1.One of the most important criteria for reaping the benefits of the demographic dividend is good health. Discuss in light of the 2017 National Health Policy. 150 WORDS


  • Give a summary of India’s demographic dividend.
  • Emphasize the significance of health in reaping the benefits of demographic dividends.
  • Then, analyse the primary objectives of the National Health Policy 2017 and how this policy attempts to capitalise on India’s demographic dividend.


The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) defines Demographic Dividend as “the economic growth potential that can result from shifts in a population’s age structure, primarily when the share of the working-age population (15 to 64) is greater than the non-working-age share of the population (14 and younger, and 65 and older).”

Currently, the working-age population amounts for 62.5 percent of India’s overall population. In 2036, the working-age population will reach a peak of roughly 65 percent.


According to the UNFPA, countries can only capitalise on the economic potential of the youth bulge if they can provide good health, great education, and respectable work to their entire population. In India, good health is still one of the most important criteria for reaping the benefits of the demographic dividend. In this context, the National Health Policy 2017 has been developed, which can help India reap the benefits of its demographic dividend in the following ways:

The policy seeks to enlighten, clarify, reinforce, and prioritise the role of government in defining health systems in all of its dimensions, including health investments, health care service organisation, illness prevention, and health promotion, among others.

It also aspires to achieve the highest possible level of health and well-being for all ages through a preventative and promotive health care orientation in all developmental programmes, as well as universal access to high-quality health care services for all without financial difficulty.

The policy targets of raising Life Expectancy at Birth from 67.5 to 70 and lowering TFR to 2.1 at the national and sub-national levels by 2025 have the potential to extend the healthy working age group.

It also intends to reduce illness prevalence/incidence, such as HIV/AIDS and leprosy, as well as premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases by 25% by 2025.

The strategy also seeks to improve health-care systems such as health financing, health infrastructure, human resources, and the Health Management Information System.


As a result, the strategy will aid in lowering adolescent vulnerability, increasing workforce productivity, and fostering an environment in which young people can reach their full potential. Only by properly nurturing our human resources will India’s demographic dividend be realised. Increased investment in the health system will yield enormous economic benefits.

2.Himalayas are facing irreversible decline, due to ecological changes. Discuss in terms of recent natural calamities in Himalayan Region 250 words

Landslides and earthquakes are common in the Himalayan region. The northward movement of the Indian plate, which was formed by the collision of Indian and Eurasian plates, puts constant stress on the rocks, making them fragile and prone to landslides and earthquakes.

This, combined with the region’s steep slopes, harsh topography, high seismic vulnerability, and rainfall, makes it one of the world’s most disaster-prone locations.

The Himalayan environment is subject to the impacts and repercussions of changes due to reasons emerging from modern society’s developmental ideologies.

The Himalayan Ecosystem Is Under Attack

Unsustainable Exploitation:

  • Indian states have ignored warnings concerning the fragile ecology, from the mammoth road extension project in the name of national security (Char Dham Highway) to the construction of cascade hydroelectric power plants, from uncontrolled town expansion to unsustainable tourism.
  • Pollution, deforestation, and water and waste management disasters have all resulted from this method.

Development Activity Threat:

  • Mega hydropower, a major source of “green” energy that replaces fossil fuels, has the potential to affect various aspects of ecosystem, making it more vulnerable to extreme occurrences such as cloudbursts, flash floods, landslides, and earthquakes.
  • An incompatible form of growth in the hills, typified by major hydroelectric projects and large-scale construction projects requiring forest destruction and river damming, is a recipe for disaster.

Global Warming’s Effects on Himalayan Ecology:

  • The threat to environment has multiplied because to the complete disregard for fragile topography and climate-sensitive planning.
  • Glacier melting causes flooding and has an impact on the local society.
  • Forest fires have also become more common as the Himalayan region has warmed.
  • Forest conversion to agricultural land, as well as forest exploitation for timber, fodder, and fuel wood, are some of the region’s most serious threats to biodiversity.

Actions That Can Be Taken

Early Warning System:

  • In order to foresee the disaster and advise the local population and tourists, it is critical to have early warning and improved weather forecast systems.

Regional Cooperation:

  • A trans-boundary coalition of Himalayan countries is needed to share and distribute knowledge about the mountains and environmental protection in the region.
  • The most important thing is to assess the current state of the area and develop a sustainable strategy that takes into account the unique needs of this fragile region as well as the impact of the climate crisis.
  • Encourage ecotourism by starting a conversation about the negative effects of commercial tourism and advocating ecotourism.

Sustainable Development:

  • The government should strive for sustainable development rather than development that is harmful to the environment.
  • Before implementing any project, detailed project reports (DPR), environmental impact assessments (EIA), and social impact assessments (SIA) are required.


The Indian state has ignored warnings regarding the fragile Himalayan environment, from huge road development projects in the name of national security to developing cascade hydroelectric power plants, from uncontrolled town expansion to unsustainable tourism.

The need of the hour is for governments to change direction in order to assist in the preservation of natural resources, including human life.


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