Guru Nanak Dev Jayanti

In News

  • The President of India has greeted fellow-citizens on the eve of Guru Nanak Dev Jayanti.

About Guru Nanak Jayanti 

  • It is also known as Gurpurab and is the most important festival for the followers of the religion of Sikhism as the birth anniversary of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev.
  • The festival is celebrated on the day of Kartik Poornima, which is the fifteenth lunar day in the month of Kartik according to the Hindu calendar, and usually falls in the month of November by the Gregorian calendar.

Guru Nanak Dev

  • Early Life:
    • He was born on April 15, 1469, at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi, near Lahore, which is in the Sheikhpura district of modern-day Pakistan.
    • He was born into a middle-class Hindu family and raised by his parents, Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta. 
  • Founder of Sikhism:
    • He was the first of the 10 Sikh Gurus and the founder of Sikhism in the 15th century.
    • He started writing the Guru Granth Sahib and completed 974 hymns.
  • His Teachings:
    • He advocated the ‘Nirguna’ (devotion to and worship of formless divine) form of bhakti.
    • Guru Nanak Dev Ji spread the message of ‘Ek Omkar’ which means that God is one and is present everywhere.
    • He set up rules for congregational worship (Sangat) involving collective recitation. 
    • Guru Nanak Dev Ji also gave the message of humility and service to mankind. 
    • His verses also preach selfless service to humanity, prosperity and social justice for all, irrespective of differences. 
    • He inspired us to practise love, unity and brotherhood
    • One should adopt eternal values like truth, sacrifice and moral conduct from the teachings of ‘Japji Sahib’
    • Guru Nanak travelled across South Asia and the Middle East to spread his teachings. 
    • The messages of ‘Kirat Karo’ and ‘Vand Chhako’ inspire us to live with honesty and share the available resources with others. 
  • Steps in his honour:
    • Nankana Sahib: 
      • A Gurdwara was built at his birthplace in the city now known as Nankana Sahib. It is located in the Punjab province of Pakistan
    • Kartarpur corridor: 
      • The corridor was built to commemorate the 550th birth anniversary celebrations of Guru Nanak Dev, founder of Sikhism on 12th November 2019. 
      • It is one of the holiest places for Sikhs where Baba Guru Nanak Dev Ji settled and preached for the last 18 years of his life.
Why is Guru Nanak Dev considered the world’s most notable and revered pedestrian?Guru Nanak Dev travelled far and wide during the 15th and 16th centuries to spread the message of oneness and to break barriers across faiths by engaging in spiritual dialogues.He travelled in all directions to show the path of love, equality, humanity, and selfless service to mankind. From Mecca to Haridwar, from Sylhet to Mount Kailash, Guru Nanak visited hundreds of interfaith sites related to Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, and Jainism throughout his journeys (also called udaasis). He made walking an integral part of the “Sikh culture”. Each gurdwara now has “parikrama”Most of his journeys were made on foot with his companion Bhai Mardana. He travelled in all four directions. At some sites, gurdwaras were constructed to commemorate his visit. Later his travels were documented in texts called ‘janamsakhis’. These sites are now spread across nine nations as per current geographical divisions — India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, China (Tibet), Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan — and some are even inaccessible due to travel restrictions or being located in conflict zones

National Population Register

In News

  • Recently, the annual report of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) was released.

More about the news

  • About NPR:
    • The NPR, first prepared in 2010 and updated in 2015 by collecting information of all usual residents of the country. 
    • The report said that the NPR is prepared under various provisions of the Citizenship Rules, 2003, framed under the Citizenship Act, 1955
  • Updating NPR:
    • The report underlined the need to update the National Population Register (NPR) across the country.
      • The NPR that has a database of 115 crore residents is to be updated along with the first phase of Census that has been indefinitely postponed due to COVID-19.
    • Why?
      • In 2015, a few fields such as name, gender, date and place of birth, place of residence and father’s and mother’s name were updated and Aadhaar, mobile and ration card numbers were collected. 
      • This update to NRC is required to incorporate the changes due to birth, death, and migration for which demographic and other particulars of each family and individual are to be collected.
  • Updation through self-enumeration:
    • MHA said NPR could be updated through self-enumeration as it is proposed to allow residents to update their own data fields after following some authentication protocols on a web portal.
  • Linking with NRC & CAA:
    • NRC:
      • It has been opposed by many Opposition-ruled States as the register, according to Citizenship Rules 2003, is the first step towards the compilation of a National Register of Citizens (NRC).
    • CAA:
      • After the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 (CAA) was passed, there were apprehensions that if and when a country-wide NRC is done, non-Muslims excluded from the proposed citizens’ register will benefit while excluded Muslims will have to prove their citizenship
        • The government has denied that CAA and NRC are linked
      • The report, a compilation of all the achievements and functions of the ministry, does not mention the CAA.
National Register of Citizens (NRC)A register: National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses or holdings in serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein. Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA): This NRC was prepared under a directive from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).States with NRC: At present, only Assam has such a register and the exercise may be extended to other states as well. Nagaland is already creating a similar database known as the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants.Citizenship Amendment Act 2019. Major Provisions of Act:The 2019 CAA amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 allowing Indian citizenship for Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities who fled from the neighboring Muslim majority countries of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014 due to “religious persecution or fear of religious persecution”However, the Act excludes Muslims. Under CAA 2019 amendment, migrants who entered India by December 31, 2014, and had suffered “religious persecution or fear of religious persecution” in their country of origin, were made eligible for citizenship by the new law. These types of migrants will be granted fast track Indian citizenship in six years. The amendment also relaxed the residence requirement for naturalisation of these migrants from eleven years to five.

About the National Population Register (NPR)

  • About:
    • The NPR is a database containing a list of all usual residents of the country. 
  • Objective:
    • Its objective is to have a comprehensive identity database of people residing in the country. 
  • How is NPR generated?
    • House listing:
      • It is generated through house-to-house enumeration during the “house-listing” phase of the census, which is held once in 10 years. 
        • The last census was in 2011.
    • Acknowledgement slip:
      • Once the basic details of the head of the family are taken by the enumerator, an acknowledgement slip will be issued. 
      • This slip may be required for enrolment in NPR, whenever that process begins.
    • Population Register:
      • And, once the details are recorded in every local (village or ward), sub-district (tehsil or taluk), district and State level, there will be a population register at each of these levels. 
      • Together, they constitute the National Population Register.
  • A usual resident:
    • A usual resident for the purposes of NPR is a person who has resided in a place for six months or more, and intends to reside there for another six months or more.
  • Difference between NPR & census:
    • The census involves a detailed questionnaire.
      • There were 29 items to be filled up in the 2011 census aimed at eliciting the particulars of every person, including age, sex, marital status, children, occupation, birthplace, mother tongue, religion, disability and whether they belonged to any Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe. 
    • On the other hand, the NPR collects basic demographic data and biometric particulars.
    • While the census is legally backed by the Census Act, 1948, the NPR is a mechanism outlined in a set of rules framed under the Citizenship Act, 1955.
Link between NPR & AadharThere was a conflict between the Union Home Ministry, which administers the NPR, and UIDAI. Impression was left that there was duplication of work, as both involved gathering personal particulars, including biometric data.Ultimately, they agreed that both databases will exist with different objectives, and that each will use the other’s biometric data. Those already enrolled for Aadhaar need not give their biometric details again during NPR. At the same time, data captured for NPR would be sent to UIDAI for “de-duplication”. In case of discrepancy between Aadhaar and NPR data, the latter would prevail.

Cold Peace between India and Pakistan

In News

  • In recent years, there is now a certain ‘cold peace’ between India and Pakistan relations.

More about the news:

  • India-Pakistan relations have entered an age of minimalism:  
    • There is very little bilateral contact today, even fewer expectations of a bilateral breakthrough.
    • And yet, there is a certain ‘cold peace’ between the traditional rivals — on the Line of Control, inside Kashmir and in the verbal exchanges between the two sides. 
  • Relations till now:
    • India-Pakistan relations of the kind we have been used to over several decades now – characterised by intense engagement, high value terror attacks, Indian responses, a breakdown of talks, and eventual resumption of talks; rinse and repeat.

Bilateral Relations between India-Pakistan 

  • Attempts for engagement: 
    • India has made a number of attempts to build normal neighbourly relations with  Pakistan.
    • The External Affairs Minister’s (EAM)  also took the initiative to propose a Comprehensive Bilateral Dialogue in December 2015. 
  • Trade and Commerce:
    • Bilateral rade:
      • 2020-2021:
        • The total bilateral trade between India and Pakistan was USD 329 million in 2020-2021. 
      • 2021-2022:
        • This has gone up to USD 514 million in 2021-2022, as per the ministry of commerce, with Indian exports outnumbering imports from Pakistan.
    • Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status:
      • India had accorded MFN status to Pakistan in 1996. 
      • A Pakistan cabinet decision of November 02, 2011 to reciprocate remains unimplemented
  • Humanitarian:
    • In 2017, India suggested to Pakistan to revive the mechanism of the Joint Judicial Committee which looks into humanitarian issues of fishermen and prisoners in each other’s custody.
  • Cultural: 
    • The visit to religious shrines between India and Pakistan is governed by the  Bilateral Protocol on Visits to Religious Shrines signed between India and Pakistan in  1974. 
    • Kartarpur Corridor: 
      • Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated the Kartarpur Sahib  Corridor in 2019 on the occasion of the 550th birth Anniversary of Guru  Nanak Dev Ji and flagged-off the first group of pilgrims to Gurudwara Kartarpur Sahib.

Major Issues between both the countries 

  • India’s relations with Pakistan are the most complex of its ties with its neighbours. 
  • Terrorism:
    • Terrorism emanating from territories under Pakistan’s control remains a core  concern in bilateral relations.
    • Pulwama cross-border terror attack: 
      • In a heinous and despicable act of cross  border terror attack on the convey of Indian security forces in Pulwama, Jammu &  Kashmir in 2019, 40 security personnel were martyred
  • On J&K:
    • India’s revocation of the special status of J&K:
      • The relations between the two countries have remained strained for years now and took a turn for the worse in August 2019 when India revoked the special status of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Pakistan’s stand:
      • In 2019, Pakistan announced unilateral measures, including the downgrading of diplomatic relations, suspension of bilateral trade and review of bilateral agreements with India. 
    • India has urged Pakistan to review its unilateral actions in respect of relations with India so that normal channels of diplomatic communications are preserved.
  • Pakistan’s ambitions and Demands:
    • It aims to change the status quo in Jammu and Kashmir with a three-pronged strategy: 
      • Violent destabilization of Kashmir while raising human rights concerns in global forums, 
      • Reopening the Kashmir question that India believed was settled after the 1971 war, and 
      • Leveraging global nuclear concerns to force Indian concessions on Kashmir. 

Possible reasons cited for the ‘cold peace’ between the Nations

  • Historical legacy:
    • The relationship is the history of missed opportunities, failed attempts at conflict resolution, political inability to resolve conflicts and the lack of political will on either side. 
  • Hate & populism:
    • For all the talk about conflict resolution, there is no easy way to resolve their complicated conflicts. 
    • Resolving the bilateral conflict resolution may get harder due to rising populism fuelled by online hate. 
  • No conflict resolutions till now:
    • None of the key bilateral conflicts between the countries has been resolved since the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960.
    • So, the traditional logic in India that it should first settle its conflicts with Pakistan and then move on to addressing the bigger challenges may not be applicable.
  • Defending Kashmir:
    • There is now a certain confidence in India today that it does not need to talk to Pakistan to ensure peace inside Kashmir.
    • There is growing confidence in India about its capability to defend Kashmir against Pakistani aggression or terror attacks.
  • Other geopolitical challenges:
    • Both sides today are preoccupied with other geopolitical challenges — Pakistan with the Taliban-led Afghanistan, and India with an aggressive China on its borders.

Way Ahead

  • The frequent acknowledgement by both countries that they have much to gain from trade and connectivity in economic areas has taken a back seat to revival of tensions, the shadow of unresolved disputes and geopolitical considerations by both sides.
  • Although issues between Pakistan and India are long-standing, progress is possible. 
  • Leaders on both sides of the border need to develop a national consensus in support of the peace process and bring all stakeholders including the core constituencies, media and opposition parties on board

The Uniform Civil Code

In News

  • The Gujarat government had decided to form a committee for the implementation of the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in the state.
    • Gujarat is the state after Uttarakhand to constitute a committee of experts on the UCC. 

Origin of Uniform Civil Code

  • The origin of the UCC dates back to colonial India when the British government submitted its report in 1835 stressing the need for uniformity in the codification of Indian law relating to crimes, evidence, and contracts, specifically recommending that personal laws of Hindus and Muslims be kept outside such codification.
  • Increase in legislation dealing with personal issues in the far end of British rule forced the government to form the B N Rau Committee to codify Hindu law in 1941.
    • The task of the Hindu Law Committee was to examine the question of the necessity of common Hindu laws.
  • The 1937 Act was reviewed and the committee recommended a civil code of marriage and succession for Hindus. 
  • Debate in constituent assembly
    • The clause on UCC generated substantial debate in the Constituent Assembly about whether it should be included as a fundamental right or a directive principle. 
    • The matter had to be settled by vote; with a majority of 5:4, wherein the sub-committee on fundamental rights headed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel decided that securing a UCC was not within the scope of fundamental rights.  
      • Some also felt that India was too diverse a country for the UCC.
      • UCC would be against the freedom of religion as the Constitution allowed the government to make laws covering secular activities related to religious practices if they were intended for social reform. 

What Is Uniform Civil Code?

  • Meaning
    • The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) calls for the formulation of one law for India, which would be applicable to all religious communities in matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption.
  • Article 44 of the Constitution
    • The code comes under Article 44 of the Constitution, which states that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
    • The objective of Article 44 of the Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution was to address the discrimination against vulnerable groups and harmonise diverse cultural groups across the country. 
    • Part IV (Articles 36-51) covers a wide range of principles, including apart from the UCC:
      • The securing of equal justice and free legal aid to citizens (Art 39A)
      • Participation of workers in the management of industries (Art 43A)
      • Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry (Art 48)
      • Protection and improvement of the environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife (Art 48A)
      • Promotion of international peace and security (Art 51)
  • What will Uniform Civil Code do?
    • When enacted the code will work to simplify laws that are segregated at present on the basis of religious beliefs like the Hindu code bill, Sharia law, and others.
    • The code will simplify the complex laws around marriage ceremonies, inheritance, succession, adoptions making them one for all.
Difference between civil laws and criminal lawsWhile the criminal laws in India are uniform and applicable equally on all, no matter what their religious beliefs are, the civil laws are influenced by faith. Swayed by religious texts, the personal laws which come into effect in civil cases have always been implemented according to constitutional norms.

Merits of uniform civil code

  • If there is plurality in already codified civil and criminal laws, how can the concept of one nation, one law be applied to diverse personal laws of various communities.
  • It helps and accelerates national integration.
  • Overlapping provisions of law could be avoided.
  • Litigation due to personal law would decrease.
  • Sense of oneness and the national spirit would be roused.
  • The country would emerge with new force and power to face any odds finally defeating the communal and the divisionist forces.
What is the relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles?The Fundamental Rights lie at the heart of the Constitution, and are justiciable that is, they are legally enforceable in a court of law.In its landmark Minerva Mills’s judgment (1980), the Supreme Court held: the Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles).To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution.Article 31C says that if a law is made to implement any of the Directive Principles, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the Fundamental Rights under Articles 14 and 19. 

Way forward 

  • The Supreme Court in 2019 hailed Goa as a shining example of an Indian State which has a functioning UCC. 
  • The Supreme Court in various judgments has called for the implementation of the UCC.
    • In its Mohd. Ahmed Khan vs Shah Bano Begum judgement of 1985, where a divorced Muslim woman demanded maintenance from her former husband, the apex court while deciding whether to give prevalence to the CrPc or the Muslim personal law, called for the implementation of the UCC.
    • The Court also called on the government to implement the UCC in the 1995 Sarla Mudgal judgement as well as in the Paulo Coutinho vs Maria Luiza Valentina Pereira case (2019).
  • The Law Commission said that a unified nation did not necessarily need uniformity, adding that secularism could not contradict the plurality prevalent in the country.
  • Israel, Japan, France and Russia are strong today because of their sense of oneness which we have yet to develop and propagate

6 Years of Demonetisation

In News

A recent survey has revealed that even 6 years after demonetisation, people prefer cash transactions, especially in real estate deals.

Key Findings

  • Purpose of Demonetisation: 
    • The process of demonetisation was conducted six years ago in order to curb the circulation of black money. 
  • Failed Move: 
    • The step has faltered in the long run, as several surveys reveal that despite the Centre’s effort to make a ‘cashless’ economy, currency in people’s hands have only increased in the past six years. 
  • Rise in Cash Transactions: 
    • Digital transactions continue to rise in the economy and yet there is a 44% rise in cash transactions, especially in real estate deals. 
    • The survey has further revealed that 76% people use cash to buy groceries, eat out and get food delivery. 
    • Other common areas of cash usage include home repairs, beauty services.
    • Property transactions emerged as the top area of cash usage from a value per transaction standpoint in the 2021 survey. 
      • 44% of those surveyed who bought a property in the last 7 years said cash was part of the transaction. 
    • One of the other areas where cash use was reported to be high by people in the 2021 survey was for home repairs, salaries of household staff, and beauty services
      • 76% households surveyed also stated that they used cash for groceries, eating out and food delivery transactions in the last 12 months.
  • Testing group: 
    • The survey received over 32,000 responses from citizens located in 342 districts of India. 68% respondents were men while 32% respondents were women. 44% respondents were from tier 1, 34% from tier 2 and 22% respondents were from tier 3, 4 and rural districts. 
  • People using UPI: 
    • The overall universe of people using services like the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is still 250 million or about a fifth of the population. 


  • About:
    • On 8th November 2016, the Government of India announced the demonetisation of all ?500 and ?1,000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series. 
    • It also announced the issuance of new ?500 and ?2,000 banknotes in exchange for the demonetised banknotes.
    • There were three main economic objectives behind demonetisation:
      • Fighting black money, 
      • Fake notes and 
      • Creating a cashless economy by pushing digital transactions. 
  • Outcomes of the exercise:
    • Black money:
      • Among those targets, the biggest one was tackling black money. 
      • Black money refers to cash that is not accounted for in the banking system or cash for which tax has not been paid to the state.
      • According to RBI data, almost the entire chunk of money (more than 99 percent) that was invalidated came back into the banking system. 
      • Of the notes worth Rs 15.41 lakh crore that were invalidated, notes worth Rs 15.31 lakh crore returned.
      • Thus, data suggests that demonetisation was a failure in unearthing black money in the system. Meanwhile, instances of black money seizures continue.
    • Fake Notes:
      • RBI’s annual report, submitted that Rs.15.44 lakh crore worth of currency was demonetised. 
      • The withdrawn money amounted to 86.4% of the currency in circulation at the time. Only Rs.16,000 crore out of the Rs.15.44 lakh crore was not returned. 
      • Only .0027% fake currency was “captured” following demonetisation.
    • Digitisation of economy:
      • As per RBI report, demonetisation has made India a lesser cash-based economy. 
      • In the initial days of trouble conducting business in the face of an acute cash crunch, more and more entities had to shift to digital to do business. 
        • After the return of the cash, the growth in digital payment had been modest.
    • Supported in the Pandemic:
      • The creation of digital infrastructure post-demonetisation helped India in coping with the pandemic. 
      • As the tools for faceless transactions were mostly in place, it became easier to move towards contactless transactions.
  • Major Issues associated with the demonetization exercise:
    • No separate Acts:
      • Demonetisation in 1946 and 1978 were implemented through separate Acts debated by Parliament. 
      • In 2016, it was done through a mere notification issued under provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
    • Central Bank had rejected key justifications:
      • The Central Board of the RBI gave its approval to the scheme but also rejected, in writing, two of the key justifications — black money and counterfeit notes.
    • Other:
      • 11 crore people stood in queue to change their own money. 
      • Farming community was at a loss. It was sowing season. 
      • Wholesale markets shut down. Prices crashed. Retail saw a “calamitous” drop in sales. 
      • Industry halted and 15 crore daily labourers were left without work.
      • Some say demonetisation broke the back of the rural economy where cash was dominated and disrupted supply chains. 
      • It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs were lost.


  • Many are still to shift or adopt digital payment systems, maybe because it is more convenient to pay cash for purchase of fruits, vegetables or a few items of grocery from a store, or due to other reasons including voucher payment.
  • While there certainly has been a discernible uptick in digital payments, it is doubtful whether the elaborate exercise to unearth black money — the stated and primary goal of demonetisation — was worth it. 

Five Year programme to set up Early Warning Systems: WMO

In News

  • Recently, the World Meteorological Organisation unveiled a five-year programme to set up early warning systems across the world to save lives and minimise destruction from the growing number of climate disasters.
    • WMO is taking forward the initiative of the India-backed Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).    
What is Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)?The CDRI was launched by the Prime Minister of India during the United Nations Climate Action Summit in 2019 at New York.It is a global partnership of National Governments, UN agencies and programmes, multilateral development banks and financing mechanisms, the private sector, academic and knowledge institutions.It is working towards developing applications of climate forecast and early warning for reducing infrastructure losses and disruption in basic services. It had also come up with a similar plan, focused mainly at the small island states called Infrastructure for Resilient Island States.It was not meant only for early warning systems, but most of the initial interest it had received from the small island states was regarding help in setting up these systems.

About Early Warnings for All initiative    

  • Funding 
    • The programme envisages an investment of $ 3.1 billion between 2023 and 2027.
  • Aim
    • It aims to create the infrastructure and build capacities in early warning systems.
    • It envisions a Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (MHEWS) alerting people about hazardous weather or climate events in advance. 
    • The plan will address key gaps in understanding disaster risk, monitoring and forecasting, rapid communication, and preparedness and response. 
  • Advisory Board
    • To ensure effective implementation, the UN Secretary-General is establishing an Advisory Board which will be co-chaired by the heads of WMO and the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. 
  • Need of such an Initiative? 
    • Around 50 per cent of the world’s population is not protected by multi-hazard early warning systems. 
    • The need for early warning systems is urgent as the number of recorded disasters has increased five-fold, driven in part by human-induced climate change and more extreme weather. 
    • Nearly half the countries in the world, most of them least developed small island states; do not have any early warning systems.

Drawbacks of not having Early warning system 

  • Poor countries at high risk: The people who have barely even contributed to the climate crisis are the most at risk and the least protected. ?
  • Vulnerable communities: in climate hotspots are being blindsided by cascading climate disasters without any means of prior alert.
  • Disaster bigger than war: People in Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the inhabitants of small island states are 15 times more likely to die from climate disasters.  
    • These disasters displace three times more people than war.
  • Disaster mortality: Countries with limited early warning coverage have disaster mortality eight times higher than countries with high coverage. ?

Significance of Early Warning System

  • Early warnings save lives and provide vast economic benefits: just 24 hours notice of an impending hazardous event can cut the ensuing damage by 30 per cent. 
  • The Global Commission on Adaptation had found that spending about $ 800 million on early warning systems could avoid losses up to $ 3-16 billion every year.
  • The number of lives lost has been minimised being limited to 100 due to tropical cyclones during the last 10 years in India and also in all the countries in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea region.

Way forward

  • Even though early warning systems save lives, vulnerable communities have no way of knowing that hazardous weather is on its way.
  • When it comes to climate change adaptation, early warning systems are widely regarded as the low-hanging fruit because they are a relatively cheap and effective way of protecting people and assets
India’s early warning systemIndia has worked to improve early warning systems for all hydro-meteorological events, and installed early warning systems across its east and west coasts.India has reduced mortality from cyclones by up to 90 per cent over the last 15 years.The cyclone warning division (CWD) at India’s meteorological department also acts as a multilateral regional specialised meteorological centre for other countries in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.India is committed towards clean and green energy sources and the National Hydrogen Mission is a leap in that direction.


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