Naga Team Continues Talks On Constitution


The Government of India is ready to incorporate the Yehzabo, the Naga Constitution, into the Indian Constitution and has agreed for a civil and cultural flag for the Nagas.


GS II- Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Who are the Nagas and what is the Naga Issue?
  2. Peace Initiatives with the Naga
  3. Issues
  4. NSCN-IM
  5. NSCN-IM stand and the deadlock

Has the GoI agreed to this?

  • The Centre is clear that there cannot be two Constitutions and two flags in the country.
  • The Yehzabo will be incorporated into the Indian Constitution by presenting a Bill in Parliament.
  • As far as flag is concerned, it will only be used for civil and cultural functions, but not in any government function.

Who are the Nagas and what is the Naga Issue?

  • The Nagas are not a single tribe, but an ethnic community, belonging to Indo-Mongoloid Family, that comprises several tribes who live in the state of Nagaland and its neighbourhood.
  • There are nineteen major Naga tribes, namely, Aos, Angamis, Changs, Chakesang, Kabuis, Kacharis, Khain-Mangas, Konyaks, Kukis, Lothas (Lothas), Maos, Mikirs, Phoms, Rengmas, Sangtams, Semas, Tankhuls, Yamchumgar and Zeeliang.
  • The key demand of Naga groups has been a Greater Nagalim (sovereign statehood) i.e., redrawing of boundaries to bring all Naga-inhabited areas in the Northeast under one administrative umbrella.
  • The Naga inhabited areas include various parts of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Assam and Myanmar.
  • The demand also includes the separate Naga Yezabo (Constitution) and Naga national flag.

Peace Initiatives with the Naga

  • Shillong Accord (1975): A peace accord was signed in Shillong in which the NNC leadership agreed to give up arms. However, several leaders refused to accept the agreement, which led to the split of NNC.
  • Ceasefire Agreement (1997): The NSCN-IM signed a ceasefire agreement with the government to stop attacks on Indian armed forces. In return, the government would stop all counter-insurgency offensive operations.
  • Framework Agreement (2015): In this agreement, the Government of India recognised the unique history, culture and position of the Nagas and their sentiments and aspirations. The NSCN also appreciated the Indian political system and governance. However, the details of the agreement are yet to be released by the government.
  • Recently, the State government decided to prepare the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland but later due to pressure from various fractions, the decision was put on hold.
  • The 2015 agreement apparently made the peace process inclusive but it created suspicion about the central government exploiting divisions within the Nagas on tribal and geopolitical lines.
  • The issue of integration of contiguous Naga-inhabited areas of Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in view of the demand for territorial unification of ‘Greater Nagalim’ will trigger violent clashes in the different affected states.
  • Another major hindrance to the peace process in Nagaland is the existence of more than one organisation, each claiming to be representative of the Nagas.


  • The Isaak Muivah faction of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (IM), one of the largest Naga groups fighting for an independent Naga homeland.
  • They have been engaged in guerrilla warfare against successive Indian administrations since the 1950s.
  • One of the main demands of NSCN-IM has been the creation of a sovereign Naga territory that includes Naga-inhabited parts of neighbouring states like Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh as well as a portion of Burma across the international border, and leaders from those states have long been wary of any accord that would allow the annexation of parts of their land.
  • Lack of infrastructure development in the region is one of the perceived reasons for the decades’ long insurgency.
  • In 2015, NSCN-IM had entered into an historic Peace Accord (Framework Agreement) with Union government to bring lasting peace in Nagaland.

NSCN-IM stand and the deadlock

  • The Naga talks have hit the deadlock since early 2020 as the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-(Isak Muivah) (NSCN-IM) leader has refused to hold any dialogue with interlocutor and Nagaland Governor R.N Ravi.
  • The Governor’s letter to the Nagaland Chief Minister saying “over half a dozen organized armed gangs were brazenly running their respective ‘so called governments’ challenging the legitimacy of the State government” had caused the situation to worsen.
  • There was also an order asking government officials to declare if their family members or relatives are members of any “underground organisation.”
  • NSCN-IM signed a ceasefire agreement with the Centre in 2001, hence they took offense with the “organized armed gangs” view.
  • And also given that in a tribal set-up most people are related to each other, asking government officials to declare regarding their family members was seen as insensitive.
  • Following the failure of the breakdown of communication between the NSCN-IM and the Nagaland Governor, the Union Home Minister deputed a team of Intelligence Bureau officials to continue the discussions with the NSCN-IM.

Places of Worship Act


Recently, The Supreme Court set the ball rolling on a series of petitions challenging the validity of the Places of Worship Act of 1991, a parliamentary law that protects the identity and character of religious places as on August 15, 1947.

  • A Bench led by Chief Justice of India said the petitions would be listed before an appropriate three-judge Bench of the apex court, which may consider the possibility of referring the challenge to the 1991 law to a Constitution Bench of five judges.


GS I- Communalism, Secularism, Regionalism, GS II- Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is the Places of Worship Act?
  2. What are its provisions?
  3. When was this law passed?
  4. Issues with the law
  5. What is the recent uproar about?
  6. What did the Supreme Court say about the Places of Worship Act in its Ayodhya judgment?

What is the Places of Worship Act?

The long title describes it as “An Act to prohibit conversion of any place of worship and to provide for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on the 15th day of August, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.”

What are its provisions?
  • Section 3 of the Act bars the conversion, in full or part, of a place of worship of any religious denomination into a place of worship of a different religious denomination — or even a different segment of the same religious denomination.
  • Section 4(1) declares that the religious character of a place of worship “shall continue to be the same as it existed” on August 15, 1947.
  • Section 4(2) says any suit or legal proceeding with respect to the conversion of the religious character of any place of worship existing on August 15, 1947, pending before any court, shall abate — and no fresh suit or legal proceedings shall be instituted.
    • The proviso to this subsection saves suits, appeals and legal proceedings that are pending on the date of commencement of the Act, if they pertain to the conversion of the religious character of a place of worship after the cut-off date.
  • Section 5 stipulates that the Act shall not apply to the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid case, and to any suit, appeal or proceeding relating to it.

When was this law passed?

  • The Act was brought by the Congress government of Prime Minister P V Narasimha Rao at a time when the Ram temple movement was at its peak.
  • The Babri Masjid was still standing, but L K Advani’s rath yatra, his arrest in Bihar, and the firing on kar sevaks in Uttar Pradesh had raised communal tensions.
Issues with the law
  • The law has been challenged on the ground that it bars judicial review, which is a basic feature of the Constitution.
  • It imposes an “arbitrary irrational retrospective cutoff date”, and abridges the right to religion of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and Sikhs.
What is the recent uproar about?
  • The Varanasi temple-mosque complex clearly demonstrates that the mosque is built on top of a dilapidated temple.
  • The appearance of Hindu idols within the mosque is captured on video.
  • Right-wing propagandists emphasise Aurangzeb’s goal in leaving the temple’s remnants to remind communities of their historical fate and to remind future rulers of their prior majesty and power.

What did the Supreme Court say about the Places of Worship Act in its Ayodhya judgment?

  • The constitutional validity of the 1991 Act was not under challenge, nor had it been examined before the Supreme Court Bench that heard the Ramjanmaboomi-Babri Masjid title suit.
  • Even so, the court, while disagreeing with certain conclusions drawn by the Allahabad High Court about the Act, made specific observations in its support.
  • The Places of Worship Act imposes a non-derogable obligation towards enforcing our commitment to secularism under the Indian Constitution.
  • The law is hence a legislative instrument designed to protect the secular features of the Indian polity, which is one of the basic features of the Constitution.
  • The Places of Worship Act is a legislative intervention which preserves non-retrogression as an essential feature of our secular values.

Sharp Slide In Global Oil Prices


Brent crude prices have fallen sharply over the last ten days, the prices have declined to under USD 90 per barrel.

  • While they were trading at around $110 per barrel in July,2022.


GS III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development)

Dimensions of the article:

  1. What led to the sharp slide in Global Crude Oil Prices?
  2. What does this mean for India?

What led to the sharp slide in Global Crude Oil Prices?

  • The crude prices fell sharply by around 4% and the decline has come despite OPEC’s announcement to cut supply by 100,000 barrels per day beginning October in a bid to prop up the prices.
  • While the prices have been softening over the last couple of months, the recent sharp decline is due to renewed fears of recession in Europe and decline in demand from China, which brought in new Covid lockdown measures amid weakening factory activity.
    • There is a concern that these factors could dent the future demand of crude oil.
  • Market participants say OPEC’s decision to cut production is in itself an indication that it expects decline in demand and further softening in prices.

What does this mean for India?

Impact of Rise in Global Oil Price:
  • India imports nearly 85% of its crude requirement and in the year ended March 2022, the oil import bill doubled to $119 billion on account of rise in prices.
    • The rise in import bill not only leads to inflation and rise in current account deficit and fiscal deficit, but also weakens the rupee against the dollar and hurts stock market sentiment.
  • A rise in crude oil price also has an indirect impact on India as it leads to a rise in edible oil prices, coal prices and also that of fertiliser as they use gas as the feedstock. Gas accounts for 80% of all fertiliser production costs.
  • So if a rise in crude oil prices could lead to a much enhanced import burden, it also leads to reduction in demand in the economy which hurts growth. It could also lead to higher fiscal deficit if the government chooses to bear the burden by way of subsidies.
Impact of Fall in Global Price:
  • In that sense, a softening in crude oil prices is a big relief for all stakeholders – the government, the consumers and even the corporates.
  • If oil continues to trade at lower levels, it will result in lower inflation levels, higher disposable incomes and thereby higher economic growth.

Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan


Recently, the President of India launched the `Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan’.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan
  2. About Tuberculosis

About Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan

  • It has been envisioned to bring together all community stakeholders to support those on TB treatment and accelerate the country’s progress towards TB elimination.
  • This is aimed at working towards TB elimination from the country by 2025.
  • Under the scheme, individuals, NGOs and corporates can adopt TB patients by committing support for 1-3 years. 
  • To join the initiative, they have to register on the site, which has an anonymous list of TB patients, categorized according to the primary health centres, blocks, districts and states. 
  • The sponsors can select the number of patients as per their capacity.

Components of the scheme: 

  • The Ni-kshay Mitra initiative which forms a vital component of the `Abhiyaan’ is also launched along with the Abhiyaan. 
    • This portal provides a platform for donors to provide various forms of support to those undergoing TB treatment. 
  • The three-pronged support includes:
    • Nutritional, 
    • Additional diagnostic,
    • Vocational support. 
Monthly Food Basket: 

About Tuberculosis

  • TB remains the world’s deadliest infectious killer.
  • Each day, over 4000 people lose their lives to TB and close to 30,000 people fall ill with this preventable and curable disease
  • TB is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs.
  • Transmission: TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • Treatment: TB is a treatable and curable disease. It is treated with a standard 6 month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer.
  • Anti-TB medicines have been used for decades and strains that are resistant to 1 or more of the medicines have been documented in every country surveyed.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful, first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs.
  • Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs, often leaving patients without any further treatment options.

Cyborg Cockroaches


Japanese scientists have devised a system that can create cyborg cockroaches that are part insect and part machine.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Cyborg cockroaches
  2. How is it powered?

About Cyborg cockroaches

  • Cyborg cockroaches’ movements are controlled by tiny integrated circuits.
  • They will be able to conduct surveillance in procedures like urban search and rescue, environmental monitoring and inspection of areas dangerous to humans.
  • By equipping the cockroaches with small wireless control modules, handlers will be able to control the insect’s legs remotely for long periods of time.
  • The team used Madagascar cockroaches, which are not only the largest species of cockroaches, reaching an estimated 6 cm, but are also known for making hissing sounds when disturbed, which they make by expelling air from the openings on their back.

How is it powered?

  • The researchers also designed the system to be rechargeable, by powering it with a super thin 0.004 mm solar cell module that is installed on the dorsal side of the cockroach’s abdomen.
  • This was done to ensure that the battery remains charged and the cockroach can be controlled for long periods of time, while simultaneously ensuring that the movement remains unhindered.


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