Remote voting for migrant workers

In Context

  • Recently, the Election Commission (EC) announced that it is ready to pilot remote voting for domestic migrants.

About the Remote Electronic Voting Machine (RVM) 

  • About:
    • EC has developed a prototype for a Multi-Constituency Remote Electronic Voting Machine (RVM) that can handle multiple constituencies from a single remote polling booth.
    • It is based on the currently used EVM system.
    • The VVPAT system is expected to work along the same lines with the new technology.
  • Developed by:
    • The RVM is developed with the assistance of Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and the Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL)
  • Characteristics & functioning:
    • The RVMs are stand alone, non-networked systems, which will effectively be providing the voter the same experience as currently used EVMs. 
    • Set up:
      • They will be set up in remote locations outside the state under similar conditions as current polling booths.
    • Single Remote Ballot Unit for multiple constituencies:
      • The unique feature of RVMs is that a single Remote Ballot Unit (RBU) will be able to cater to multiple constituencies (as many as 72) by using a “dynamic ballot display board” instead of the usual printed paper ballot sheet on EVMs. 
    • Ballot Unit Overlay Display:
      • The Ballot Unit Overlay Display (BUOD) will show the requisite candidates based on the constituency number read on the voter’s Constituency card. 
      • A barcode scanning system will be used to read these cards.
  • The voting process will be as follows: 
    • After verifying a voter’s identity, their constituency card will be read with a public display showing the constituency details and candidates. 
    • This will also be displayed privately, on the BUOD in the RVM’s RBU. 
    • The voter will then vote and each vote will be stored constituency-wise in the control unit of the voting machine.
  • Significance:
    • Pilot remote voting for domestic migrants, so they don’t have to travel back to their home states to vote.
    • This comes on the back of EC’s acknowledgement of migration-based disenfranchisement.
    • EC hopes that through this move, it will be able to boost voter turnout and strengthen India’s democratic process.

Issue of migration-based disenfranchisement

  • About:
    • While registered voters do not end up voting for a variety of reasons, domestic migration is a major contributor in the Indian context.
  • Migrant population:
    • As per the 2011 census (the numbers will have risen since then), there are nearly 45.36 crore migrants in India (both intra and inter state) – amounting to approximately 37 per cent of the country’s population. 
    • Migration can be driven by a variety of different reasons from marriage to natural disaster to employment.
  • Disenfranchisement:
    • Voters who are absent from their home locations on the day of polling, even if they wish to vote, are unable to travel to vote due to various reasons.
    • This means that there is a large chunk of the population that is denied its franchise due to exigencies of work or lack of resources to travel.
      • This goes directly against the EC’s “No voter left behind” goal.
  • Election Commission’s Committee:
    • EC had formed a “Committee of Officers on Domestic Migrants”.
    • The committee submitted a report in late 2016 after considering various possible solutions such as internet voting, proxy voting, early voting and postal ballots for migrant workers.
      • However, all of these ideas were rejected due to reasons such as
        • the lack of secrecy of the vote, 
        • the lack of sanctity of one person one vote principle, 
        • issues of accessibility for unlettered voters, etc.
  • Proposal of Remote Electronic Voting Machine (RVM):
    • Thus, a technological solution was proposed (RVM) which relies on the creation of a robust electoral roll and identification mechanisms (to stop duplicate voting), and allow voters to vote remotely, in a safe and controlled environment.
  • Constitutional backing:
    • Article 326 provides – Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of every State shall be on the basis of adult suffrage.
      • Every citizen of India not less than eighteen years of age on such date as may be fixed in that behalf by law and is not otherwise disqualified and shall be entitled to be registered as a voter at any such election. 
    • Remote Voting can help us move closer toward this.


  • Non-uniformity:
    • Migrants are not a uniform and defined class, with fluid identities, locations and situations. 
    • In the context of the transience of migration in India, the problem for the EC is to create an inclusive definition of migrants which at the same time does not open the system up to misuse. 
  • Eligibility & Qualification:
    • EC has yet neither decided upon the eligibility of migrant voters nor the duration that a migrant has to stay outside the home to qualify.
  • Disputable nature of EVMs:
    • In the context of increasing questions being asked about technology-based voting, how do RVMs enter the conversation? 
    • As various countries reject EVMs for paper-based ballots, this move has the potential to raise further questions on the sanctity of the electoral process itself. 
    • While the EC claims that RVMs are as secure as currently used EVMs, more technological components are bound to raise further questions.
  • It may affect elections and campaigning: 
    • Remote voting may theoretically provide an added edge to bigger parties and richer candidates who can campaign across the constituency and beyond.

Way Ahead

  • The existing laws will have to be amended to undertake that gigantic exercise which also requires political consensus.

IndAus Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement

In News

  • The India-Australia Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement (IndAus ECTA) has recently come into effect.
    • The ECTA was signed on April 2, 2022, and was ratified on November 21, 2022.

Significance of the IndAus ECTA

  • Trade:
    • The agreement is expected to double trade between the two countries to $50 billion.
      • The Ind-Aus ECTA provides an institutional mechanism to encourage and improve trade between the two countries. 
      • It covers almost all the tariff lines dealt by India and Australia.
    • Benefits for India: 
      • India will benefit from preferential market access provided by Australia on 100% of its tariff lines, including all the labour-intensive sectors of export interest to India, such as Gems and Jewellery, Textiles, leather, footwear, furniture among other, the commerce ministry said.
    • Benefits for Australia:
      • India will be offering preferential access to Australia on over 70% of its tariff lines, including lines of export interest to Australia, which are primarily raw materials and intermediaries such as coal, mineral ores and wines
    • Protection to few products:
      • Products like agricultural products and the dairy sector – which were very sensitive for India and without which Australia has never done an agreement before – have been protected.
  • Employment generation:
    • It is estimated that an additional 10 lakh jobs would be created in India under ECTA.
  • Visa Quotas:
    • Indian yoga teachers and chefs are set to gain with the annual visa quota.
    • Post-study work visa:
      • Over 1 lakh Indian students would benefit from a post-study work visa (for 18 months to 4 years) under the ECTA. 
  • Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA):
    • The Australian Parliament has also approved an amendment to the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA), a move which would help the Indian IT sector in operating in that market.  
    • It would stop the taxation on the offshore income of Indian firms providing technical support in Australia.
  • The agreement is also likely to increase following:
    • Investment opportunities, 
    • Promotion of exports, 
    • Creation of significant additional employment and 
    • Facilitation of strong bonding between the two countries.

India-Australia Relations

  • Historical:
    • India and Australia established diplomatic relations in the pre-Independence period, with the establishment of India Trade Office in Sydney in  1941. 
    • With the passage of time, the relationship gained momentum towards a strategic relationship, alongside the existing economic engagement.
  •  Strategic partnership:
    • Australia looks at India as an important partner in promoting regional security and stability.
      • This led to upgradation of the bilateral relationship to a Strategic Partnership, including a Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation in 2009
    • Bilateral Engagement:
      • Bilateral mechanisms include high-level visits, Annual Meetings of Prime Ministers, Foreign Ministers’ Framework Dialogue, Joint Trade and Commerce Ministerial Commission, India-Australia ‘2+2’ Foreign Secretaries and Defence Secretaries Dialogue, Defence Policy Talks, Australia-India Education Council, Defence Services Staff Talks, etc.
    • Multilateral Engagement:
      • Both countries have close cooperation in multilateral fora like Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and G20.
      • The Quadrilateral Framework (QUAD) of India and Australia along with the US and Japan emphasize the collective resolve to maintain a free, open and inclusive Indo-Pacific region.
      • They are also part of the Trilateral Supply Chain Initiative and the Indo-Pacific Economic Forum.
  • Bilateral Trade:
    • India is the 5th largest trade partner of Australia with trade in goods and services at A$ 29 billion representing 3.6% share of the total Australian trade in 2017-18, with export at A$ 8  billion and import at A$ 21 billion. 
    • Indian exports:
      • India’s main exports to Australia are Refined Petroleum, medicaments, Railway vehicles including hover-trains, Pearls & Gems, Jewellery, and made-up textile articles.
    • Indian imports:
      • Imports are Coal,  copper ores & concentrate, Gold, vegetables, wool & other animal hair, fruits and nuts, lentils and education-related services. 
  • S&T:
    • An Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF), which was established in 2006, supports scientists in India and Australia to collaborate on leading-edge research.
      • AISRF consists of India  Australia Biotechnology Fund; India-Australia Science & Technology Fund; Grand Challenge  Fund and Fellowship Schemes.
  • Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement:
    • It was signed between the two countries in September 2014 during the visit of the Australian Prime Minister to India.
    • The Australian Parliament passed the Civil Nuclear Transfer to India Bill 2016 which ensures that Uranium mining companies in Australia may fulfil contracts to supply Australian uranium to India for civil use.
  • Defence:
    • In 2014, both sides decided to extend defence cooperation to cover research, development and industry engagement and agreed to hold regular meetings at the level of the Defence Minister to conduct regular maritime exercises and convene regular service-to-service talks
      • The first-ever Bilateral Maritime Exercise, AUSINDEX, was conducted in Visakhapatnam (Bay of Bengal) in September 2015.
    • Exercise Pitch Black:
      • In 2018, the Indian Air Force participated for the first time in the Exercise Pitch Black in Australia.
    • Exercise of the Australian Navy:
      • INS Sahyadri participated in Kakadu, the biennial exercise of the Australian Navy held in 2018, in which 27 nations participated. 
      • The 4th edition of AUSTRAHIND (Special Forces of Army Exercise) was held in September 2019.
  • Indian Community:
    • The Indian community in Australia continues to grow in size and importance, with a population of nearly half seven lakhs.
    • India is now the third-largest source of immigrants to Australia, after the UK and New Zealand and the largest source of skilled professionals for Australia.
      • There is a  constant flow of students and tourists from India. 
    • The growing significance of the community is reflected in the large-scale celebration of Indian festivals in Australia, especially Deepawali.

Ban the sale of single cigarettes

In News

  • Recently, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare, in its report on cancer management, prevention and diagnosis, has recommended a ban on the sale of single sticks of cigarettes.


  • Objective of Report: 
    • The measures endeavour to curb consumption as well as the accessibility of tobacco products, including cigarettes.  
  • Key Findings: 
    • Tobacco consumed in different ways accounts for nearly 50% of all cancers, collectively referred to as tobacco-related cancers — which can be prevented. 
    • Pointing to the National Health Policy’s (2017) endeavour for a relative reduction in current tobacco use by 30% in 2025, it was suggested that it is imperative that the government take effective measures to contain the sale of tobacco products. 
    • India has the lowest prices for tobacco products and therefore it is important to increase taxes on them. 
    • These measures flow from the observation that oral cancer accounts for the highest proportion of cancer cases in the country. 
    • In India, more than 80% of tobacco consumption is in the form of chewing tobacco with or without areca nuts, aggressively marketed as a mouth freshener. 
  • Issue with single stick cigarettes:
    • Single sticks are more economical to acquire than a full pack of cigarettes. 
    • It particularly appeals to adolescents and youth who have limited money in hand. 
    • Single sticks are also preferred by people who may want to take it up for experimentation and have not started smoking on a regular basis.  
    • Single stick sales, owing to their easier accessibility and affordability, can also work as a disincentive to quit smoking.

Consequences of  Tobacco Consumption

  • Health Effects:
    • Tobacco has physical impacts on almost every body part and their functions and increases the risk of cancers, heart diseases and other fertility and reproduction-related problems.
    • Smokers face a 40-50 percent higher risk of developing severe disease deaths from Covid-19.
    • Passive smoking or second-hand smoke threatens the health of those who do not smoke.
  • Environmental effects: According to the WHO
    • 600 million trees are chopped down annually to make cigarettes, 
    • 84 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions are released into the atmosphere, 
    • 22 billion litres of water are used to make cigarettes. 
    • Hazardous substances like arsenic, lead, nicotine and formaldehyde have been identified in cigarette butts, which leach into aquatic environments and soil.
    • Unlike cigarette butts, e-cigarette waste cannot biodegrade even under severe conditions. 
  • Negative Social consequences:
    • Tobacco use has negative social consequences as it affects social interactions and relationships negatively.
  • Financial Burden:
    • It adds to the financial burden as smokers burn through an average of USD 1.4 million in personal costs, including spending on cigarettes and associated medical costs.
  • Involvement of Child Labour and farmers’ exploitation:
    • The tobacco industry exploits farmers and children and deteriorates growers’ health as they are exposed to ill health by nicotine that is absorbed through the skin, as well as exposure to heavy pesticides and tobacco dust.

Global Reduction Efforts

  • Director General’s Special Recognition Awards:
    • Every year, WHO recognizes individuals or organizations in WHO Regions for their accomplishments in the area of tobacco control.
      • Indian Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan has been conferred the award for his efforts to control tobacco consumption in India along with National legislation to ban e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products, in 2019.
  • WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC):
    • It provides a strong, concerted response to the global tobacco epidemic and its enormous health, social, environmental and economic costs.
    • To help countries implement the WHO FCTC, WHO introduced the MPOWER technical package to support the implementation of key strategies, such as raising tobacco taxes, creating smoke-free environments and offering help to quit.
    • FCTC’s measures to combat tobacco use include price and tax measures, large, graphic warnings on tobacco packages, 100 per cent smoke-free public spaces, ban on tobacco marketing, etc.
  • Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 
    • It is a self-administered, school-based survey of students in grades associated with 13 to 15 years of age designed to enhance the capacity of countries to monitor tobacco use among youth and to guide the implementation and evaluation of tobacco prevention and control programs.
  • United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
    • It has both the WHO and the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC as leading participants, has crafted a Model policy for UN agencies on preventing tobacco industry interference, a strong policy to prevent industry tactics operating in the UN and then ensured its implementation at the intergovernmental level.
  • Firewall by WHO:
    • In 2007, WHO established a firewall in 2007 to protect policies from commercial and other vested interests of the tobacco industry.
  • The United Nations Global Compact followed suit, banning the tobacco industry from participation in 2017, flagging the problematic and irreconcilable conflicts between the goals of the UN and an industry that is responsible for more than 8 million deaths per year.
  • Other Steps:
    • In 2008, the UN General Assembly adopted a Resolution for Smoke-free United Nations Premises.
    • In 2012, the United Nations Economic and Social Council called for “system-wide coherence on tobacco control”.

Efforts Taken in India

  • Cigarettes Act, 1975: 
    • Tobacco control legislation in India dates back to the Cigarettes Act, 1975 which mandates the display of statutory health warnings in advertisements and on cartons and cigarette packages.
  • Delhi Prohibition of Smoking and Non-Smokers Health Protection Act: 
    • It was passed in the Delhi assembly in 1997 and became the model for Central Legislation banning smoking in public places in 2002, on the directions of the Supreme Court.
  • Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade, Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act (COTPA) 2003:
    • The comprehensive tobacco control legislation aims to provide smoke-free public places and also places restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion.
  • Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes Bill, 2019: 
    • It prohibits production, manufacture, import, export, transport, sale, distribution, storage and advertisement of e-cigarettes. 
  • Tobacco Quitline Services: 
    • These are toll-free quitline services available in 16 languages and other local dialects from 4 centres.
  • National Health Policy 2017: 
    • It sets an ambitious target of reducing tobacco use by 30 percent by 2025, which has been devised keeping in view the targets for control of NCDs.
  • Ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).
  • National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP)
    • Launched by The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 
    • Currently, the Programme is being implemented in all States/Union Territories covering over 600 districts across the country.
    • Objectives:
      • To bring about greater awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco use and Tobacco Control Laws.
      • To facilitate effective implementation of the Tobacco Control Laws.
  • Tax on Tobacco:
    • Tobacco products fall in the highest GST slab of 28% as it attracts a heavy cess.
    • The total tax burden as a percentage of the final tax-inclusive retail price is about 52.7% for cigarettes, 22% for bidis and 63.8% for smokeless tobacco.
    • Recently, the government set up a panel to prepare a comprehensive tax policy proposal covering all tobacco products from a public health perspective.

Impact of Single Stick Ban

  • In the absence of a vendor licensing regime, the ban on single sticks might not be very effective
  • Also, it is not feasible to enforce a pan-India ban on the sale of loose cigarettes.
  • Banning it may give rise to the use of illegal cigarettes, benefitting only the parallel economy.
  • As for tackling addiction, because cigarettes would not be available everywhere, the potential for recurrence of consumption would reduce
  • While it would be difficult to rescue people who are highly addicted, those less addicted can be rescued.  

Way Ahead

  • Imposing Ban: 
    • The government should levy a ban on the sale of single sticks of cigarettes. 
    • A ban is sought on gutka and pan masala alongside a prohibition on their direct and indirect advertisement.
    • A ban on single-stick sales would compel a potential consumer to buy the entire pack which may not be particularly economical, thus curbing potential experimentation and the scope for regular intake. 
  • Increasing Taxes: 
    • The government should increase taxes on all tobacco products and utilise the acquired revenue for cancer prevention and awareness.
  • Vendor Licensing:
    • Notwithstanding that the proposed move would reduce consumption and sales, the government must also consider instituting vendor licensing.
  • Promoting smoke-free policy:
    • The government abolished all designated smoking areas in airports, hotels and restaurants in addition to encouraging a smoke-free policy in organisations. 
World Health Organisation (WHO) on TobaccoIt has been observed that all forms of tobacco are harmful, and there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco. It also states that smoking cigarettes are the most common way of tobacco use worldwide. By 2030, 7 million annual deaths from smoking are expected to be from low and middle-income countries. The tobacco industry is targeting young people in low and middle-income countries to replace those dying from smoking-related causes.Nicotine in tobacco products is highly addictive, and without cessation support only 4% of users who attempt to quit tobacco consumption will succeed.

National Geospatial Policy 2022

In News

  • The Ministry of Science and Technology has recently notified the National Geospatial Policy 2022.
    • It is a 13-year guideline which aims to promote the country’s geospatial data industry and develop a national framework to use such data for improving citizen services. 
What is Geospatial Technology?Geospatial technology is an emerging technique to study real earth geographic information using Geographical Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and other ground information from various devices and instruments.Geospatial technology correlates an object’s position with its geographic coordinates.ApplicationsThe list of industries where geospatial technology is required extends from ecology, tourism, marine sciences, healthcare, agriculture, and forestry to defence, law enforcement, logistics and transportation.It is used by varied government departments for geospatial technologies like GIS, Remote Sensing, LIDAR, GNSS, Surveying and Mapping, etc. Data on Geospatial Sector India’s geospatial economy is expected to cross Rs 63,000 crore by 2025 at a growth rate of 12.8% and to provide employment to more than 10 lakh people mainly through geospatial start-ups.  

Major Highlights of National Geospatial Policy 2022

  • Aim:
    • It will develop geospatial infrastructures, skills and knowledge, standards, and businesses.
  • 14 National Fundamental Sectoral Geospatial Data Themes:
    • It will be used to address various sectors that support the development of commercial geospatial applications in various sectors including disaster management, mining, forestry and more.
  • Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructure (GKI):
    • Integrated Data and Information Framework: By 2030 the government will look to establish an Integrated Data and Information Framework, under which a Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructure (GKI) will be developed. 
    • National Digital Twin: A high-resolution topographical survey and mapping as well as a high-accuracy Digital Elevation Model for the entire country will be developed by 2035.
      • The digital twin is a virtual replica of a physical asset, process or service. 
  • Institutional Framework:
    • The Government will constitute a Geospatial Data Promotion and Development Committee (‘GDPDC’). 
    • It will be the apex body for formulating and implementing appropriate guidelines, strategies, and programs for the promotion of activities related to the Geospatial sector.
      • Functions of GDPDC
        • Functions will be to take measures to foster innovation and provide leadership and coordination among stakeholders.
        • It will also promote standards necessary to strengthen Geospatial information management so that they can be used to find sustainable solutions to emerging development and security challenges faced by the nation.
      • Rules and Procedure:
        • GDPDC can frame rules and procedures for its business. 
        • In the absence of the Chairperson, Secretary, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India will preside over the Committee meetings. 
        • The Committee will meet at least once every year as arranged by the Chairperson.
  • Vision and Goals:
    • To make India a World Leader in Global Geospatial space with the best in the class ecosystem for innovation.
    • To develop a coherent national framework in the country and leverage it to move towards a digital economy and improve services to citizens.
    • To enable easy availability of valuable Geospatial data collected utilising public funds, to businesses and the public.
    • To have a thriving Geospatial industry in the country involving private enterprise.

Major Challenges

  • Lack of commercial business: India presently does not have enough commercial businesses to capture a significant share of this industry.
  • Absence of a framework: geospatial technology has not been assimilated well enough in governance mechanisms due to the absence of a framework. 
  • Negligible contribution: The full benefits have yet to percolate to the public and neither is there many contributions to the nation’s GDP.
  • Lack of skilled manpower across the entire pyramid is also a major issue.
  • The unavailability of foundation data, especially at high-resolution, is also a constraint.
  • The lack of clarity on data sharing and collaboration prevents co-creation and asset maximisation.
  • There are still no ready-to-use solutions especially built to solve the problems of India. 

Significance of the Policy 

  • Multi-Domain Applications: This technology has applications in every domain of the economy that enables government systems and services, and sustainable national development initiatives, to be integrated using ‘location’ as a common and underpinning reference frame.
  • It is a citizen-centric policy that seeks to strengthen the Geospatial sector to support national development, economic prosperity, and a thriving information economy.
  • SDG: The focus of the Policy is to make Geospatial technology and data as agents of transformation for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals to bring efficiency in all sectors of the economy and instil accountability and transparency at all levels of governance.
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat: The Policy recognizes the importance of locally available and locally relevant Maps and Geospatial Data in improved planning and management of resources and better serving the specific needs of the Indian population.
    • It aims to create an enabling ecosystem thereby providing a conducive environment to Indian Companies that will enable them to make India self-reliant in producing and using their own Geospatial data and compete with foreign companies in the global space.
  • Promoting Start-ups: The Policy enables and supports innovation, creation and incubation of ideas and start-up initiatives in the Geospatial sector that will enable leapfrogging from outdated regulations, technologies, and processes, bridging the Geospatial digital divide and capitalising on the opportunities arising out of continually evolving Technology.

Way Forward

  • Deregulation: There was a need to de-regularise the geospatial data policy in India.
  • Removal of lengthy approvals: Several restrictions like getting licences or prior approvals have now been removed for the companies. 
  • Made-in-India solutions: There would be an increase in the development of made-in-India solutions, which would be backed by modern geospatial technologies.
  • Ease of doing business: The new policy has cleared the way for foreign companies to operate without any ambiguity while empowering Indian companies.  
Related Initiatives SWAMITVA:Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas scheme uses drones to map properties in villages.People in rural areas now have clear evidence of ownership.The South Asia satellites:It is facilitating connection and communication in India’s neighbourhood.Drone sector:India gave a major boost to its drone sector as well as opened its space sector to private entities and 5G technology. Real-time digital payments:India is the world’s number 1 in real-time digital payments. Even the smallest vendors accept and prefer digital payments.PM Gati Shakti Masterplan: It is building multimodal infrastructure. It is powered by geospatial technology.Digital Ocean platform: It is using geo-spatial technology for the management of our oceans. This is crucial for our environment and marine ecosystem. 

Dhanu Yatra

In News

  • The ‘Dhanu Yatra’ festival, considered to be the world’s largest open-air theatre, began recently in Odisha’s Bargarh.
    • The vibrant Dhanu Yatra is associated with the culture of Odisha.

More about the ‘Dhanu Yatra’ festival

  • Origin of the festival:
    • The ‘Dhanu Yatra’, which marks the victory of good over evil, came into existence in Bargarh in 1947-48 as part of the celebration of the country’s Independence and is held annually.
  • About:
    • Spread across a 8 km radius area around the Bargarh municipality, it is the world’s largest open-air theatre, one that finds a mention in the Guinness Book of World Records.
    • The enactments of the play are being performed in many other places in Western Odisha. The major one of these is the original one at Bargarh.
  • The plays in the festival: 
    • Dhanu ceremony:
      • It is about the episode of Krishna and Balaram’s visit to Mathura to witness the Dhanu ceremony organized by their (maternal) uncle Kansa.
    • Beginning & conclusion:
      • The plays in the festival start with the dethroning of Emperor Ugrasen of Mathura by angry Kansa over the marriage of his sister Devaki with Vasudev.
      • The festival will conclude with the death of demon king Kansa and restoration of the throne to Ugrasen.
    • Enactment of Krishna’s life:
      • With the commencement of the festival, Bargarh becomes King Kansa’s Mathura, and Amapali, located about eight km away, becomes Gopapura, where Lord Krishna is said to have spent his childhood. 
      • The Jeera river which flows between the two places becomes the Yamuna river.
      • The rule of Kansa, his death and the exploits of Lord Krishna are enacted in 14 places across the area during the open-air festival. 
    • Relating the act to reality:
      • During his rule in Bargarh, the demon king Kansa penalises offenders on the streets and also enters the government offices and pulls up indisciplined officials. 
      • He also listens to the grievances of people at his ‘durbar’ and passes orders even to government officials.
  • Festival of 2022:
    • Around 3,500 artists of 155 cultural troupes from across the country and abroad will perform at the Rajdurbar and Rangamahal during the festival this year.
    • The festival, which is being organised after a gap of two years due to the COVID-19 pandemic, will conclude on January 6 next year (2023).

V-shaped Recovery

In News

  • The FY23 growth would be about 70% on a year-on-year basis and mark a ‘V-shaped’ recovery for the aviation sector.

V-shaped Recovery

  • About:
    • It is a type of economic recession and recovery that resembles a “V” shape in charting. 
    • It involves a sharp rise back to a previous peak after a sharp decline in these metrics.
    • In a V-shaped recovery, an economy that has suffered a sharp economic decline experiences a fast and strong rebound
    • In this, it is assumed that incomes and jobs are not permanently lost and the economic growth recovers sharply.

Image Courtesy: wallstreetmojo

  • Causes for Such Recovery:
    • A significant shift in economic activity is caused by rapid readjustment of consumer demand and business investment spending. 
  • Historical Examples:
    • The Depression of 1920 to 1921 (in the U.S.)
    • The Recession of 1953 (in the U.S.)


No comments yet. Why don’t you start the discussion?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *