussion?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *