Study Reveals Child Artists Work for More than 12 Hours a Day

A recent study reveals that a child below the age of 15 in the entertainment industry in India, works for more than 12 hours a day and casting agencies are violating The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (CALPRA) that prohibits engagement of children in all occupations.
GS-II: Social Justice (Issues Related to Children, Government Interventions and Policies, Issues arising out of the design and implementation of Government Policies)
Dimensions of the Article:

  • Key points
  • Definition of Child and Child Labour
  • Legislations in India regarding Child Labour

Key Points

  • A study titled ‘Child Artists in India’ by Child Rights and You, a non-governmental organisation that works towards ensuring children’s rights suggests that the overall number of child artists is estimated to be between 6,059 and 12,334 based on Media and Entertainment Skills Council estimates for 2017 and Census of India 2011 respectively.
  • In 2019, India’s Media and Entertainment industry was valued at ₹1.67 trillion from which children (up to 15 years of age) make up nearly 30% share of “impressions”, which means that they account for a significant portion of those consuming films and television (regardless of the platform), as per the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries.
  • While it is clearly mentioned in CALPRA, 1986, that no child shall be allowed to work for more than five hours in a day, and for not more than three hours without rest.
  • The study has found that the work shift stretches to 12 to 13 hours for six days a week by production houses because guardians often do not interfere in the scheduling.
  • The provisions of CALPRA also state, atleast 20% of the income earned by the child from the production or event is to be directly deposited in a fixed deposit account in a nationalised bank in the name of the child which may be credited to her/him on attaining majority. However, the study states the money is being utilised completely on the families.

Definition of Child and Child Labour

  • As per the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, amended in 2016 (CLPR Act), a “Child” is defined as any person below the age of 14, and the CLPR Act prohibits employment of a Child in any employment including as a domestic help.
  • Children between age of 14 and 18 are defined as “Adolescent” and the law allows Adolescent to be employed except in the listed hazardous occupation and processes which include mining, inflammable substance and explosives related work and any other hazardous process as per the Factories Act, 1948.

Legislations in India regarding Child Labour

  • The CLPR Act prohibits employment of a Child in ANY employment including as a domestic help. It is a cognizable criminal offence to employ a Child for any work.
  • Children between age of 14 and 18 are defined as “Adolescent” and the law allows Adolescent to be employed except in the listed hazardous occupation and processes which include mining, inflammable substance and explosives related work and any other hazardous process as per the Factories Act, 1948.
  • The Constitution of India prohibits child labour in hazardous industries (but not in non-hazardous industries) as a Fundamental Right under Article 24.
  • In addition to the constitutional prohibition of hazardous child labour, various laws in India, such as the Juvenile Justice (care and protection) of Children Act-2000, and the Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act-1986 provide a basis in law to identify, prosecute and stop child labour in India.

Pakistan retained on Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Grey list:


Ahead of the plenary session of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the global financial crime watchdog, from June 14 to 17 in Berlin, Pakistan which continues to face an economic crunch, is hoping for some respite in the form of its removal from the FATF’s ‘grey list’ or the list of countries presenting a risk to the global financial system.

Relevance: GS-II: International Relations (International Groupings or Agreements affecting India’s Interests, India’s neighbors)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
  2. FATF Greylists
  3. FATF Blacklists
  4. Effects of FATF Blacklisting
  5. Why is Pakistan on the grey list?

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

  • The Financial Action Task Force (on Money Laundering) (FATF) is an intergovernmental organisation founded in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.
  • In 2001, its mandate was expanded to include terrorism financing.
  • FATF is a “policy-making body” that works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.
  • FATF monitors progress in implementing its Recommendations through “peer reviews” (“mutual evaluations”) of member countries.
  • The FATF currently has 39 members
  • Since 2000, FATF has maintained the FATF blacklist (formally called the “Call for action”) and the FATF greylist (formally called the “Other monitored jurisdictions”).
  • The objectives of FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.

FATF Greylists
• FATF greylist is officially referred to as Jurisdictions Under Increased Monitoring.
• FATF grey list represent a much higher risk of money laundering and terrorism financing but have formally committed to working with the FATF to develop action plans that will address their AML/CFT deficiencies.
• The countries on the grey list are subject to increased monitoring by the FATF, which either assesses them directly or uses FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs) to report on the progress they are making towards their AML/CFT goals.
• While grey-list classification is not as negative as the blacklist, countries on the list may still face economic sanctions from institutions like the IMF and the World Bank and experience adverse effects on trade.
• Unlike the next level “blacklist”, greylisting carries no legal sanctions, but it attracts economic strictures and restricts a country’s access to international loans
FATF Blacklists
• FATF Blacklists is Officially known as High-Risk Jurisdictions subject to a Call for Action.
• FATF blacklist sets out the countries that are considered deficient in their anti-money laundering and counter-financing of terrorism regulatory regimes.
• The list is intended to serve not only as a way of negatively highlighting these countries on the world stage, but as a warning of the high money laundering and terror financing risk that they present.
• It is extremely likely that blacklisted countries will be subject to economic sanctions and other prohibitive measures by FATF member states and other international organizations.
Effects of FATF Blacklisting
• The effect of the FATF Blacklist has been significant, and arguably has proven more important in international efforts against money laundering than has the FATF Recommendations.
• While, under international law, the FATF Blacklist carried with it no formal sanction, in reality, a jurisdiction placed on the FATF Blacklist often found itself under intense financial pressure.
• FATF makes sure funds are not easily accessible by terror organisations that are causing crimes against humanity.
• FATF has helped to fight against corruption by ‘grey-listing’ countries that do not meet Recommended Criteria and this helps to cripple economies and states that are aiding terrorist and corrupted organisations.
Why is Pakistan on the grey list?
• Pakistan was retained on the grey list in March as it was yet to address concerns on the front of terror financing investigations and prosecutions targeting senior leaders and commanders of UN designated terrorist groups.
• Pakistan has found itself on the grey list frequently since 2008, for weaknesses in fighting terror financing and money laundering.
• In 2009, the country began to cooperate with the FATFlike regional body, Asia Pacific Group (APG), and consequenting in 2015 It was taken off the list in 2015 owing to its progress. However it was was put back on it in 2018.

Food Safety Index

Recently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) released the State Food Safety Index (SFSI) 2021-22.
GS-II: Social Justice (Issues related to Health, Government Policies and Interventions)
Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About State Food Safety Index (SFSI):
  2. How is the states and UTs assessed?
  3. Performance of States and UTs
    About State Food Safety Index (SFSI):
    • The Index was developed by FSSAI.
    • It is released annually for a financial year.
    • This is the fourth edition of the SFSI since its inception in 2018-19.
    • The index aims to measure the performance of states and Union Territories on selected “parameters” of food safety.
    • According to the FSSAI, the index is aimed at encouraging states and UTs to “improve their performance and work towards establishing a proper food safety ecosystem in their jurisdiction…”
    • The SFSI takes into account the performance of the states on five key parameters, each of which is assigned a different weightage in the assessment.
    How is the states and UTs assessed?
    • The states and Union Territories are assessed separately.
    • They are segregated into three categories — large states, small states and UTs— and assessed separately within their respective categories, based on their performance on the selected food safety parameters.
    Performance of States and UTs:

• Large States: In the category of the 20 large states, Tamil Nadu with an overall score of 82 out of 100 has performed the best and been ranked 1st on SFSI 2021-22, while Andhra Pradesh with an overall score of 26 has been ranked at the bottom —17th place.
o Following Tamil Nadu in the rankings of thes larger states are Gujarat (rank 2nd with a score 77.5), Maharashtra (3rd with 70), Himachal Pradesh (4th with 65.5) and West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh (sharing 5th with a score of 58.5).

• Small States: Among the eight small states, Goa with a score of 56 has been ranked at the top, while Arunachal Pradesh (rank 8th and score 21) is at the bottom.
• Union Territories: Among the eight Union Territories, Jammu and Kashmir with a score of 68.5 has been ranked 1st and Lakshadweep (score 16) as the bottom. Delhi with a score of 66 has been ranked at 2nd place.

National e-Vidhan system (NeVA)

Uttar Pradesh is one of the few state legislatures in India that has implemented the digital Vidhan Sabha system, and its last session was completely digitised. Earlier in May, a training programme was organised to familiarise the representatives with the technology.
GS II: Government Policies & Interventions
• NeVA is a work-flow system deployed on NIC Cloud, MeghRaj which helps the Chair of the House to conduct the proceedings of the House smoothly.
• It helps to carry out their duties in the House efficiently and to conduct Legislative Business of the House in a Paperless manner.
• It is a device neutral and member centric application created to equip them to handle diverse House Business smartly by putting entire information regarding member contact details, rules of procedure, list of business, notices, bulletins, bills, starred/unstarred questions and answers, papers laid, committee reports etc. in their hand held devices/ tablets and equip all Legislatures/ Departments to handle it efficiently.
• NeVA will completely eliminate the process of sending out a notice/request for collection of data.
• Nagaland became the first state to implement NeVA, in March this year.
• Mobile NeVA(mNeVA) is a user-friendly Mobile App of NeVA which is available on Android as well as on iOS. mNeVA has made information on the conduct of business in Legislatures accessible anytime, anywhere to everyone.


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