• First, provide a brief overview of gender equality, poverty, and malnutrition.
  • Discuss the significance of SHGs and their attempts to tackle issues such as inequality, poverty, and starvation.
  • Discuss how microfinance will help and empower SHGs to address the aforementioned issues.
  • Provide a path forward or a conclusion.


According to the Global Gender Gap Report 2021, India ranks 140th out of 156 countries. Gender inequality is the result of unequal opportunity, education, health, economic engagement, and empowerment, which forces women into a vicious cycle of poverty and starvation.

SHGs are informal associations of people who get together to identify solutions to improve their living situations. Microfinance is a sort of banking service that is offered to unemployed or low-income individuals or groups that would not otherwise have access to financial services.


Women’s microfinance SHGs may aid even the most vulnerable and marginalised women by doing the following:

SHGs strive to reduce poverty by mobilising poor rural women and establishing poor community institutions. Microfinance functions as a catalyst in this regard because it can assist channel SGH members’ savings and money.

Women will be forced to work and contact with the outside world as a result of credit flow. This will aid in the reduction of gender disparity and the promotion of community involvement.

Microfinancing women SHGs increases their members’ decision-making abilities. With more influence in terms of resource usage, family planning, and so on, their families’ nutritional values improve.


Though microfinancing of women SHGs can assist in overcoming difficulties such as malnutrition, poverty, and gender equality, it is insufficient to transform the dire condition. Furthermore, there must be a shift in patriarchal thinking, increased awareness of SHGs, and increased penetration of rural banking services.



• Highlight the recent expansion of the aviation sector

• Discuss the different issues affecting the aviation industry.

• Conclude with the necessity for aviation sector reforms in the context of expanding economic growth.


A cyber-attack is a form of attack that uses numerous tactics to target computer systems, infrastructures, networks, or personal computer devices. Cyberattacks can be classified as cyberwarfare or cyberterrorism depending on the context. An anonymous source may launch a cyber-attack against sovereign states, individuals, groups, societies, or organisations.


The term ‘cross-border’ refers to a movement or activity that occurs across a border between two countries. Cross-border cyber-attacks have the following consequences:

Critical Information Infrastructure is being harmed (power plants, nuclear plants, telecommunications etc.).

It has the potential to be used as spyware to obtain sensitive information.

Terrorists may use social media to plan and carry out terror attacks, as well as to spread virulent propaganda in order to stir hatred and bloodshed.

To counter cross-border cyber-attacks, the following defensive measures have been implemented:

National-level coordination with several agencies.

On a regular basis, the government should release alerts and advisories about the most recent cyber risks and countermeasures.

To deal with cyber-attacks, the Information Technology Act of 2000 includes deterrent provisions.

To address cyber security concerns, the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) was founded.

The National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) was established to ensure prompt information exchange with individual entities.

The Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) has been established to detect dangerous applications and give free tools for their removal.

The Technology Development Board and the Data Security Council of India (DSCI) have resolved to work together to promote cyber security start-ups in India.


The need of the hour is to develop a futuristic National Cyber-Security Policy that distributes enough resources and answers stakeholders’ concerns.


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