a. Empathy and Compassion:
Compassion and empathy are different concepts, but closely related. Empathy is the ability to not only understand another’s feelings, but also putting yourself in their shoes and associating with what they’re going through in that situation.
Compassion is a deeper level of empathy, demonstrating an actual desire to help the suffering person.
For example, after seeing a ten-year old girl begging at a traffic signal, being empathetic would indicate connecting yourself with her by putting yourself in her place. Compassion would arise when you make arrangements for rescuing her. This would involve steps like approaching an NGO.
b. Impartiality and non-partisanship:
Impartiality in public services means to act solely according to the merits of the case and performing one’s duty without any biases and prejudices. This ensures free and fair decision contributing towards maximum public welfare and duties toward nation building.
Non-partisanship in public services means having a neutral approach especially towards any particular political group, entities, or individuals while performing one’s official duties.
For example, a civil servant is impartial when he/she keeps aside his/her personal biases and treats all citizens as per the rules and regulations of the government scheme that is being implemented.

Being upright and working as per rule of law irrespective of the political pressures demonstrates the quality of non-partisanship.

c. Aptitude and Attitude
Aptitude refers to the competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Aptitude may be physical or mental, and it may be acquired or innate.
Attitude is an expression of a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of a person, place, thing or event.

Attitude determines our reactions to situations. It is a fundamental determinant of our perceptions of, and actions towards all aspects of our social environment.
For example, in “Operation Sulaimani”, a district collector in Kozhikode started an initiative to feed the poor by collaborating with large restaurants (donating extra food). In this case, the attitude of the district collector towards poor is of compassion and the aptitude is his ability to relate with the poor and the rich alike and find an innovative way to collaborate with restaurants.
d. IQ and EQ
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) determines the level of intelligence of a person, based on visual and spatial processing, knowledge of the world, fluid reasoning, working memory and short-term memory, quantitative reasoning etc.
Emotional Quotient (EQ) is a measure of a person’s level of emotional intelligence, which refers to the ability to identify one’s own emotions and those of others, harness and apply them to tasks, and to regulate and manage them. It has attributes such as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management.
For example, in public services, IQ may help a public servant in quickly understanding certain technical subjects such as economic policy while EQ may determine his/her ability to generate consensus and convince different stakeholders on it. Thus, IQ and EQ must go hand in hand.


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