Rules for Deputation of DIGs


After its proposal to amend the All India Service Rules that would allow it to call any IAS, IPS or IFoS officer on central deputation with or without the state’s consent, the Centre has issued another order on central deputation of Deputy Inspector General-level IPS officers that may not be palatable to the states.


GS II- Government Policies and Interventions, Civil service

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. What is the order?
  2. Why has it been issued?
  3. How will the move help?
  4.  Why states have a problem?
  5. Why don’t states relieve officers?
  6. How has this impacted the services?

What is the order?

  • Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) has said that IPS officers coming to the Centre at DIG level would no longer be required to be empanelled at that level with the Union Government.
    • According to existing rules, a DIG-ranked IPS officer with a minimum experience of 14 years could only be deputed to the Centre if the Police Establishment Board empanelled them as DIGs at the Centre.
    • The board chooses the panel on the basis of officers’ career and vigilance records.
    • Only Superintendent of Police-level officers do not require empanelment at the Centre.
  • The new order makes the entire pool of DIG-level officers in a state eligible for central deputation.

Why has it been issued?

  • It is aimed at increasing the pool of DIG-level IPS officers for central deputation in the backdrop of massive vacancies in central police organisations (CPOs) and the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs).
  • According to data sourced from various CPOs and CAPFs, out of 252 posts reserved for IPS officers at DIG level at the Centre, 118 (almost half) are vacant.
    • IPS officers have a quota of 40% in CPOs and CAPFs.

How will the move help?

  • The idea is to ease up the process of central deputation as verification of records takes a long time.
    • Because the number of DIGs is high, the empanelment process had become cumbersome and it was taking as long as one year to just complete the process.
    • Also, it increases the size of the pool of officers available to the Centre.
  • However, this would not automatically allow DIGs to come to the Centre.
  • Officers would still have to be put on the offer list for central deputation which is decided by the states and the Centre in consultation. Also, states would have to be willing to relieve them.

 Why states have a problem?

  • If read with the recent proposal on deputation of IAS, IPS and IFoS officers, the new order may be seen by many states as the Centre’s attempt at pushing the envelope further on increasing its powers over officers serving in the states.
  • Under the proposals sent In December and January, the Centre would have powers to demand, within a stipulated time frame, a certain quota of officers from the state for central deputation, and also to call any IAS officer on central deputation in “public interest”. In case the state failed to relieve the officer, he/she would be deemed relieved following the date fixed.
  • Most states, including some ruled by the NDA, have opposed the move.
  • Also, there is little evidence of a waiver of empanelment conditions having an impact on vacancies at the Centre.
    • For example, there is no requirement of empanelment for SP level posts, yet the vacancies are close to 50%.

Why don’t states relieve officers?

  • There is a serious paucity of officers in the states too.
  • In a cost-cutting move during the Atal Bihari Vajpayee regime, the size of IPS batches among other government staff was reduced even though sizeable vacancies existed even then.
    • From 80-90 officers each, IPS batches were cut to 35-40 officers (in 1999-2002, the average was 36).
    • The average attrition rate of IPS officers due to superannuation is 85 per year.
  • The strength of IAS officers too had been impacted due to low intake during the 1990s.

How has this impacted the services?

  • The anomaly in IPS recruitment adversely affected cadre management over the years.
  •  At some levels, there are fewer officers than sanctioned posts, while at others there is a glut.
    •  On one hand, states are not providing enough DIGs or SPs to the Centre, while on the other, the Centre does not have enough posts if the total cadre reserve of IPS is calculated.
  • Uttar Pradesh has a shortage of DIGs and IGs, but too many officers at the level of ADGs.
  • Then while states should ideally promote batches or parts of it according to the vacancies available, political bosses often promote entire batches to please a certain section, in effect slamming doors on promotional avenues for those below them.

Bhakra Beas Management Board


Political parties in Punjab are up in arms over the Centre’s decision to amend the rules regarding appointments to two key positions on the Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB).


GS II- Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. Formation of BBMB
  2. Functions of BBMB
  3. What changes have been made to the BBMB rules?
  4. Objection to the new rules

Formation of BBMB

  • As per the Indus Water Treaty, 1960 signed between India and Pakistan, the waters of three eastern rivers namely the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi were allotted to India for exclusive use.
  • A Master Plan was drawn to harness the potential of these rivers for providing assured irrigation, power generation and flood control.
  • Bhakra and Beas Projects form major part of the plan, and were established as a joint-venture of the erstwhile states of Punjab and Rajasthan.
  • On Reorganisation of the erstwhile state of Punjab on 1st November, 1966, Bhakra Management Board (BMB) was constituted under section 79 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.
    • The administration, maintenance and operation of Bhakra Nangal Project were handed over to Bhakra Management Board.
  • The Beas Project Works, on completion, were transferred by Government of India from Beas Construction Board (BCB) to Bhakra Management Board as per the provisions of Section 80 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.
  • Pursuant to this Bhakra Management Board was renamed as Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB) in May 1976.
  • Since then, the Bhakra Beas Management Board is dedicated to the service of nation and is engaged in regulation of the supply of Water & Power from Bhakra Nangal and Beas Projects to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pardesh, Delhi and Chandigarh
Organisational Hierarchy
  • BBMB is headed by a Whole Time Chairman and two Whole Time Members i.e. Member (Irrigation) and Member (Power) who head the Irrigation and Power Wings of BBMB respectively.
  • The Financial Adviser & CAO heads the Finance & Accounts Wing of BBMB.

Functions of BBMB

  • Administration, Operation & Maintenance of Bhakra-Nangal Project, Beas Project Unit-I (Beas Satluj Link Project) and Beas Project Unit- II (Pong Dam) in Northern India.
  • The regulation of supply of water from Satluj, Ravi and Beas to the States of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
  • The regulation and supply of power generated from Bhakra-Nangal and Beas Projects.
  • Providing and performing engineering & related technical and consultancy services in the various fields of hydroelectric power projects and irrigation projects and to carry on all kinds of business related thereto, either independently or as a Joint Venture with any Central/State/Public Sector Undertaking(s) or establishment(s) under the administrative control of Ministry of Power. Joint venture with any other agency/organization will be subject to the approval of the Central Govt.
  • Construction of new Hydro Projects within and outside BBMB System.

What changes have been made to the BBMB rules?

  • The GoI issued a notification on February 23, 2022 to amend the BBMB Rules 1974, thereby changing the criteria for the selection of whole-time members of the Board.
  • New rules specify technical qualifications for the appointments and pave for the appointment of the members from across India and NOT ONLY from Punjab and Haryana.

Objection to the new rules:

  • The opposition to the new rules has come from within the engineers’ fraternity, farmers as well as the political parties of Punjab.
  • It is being labeled as an attack on the federal structure of the country.
  • The engineers have pointed out that hardly any engineer would qualify for appointment as per the new specifications.

Anti-Microbial Resistance Needs Urgent Attention


Ever since the pandemic struck, concerns have been raised about the improper use of antimicrobials amongst Covid-19 patients.


GS-III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. What is Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)?
  2. Concerns regarding Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
  3. Way forward

What is Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)?

  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites to remain unaffected or survive antimicrobial drugs such as antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials.
  • AMR occurs when microorganisms exposed to antimicrobial drugs develop antimicrobial resistance resulting in standard treatments becoming ineffective leading to persistence of infections and spreading of infections.
  • Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.
  • The misuse of antimicrobials in medicine and inappropriate use in agriculture is one of the major causes of spread of Antimicrobial Resistance.
  • Contamination around pharmaceutical manufacturing sites where untreated waste releases large amounts of active antimicrobials into the environment also leads to spread of AMR.
Basis of Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Some bacteria due to the presence of resistance genes are intrinsically resistant and therefore survive on being exposed to antibiotics.
  • Bacteria can also acquire resistance by sharing and transferring resistance genes present in the rest of the population, or by genetic mutations that help the bacteria survive antibiotic exposure.

Concerns regarding Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

  • Medical procedures such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy, diabetes management and major surgery (for example, caesarean sections or hip replacements) become very risky due to AMR.
  • AMR increases the cost of healthcare with lengthier stays in hospitals, additional tests and use of more expensive drugs.
  • No new classes of antibiotics have made it to the market in the last three decades, largely on account of inadequate incentives for their development and production.
  • Without urgent action, we are heading towards a future without antibiotics and with bacteria becoming completely resistant to treatment and when common infections and minor injuries could once again kill (referred to as antibiotic apocalypse).
  • It is putting the gains of the Millennium Development Goals at risk and endangers achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Concerns regarding AMR in India
  • India, with its combination of large population, rising incomes that facilitate purchase of antibiotics, high burden of infectious diseases and easy over-the-counter access to antibiotics, is an important locus for the generation of resistance genes.
  • The multi-drug resistance determinant, New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), emerged from this region to spread globally – Africa, Europe and other parts of Asia have also been affected by multi-drug resistant typhoid originating from South Asia.
  • In India, over 56,000 newborn deaths each year due to sepsis are caused by organisms that are resistant to first line antibiotics.

Way forward

  •  The use of antibiotics unrelated to treating human disease, such as in food and animal production, must be “optimised”.
  • Greater action need to be taken to monitor and control infections, globally, nationally and within individual hospitals.
  • Access to vaccines, clean water and sanitation ought to be expanded.
  • And finally should be “more thoughtful” about our use of antimicrobial treatments —expanding access to lifesaving antibiotics where needed, minimising use where they are not necessary to improve human health and acting according to WHO’s recommendations on the same.
  • Increasing funding for developing new antimicrobials and targeting priority pathogens such as K. pneumoniae and E. Coli and ensuring that they are affordable and accessible to most of the world.

One Rank One Pension


Recently, the Supreme Court asked the Centre to show how many persons in the Armed forces have benefitted from ‘One Rank One Pension’ (OROP) policy.


GS II- Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. What is OROP?
  2. Arguments in Favour
  3. The Challenges

What is OROP?

  • OROP means the payment of the same pension to military officers for the same rank for the same length of service, irrespective of the date of retirement.
    • Example: consider an officer ‘A’ who had been in service for 15 years from 1980 to 1995. Also, consider another officer ‘B’ of the same rank and been in service for 15 years from 1995 to 2010. As per the OROP concept, both officers – since having the same rank and same length of service – should get the same pension
  • Before OROP, ex-servicemen used to get pensions as per the Pay Commission’s recommendations of the time when they had retired.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Punjab have the highest number of OROP beneficiaries.
  • Armed Forces Personnel who had retired till 30th june 2014 are covered under it.
  • The implementation of the scheme was based on recommendation of the Koshiyari committee.

Arguments in Favour

  • The shorter period of service of military officers: The defense personnel is made to retire at the age of 33 to 35 years due to the necessity of maintaining a younger army whereas the officer of civil side retires at the age of 60 years.
  • It is the moral obligation of the state to look after the welfare of the soldiers who served the nation.
  • A lowered pay status compared to the civilian counterparts with less period of service affects the morale of forces.
  • The issues, veterans emphasize, are of justice, equity, honor, and national security.

The Challenges

  • Financial hurdle as the estimated time cost of implementation is 8000-10000 crore rupees. This will increase on every further revision of salary.
  • Expenditure on arrears would be around 10000 crore rupees.
  • Lead to demands from other army personnel like CRPF, CISF etc.
  • It is also an administrative challenge due to lack of records going back to many decades.


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