1.Aviation industry is rapidly growing but, its facing more Challenges – comment 150 words.


• Highlight the recent expansion of the aviation sector.

• Discuss the different issues affecting the aviation industry.

• Conclude by emphasising the need of aviation reform in the context of expanding economic growth.


India’s civil aviation industry has emerged as one of the country’s fastest-growing industries. It has seen significant transformation since India’s aviation industry was liberalised. The Directorate General of Civil Aviation reports that India’s aviation passenger traffic has increased from 14 million in 2000-01 to 140 million in 2017. Despite this spectacular rise, airlines in India are still struggling to maintain operations due to a variety of structural challenges.


Problems plaguing India’s aviation industry:

Policy paralysis: Governments have failed to develop a long-term vision for the airline industry. The airline business has been allowed to fend for itself, serving the affluent class in a few major cities.

High taxes: There are high taxes on aviation turbine fuel as well as maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO).

Rupee depreciation: Because airlines pay for services in dollars, rupee depreciation and exchange rate changes affect their profitability.

Price-sensitive market: India is a price-sensitive market, making it difficult for rival airlines to raise ticket rates.

The Udan scheme’s viability: UDAN has inspired a slew of new regional airlines to launch and existing operators to expand into regional flight. The Udan system is supported by a fee on metro riders. The money raised is then utilised to finance Udan routes. According to recent indicators, if all Udan routes bid on are flown, there will most certainly be a financing gap.

The government authorises 100 percent FDI in airlines but limits it to 49 percent if a foreign carrier wants to invest in an Indian company. Aviation is a capital-intensive industry, and FDI restrictions impede it from adopting new technology and best practises.

Route Dispersal Guidelines (RDG), which require airlines to fly a set percentage of their flights on smaller, less profitable air routes, push up costs and introduce inefficiencies.


As India sets itself to lead and dominate the world stage, its aviation sector must not be forgotten. Especially since this sector functions as a growth multiplier for economic output, jobs, and trade, all of which are enabled by improved connectivity. However, for this expansion to be sustainable, legislative interventions are required. The National Civil Aviation Policy, 2016, was a positive beginning in this regard, but the aviation sector need additional revisions in existing rules to solve the widespread difficulties.

Essay writing

1.Diversity May Be the Hardest Thing For A Society to Live With, and Perhaps The Most Dangerous Thing For a Society To Be Without”

Structure of the Essay:


You can start the introduction through following ways:

  • Start with a general introduction/anecdote/an example/a short story/a poem/a quote/a recent event or trend etc which can help in describing the need for self-reliance.
  • When the Parsis requested asylum, Jadi Rana motioned to a vessel of milk filled to the very brim to signify that his kingdom was already full and could not accept refugees. However, one of the Parsi priest added a pinch of sugar to the milk, thus indicating that they would not bring the vessel to overflowing and indeed make the lives of the citizens sweeter. Jadi Rana gave shelter to the emigrants and permitted them to practice their religion and traditions freely. In India society, diversity permeates all aspect of socio-cultural life, both temporally and spatially

Thesis Statement:

  • It is a transition statement between introduction and body of the essay.
  • In thesis statement, you should write outline of the body with your own arguments. You should prove these arguments in body of the essay with relevant examples.

Body of the essay:

  • Manifestation of India’s Socio-cultural diversity
    • Racial Diversity
    • Geographical Diversity
    • Caste Diversity
    • Language Diversity
    • Family Diversity
    • Food Habits, Dress Code, Music, Festivals
    • Political diversity
  • Debate on socio-culture diversity
    • Innate to human nature
    • Opening and broadening of mental horizon; Intellectual growth
    • Recourse to debates and discussion for solving disputes
    • Economic growth
    • Prudent and effective solution to modern day problems
    • Impetus to foreign policy
    • Development of Syncretic culture
    • Development of Syncretic culture
  • Unity in Diversity
    • Geographical Unity
    • Political Unity
    • Religious Unity
    • Cultural Unity


In-spite of the challenges posed by diversity, there can be no doubt on the role played by socio-cultural diversity in sustaining and developing Indian society. Problem is not of diversity per se, but the handling of diversity in India society. The problems of regionalism, communalism, ethnic conflicts etc. have arisen because the fruits of development haven’t been distributed equally or the cultures of some groups haven’t been accorded due recognition.


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