Protest against move to ‘shift’ proposed heritage park in Manipur

GS Paper- 3, Conservation.

People from all walks of life and women activists in the villages surrounding the Keibul Lamjao National Park (KLNP) in Manipur have taken up the cudgels to ensure that the government does not shift the proposed heritage park from the government-approved site. The KNLP is home to the endangered brow antlered deer (Sangai) in the KNLP.

Keibul Lamjao National Park:

The Keibul Lamjao National Park is located in the Bishnupur district of the Indian state of Manipur. It is the only floating park in the world, covering 40 km2 (15.4 sq. mi), and is located in North East India as part of Loktak Lake.

The national park is distinguished by floating decaying plant detritus known locally as phumdi. It was established in 1966 as a nature refuge to protect the endangered Eld’s deer’s native habitat. It was designated as a national park in 1977.

Eld’s Deer or Brow-Antlered Deer:

The Sangai is an endemic and critically endangered subspecies of Eld’s deer that can only be found in Manipur, India. It is also Manipur’s state animal. It is also known as the Manipur brow-antlered deer or Eld’s deer in English.

About IUCN:

  • It was founded in 1948.
  • The IUCN is a global organisation dedicated to nature conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources.
  • It is a member of the United Nations with observer and consultative status.
  • It is most known for collecting and publishing the IUCN Red List, which evaluates the conservation status of species throughout the world

IUCN List Criteria:

  • A 90% decline in population size during the previous ten years or three generations, whichever is longer.
  • Estimated occurrence extent of less than 100 km2 or area of occupancy of less than 10 km2.
  • Population size is anticipated to be less than 250 adult individuals, with a continuous fall of at least 25% expected within three years.
  • The population size is expected to be less than 50 adult individuals.
  • Quantitative investigation indicating that the likelihood of extinction in the wild is at least 50% within 10 years or three generations.

The Red List of Threatened Species are Divided into Nine Categories:

  1. Extinct
  2. Extinct in the wild
  3. Critically Endangered
  4. Endangered
  5. Vulnerable
  6.  Near Endangered
  7. Least Concern
  8. Data Deficient
  9. Not assessed.
  10. Critically Endangered species
  11. Endangered (EN)
  12. Vulnerable (VU) species

The IUCN’s Goals:

The International Union for Conservation of Nature strives to accomplish the following objectives:

  • To give scientific data on the worldwide status of species and subspecies.
  • To address the reasons of concern and raise awareness about the loss of species and biodiversity.
  • Create a plan for biodiversity protection.

Users of the IUCN Red List:

The IUCN Red List gives factual information on the condition of many species on the planet. This data is used by a variety of departments, institutes, and organisations.

The following people use the IUCN Red List:

  • Governmental Organisations (National & International)
  • Wildlife Conservation Organisations And Departments
  • Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations
  • Planners of Natural Resources
  • Educational Institutions
  • Aquariums and Zoos
  • Media
  • Business Organisations

The IUCN Red List Data’s Purpose:

The information given in the IUCN Red List is utilised in the following ways by various organisations:

  • International treaties such as CITES and the Ramsar Convention use Red List data to make key choices that are in sync with the state of nature as and when needed.
  • The World Bank Group performance standard employs IUCN Red List data to assess the risk of biodiversity loss caused by large-scale infrastructure and global projects.
  • Zoos and national parks utilise this data to update essential rules such as park laws on a regular basis.

IUCN Threat Classification:

Critically Endangered:

A specie is Critically Endangered when the available information suggests that it fits any of the IUCN criteria and so faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

Endangered Species:

  • Animals and plants on the verge of extinction are considered endangered species.
  • Endangered species are classified into three categories: state, national, and international. The Endangered Species Act governs the federal list of endangered species.
  • The Endangered Species Act was passed by Congress in 1973. (ESA).
  • The government protects endangered species, threatened species, and vital ecosystems under this legislation.

Threatened Species:

Threatened species are those that are on the verge of becoming extinct in the future. The habitats of these endangered species that require conservation are referred to as critical habitats.

Listed Species:

Listed species are those that are protected under the Endangered Species Act. Candidate species, on the other hand, are those that may be added to the list.

Endemic Species:

Endangered species vary from endemic species. Endangered species are those that may go extinct in the future. Endangered species, on the other hand, are those that dwell exclusively in certain geographical areas and are not found anyplace else in the globe.

IUCN Red List of Critically Endangered Species in India 2019-2022:

The following is a list of severely endangered species in India, organised by category:

Mammals that are Critically Endangered:

  • The Pygmy Hog
  • Andaman White-toothed Shrew
  • Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew
  • Nicobar White-tailed Shrew
  • Kondana Rat
  • Elvira Rat or Large Rock Rat
  • Namdapha Flying Squirrel
  • Civet of Malabar
  • Rhinoceros of Sumatra
  • Javan Rhinoceros

Birds that are Critically Endangered:

  • Aythya Baeri
  • The Forest Owlet
  • Great Indian Bustard
  • Bengal Florican
  • The Siberian Crane
  • Spoon-billed Sandpiper
  • Sociable Lapwing
  • Jerdon’s Courser
  • White-backed Vulture
  • Red-Headed Vulture
  • White-bellied Heron
  • Slender-billed Vulture
  • Indian Vulture
  • Pink-headed Duck
  • Himalayan Quail

Critically Endangered Reptiles:

  • Gharial
  • The Hawksbill Turtle
  • The River Terrapin
  • Bengal Roof Turtle
  • The Sispara day gecko

Critically Endangered Fishes:

  • The Pondicherry Shark
  • The Ganges Shark
  • Knife-tooth Sawfish
  • Large-tooth Sawfish 
  • Narrow-snout Sawfish

IUCN Conservation Plan:

The IUCN’s nature conservation approach are as follows:

  • Assess – Concentrate on monitoring species and educating the world about the status and trends of biodiversity, therefore giving methods to conserve our biosphere.
  • Plan — Aims to improve collaborative and science-based solutions for species conservation.
  • Act – Improve biodiversity status by mobilisation of activities including governments, educational institutions, civic society, and the commercial sector.
  • Communicate – Strategic and focused communications improve the success of the IUCN’s species protection activities.


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