The Complexities for Implementing a No-Fly Zone


The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Secretary General stated that the organisation would not designate the Ukranian airspace as a ‘No Fly Zone’ which he said would lead to a full-fledged war in Europe, involving many more countries and resulting in greater human suffering.


GS II- International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. What is a No-Fly Zone?
  2. What is the feasibility of ‘No fly zone’ over Ukraine?
  3. What are the broad contours in a No-Fly Zone?

What is a No-Fly Zone?

  • No-Fly Zone refers to a particular airspace wherein aircrafts, excluding those permitted by an enforcement agency, are barred from flying.
  • Articles under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter dealing with ‘Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression’ are invoked to authorise a potential no-fly zone.
  • Article 39 dictates the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to determine the probable existence of any threat to peace or an act of aggression.
  • It suggests further measures, if required, are to be carried out in accordance to Article 41 and 42 to restore international peace and security.
  • No fly zones have been implemented without UN mandate too.
    • In 1991 after the first Gulf War, U.S. and its coalition partners imposed two no fly zones over Iraq to prevent Saddam Hussain from attacking ethnic groups.
  • In non-combat situations, No fly zones can be imposed permanently and temporarily over sensitive installations or for high profile events like Olympics.

What is the feasibility of ‘No fly zone’ over Ukraine?

  • The Foreign Policy magazine states that no-fly zone declarations are essentially a compromise in situations demanding a response to ongoing violence, but full military intervention is politically untenable.
  • NATO has previously imposed No-Fly Zones in non-member states like Libya and Bosnia.
  • With Russia it fears a full-fledged war in Europe. It has been demanding that NATO scale back to the pre-1997 arrangements. Both Russia and Ukraine are not members of NATO.
  • Due to this, the idea of imposing a ‘no fly zone’ over Ukraine has been rejected outright.
  • In addition, a ‘No fly zone’ needs to be implemented meaning NATO deploying aircraft and assets which would result in a direct confrontation with Russia as it may require NATO shooting down Russian fighters or taking down its air defence systems. While Russia has an overall superiority over Ukraine air space, it has not demonstrated that so far in its offensive in Ukraine.

What are the broad contours in a No-Fly Zone?

  • The UNSC had banned all flights in the Libyan airspace post adoption of Resolution 1973 in 2011 in response to the Libyan Civil War.
  • Member states were asked to deny permission to any Libyan registered aircraft to use the territory without requisite approval.
  • Further, the member states could bar any entity from flying if they found reasonable grounds to believe the aircraft is ferrying lethal or non-lethal military equipment.
  • Member states were permitted to allow flights whose sole purpose was humanitarian, such as delivery of medical supplies and food, chauffer humanitarian workers and related assistance, or evacuating foreign nationals from the territory.

The legacy of Savitribai and Jyotirao Phule


Recently, Maharashtra Governor has received flak for his remarks on the social reformist couple Jyotirao and Savitribai Phule.


GS II- Modern Indian History

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. Who were the Phules?
  2. The Phules’ endeavours and legacy

Who Were the Phules?

  • Mahatma Jyotirao and Savitribai Phule stand out as an extraordinary couple in the social and educational history of India.
  • They spearheaded path-breaking work towards female education and empowerment, and towards ending caste- and gender-based discrimination.
  • In 1840, at a time when child marriages were common, Savitri at the age of ten was married to Jyotirao, who was thirteen years old at the time.
  • The couple later in life strove to oppose child marriage and also organised widow remarriages.
About Jyotirao Phule:
  • Born in 1827 in Satara district of Maharashtra.
  • Phule was given the title of Mahatma on May 11, 1888, by Vithalrao Krishnaji Vandekar, a Maharashtrian social activist.
  • His famous works:
  • Tritiya Ratna (1855), Gulamgiri (1873), Shetkarayacha Aasud, or Cultivator’s Whipcord (1881), Satyashodhak Samajokt Mangalashtakasah Sarva Puja-vidhi (1887).
About Savitribai Phule
  • Born in Naigaon in Maharashtra on January 3, 1831
  • She is widely regarded as one of Indias first generation modern feminists for her significant contributions in ensuring equal education opportunities under the British raj.
  • She became the first female teacher in India in 1848 and opened a school for girls along with her husband, social reformer Jyotirao Phule.
  • In her honour, University of Pune was renamed Savitribai Phule University in 2014.

The Phules’ endeavours and legacy

  • Jyotirao, the revolutionary that he was, observed the lack of opportunities for education for young girls and women.
  • He started to educate his wife at home and trained her to become a teacher.
  • Together, by 1848, the Phules started a school for girls, Shudras and Ati-Shudras in Poona.
  • The historic work was started by Jyotirao when he was just 21 years old, ably supported by his 18-year-old wife.
  • In 1853, Jyotirao-Savitribai opened a care centre for pregnant widows to have safe deliveries and to end the practice of infanticide owing to social norms.
  • The Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha (Home for the Prevention of Infanticide) started in their own house .
  • Jyotirao and Savitri did not have biological children, and adopted the child of a widow.
    • Yashwantrao grew up to be a doctor, rendering his services in the 1897 Bubonic plague.
Satyashodhak Samaj
  • The Satyashodhak Samaj (The Truth-Seekers Society) was established on September 24, 1873 by Jyotirao-Savitribai and other like-minded people.
  • The Samaj advocated for social changes that went against prevalent traditions, including economical weddings, inter-caste marriages, eradication of child marriages, and widow remarriage.
  • The Phules also had far-sighted goals — popularising female education, establishing an institutional structure of schools in India, and to have a society where women worked in tandem with men.

Donate a Pension Scheme


The Union Labour and Employment Ministry has launched the “donate a pension” scheme.


GS II- Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About ‘Donate a Pension’ Scheme
  2. Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM)

About ‘Donate a Pension’ Scheme

  • Under the initiative, people can donate the premium contribution of their immediate support staff like domestic workers, drivers, helpers etc.
  • It is an initiative under (PM-SYM) pension scheme where citizens can donate the premium contribution of their immediate support staff such as domestic workers, drivers, helpers etc.

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM)

  • The PM-SYM is a 50:50 voluntary and contributory pension scheme in which the beneficiary makes a stipulated age-specific contribution and the Central Government matches it.
  • For example, if a person joins the system at the age of 29, he must give Rs 100 per month until he reaches the age of 60, at which point the Central Government would contribute an equal amount of Rs 100.
  • The subscriber will get the assured monthly pension of Rs 3000/- with benefit of family pension, as the case may be.
Eligibility under the scheme
  • The beneficiary of the scheme can be any worker of the unorganised sector mostly engaged as home-based workers, street vendors, mid-day meal workers, head loaders, brick kiln workers, cobblers, rag pickers, domestic workers, washer men, rickshaw pullers, landless labourers, own account workers, agricultural workers, construction workers, beedi workers, handloom workers, leather workers, audio- visual workers and similar other occupations.
  • According to the Labour Ministry, any worker whose monthly income is Rs 15,000/per month or less and belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years are eligible for the scheme.
  • Moreover, they should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
  • Further, he/she should not be an income tax payer.

India Abstains at UNHRC


Recently, India abstained on a vote at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva. The Council moved the resolution to set up an international commission of enquiry into Russia’s actions in Ukraine.

  • India has also abstained from similar resolutions in the United Nations General Assembly and United Nations Security Council.

GS II- International Relations (Bilateral Groupings & Agreements)

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About UN Human Rights Council
  2. Membership
  3. Issues

About UN Human Rights Council:

  • The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them.
  • It has the ability to discuss all thematic human rights issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year.
  • It meets at the UN Office at Geneva.


  • The Council is made of 47 Member States, which are elected by the majority of members of the General Assembly of the United Nations through direct and secret ballot.
  • The General Assembly takes into account the candidate States’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights, as well as their voluntary pledges and commitments in this regard.

The Council’s Membership is based on equitable geographical distribution. Seats are distributed as follows:

  • African States: 13 seats
  • Asia-Pacific States: 13 seats
  • Latin American and Caribbean States: 8 seats
  • Western European and other States: 7 seats
  • Eastern European States: 6 seats

Members of the Council serve for a period of three years and are not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms.


  • A key concern for some critics has been the composition of Council membership, which sometimes includes countries widely perceived as human rights abusers.
  • China, Cuba, Eritrea, Russia and Venezuela, all of which have been accused of human rights abuses.
  • US pulled out of the Agency in 2018 due to its disproportionate focus on Israel, which has received by far the largest number of critical council resolutions against any country.
  • The US has joined the organization again.



Recently, Kerala Tourism department have started live streaming of an annual temple festival called Theyyam performances, to promote cultural tourism.


GS I- Art and Culture

What is Theyyam?

  • Theyyam is a popular ritual form of dance worship in Kerala and Karnataka, India.
  • It is also performed during the ‘Kaliyattam festival’.
  • It is a popular tradition of thousands of years old based on dance prayer performed in temples of South India, especially Kerala and Karnataka.
  • Most Theyyams are believed to be the incarnations of Shiva or Shakti (the consort of Shiva). Or they have strong associations with these principal deities of Hinduism.
  • Theyyam is performed by males, except the Devakoothu theyyam; the Devakoothu is the only Theyyam ritual performed by women.
  • Theyyam incorporates aspects of tribal and primitive religion through the worship of deities, warriors, tribal gods and Muslim characters based on ancient fables.
  • During the performance artists do a lot of adornment and wear royal clothes and jewellery.
  • It is performed only in the Thekkumbad Kulom temple.


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