Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)

In News

  • India needs to embrace multi-domain operations (MDO) amidst the rising Chinese threat.

Key Points

  • Present Tussle:
    • India and China are confronting each other over the Arunachal Pradesh border. 
    • India has deployed the Indian Army for the first time in this sector.
    • The threat had faded in public consciousness due to electioneering, bridge collapses, yatras, G-20, etc. 
  • Concerns:
    • Low-level and geographically restricted clashes will keep recurring. 
    • India should not get into a complacent mindset that accepts such clashes, as the likely future conflict scenario with China. 
    • The threat is at the other extreme of technical advancement — in the concept of multi-domain operations (MDO).

About Multi-Domain Operations(MDO)

  • Spread Across Multiple Domains:
    • MDO is not just actions on land, in sea, air, cyber, space and in the electromagnetic spectrum. 
    • It comprises operations conducted across multiple domains and contested spaces through convergence of capabilities to overcome an adversary’s strengths by presenting it with operational and/or tactical predicaments. 
  • Common Operating View:
    • It has a common operating picture across all domains which forms the basis to decide the best tool to address a given task. 
  • Any Service in Any Domain:
    • It is not one service using capabilities in multiple domains to do a task, but the best positioned and capable operator of any service doing it across any domain. 
  • Well Defined Structure:
    • The technical complexity and the command, control and communication (C3) structure required can well be imagined.
  • Optimal Use of Resources:
    • The MDO architecture uses any sensor and the best positioned shooter to accomplish objectives.
    • MDO and its C3 structure would have inputs from all sensors to come up with an optimum engagement solution using artificial intelligence.
  • Important Requirements:
    • All sensors (and other information input sources) must be capable of being hosted on the MDO architecture. 
    • All solution providers (executors) must be able to receive inputs and instructions from the MDO C3 structure and carry them out. 
    • If the link to the main structure is not available (say, jammed by the enemy), the mission command characteristics of distributed control would come into play so that operations continue.

Challenges with MDO

  • Affordability Issue:
    • MDO is complicated that only nations with a developed scientific base and financial standing can afford. 
    • It is an American concept being progressed by the U.S. aggressively for the past decade.
  • Requires Fresh Start:
    • MDO is the most advanced intelligence and battle-management software ever seen in combat.
    • It would require a de novo look at doctrine, planning, acquisition, staffing and training. 
  • Chinese Threat:
    • China is attempting to match U.S. military power and it is closely watching the Russia-Ukraine conflict where Western specialists are helping Ukrainians utilise the power of algorithms to fuse reconnaissance from space and choose the best shooters to strike Russian targets. 
  • Concerns for India:
    • India has no choice but to embrace MDO too as China has the technology and finances to master it. 

Way Ahead for India: A four-pronged Strategy

  • Short-term Measures:
    • Battlefields have changed from physical brawls to cyber and precision strikes.
    • Traditional physical domains must be stabilised, with critical deficiencies of the services being plugged. 
  • Robust C3 Network:
    • India’s C3 networks need to be hardened and protected against cyber threats. 
    • Importantly, they need to be linked and synchronised so that seamless exchange of data is ensured. 
  • Long term Measures:
    • A pilot project must be started now so that the true challenge of creating an MDO environment is grasped. 
    • The pilot project would identify the technologies required and, equally importantly, an idea of the monies necessary. 
  • Imparting Training:
    • To get the fundamentals of MDO right, it is vital to train and educate personnel starting now.
    • E.g. The US Air Force has a one year-long training course ongoing to help develop critical thinking and problem solving skills at the operational level of war.

Freedom of Speech of Politicians

In News

  • Recently, the Supreme Court (SC) held that there is no reason to impose “additional restrictions” on the right to free speech of Ministers.

Supreme Court’s Divided Stand

  • Arguments For: 
    • Principle of collective responsibility:
      • A statement by a Minister, even if traceable to any affairs of the state or for protecting the government, cannot be attributed vicariously to the government by invoking the principle of collective responsibility.
      • It is not possible to extend this concept of collective responsibility to any and every statement orally made by a Minister outside the House of the People/Legislative Assembly.
    • Reasonable Restrictions: 
      • Reasonable restrictions on free speech for citizens, including Ministers and public functionaries, were exhaustive
      • Besides, the state has an affirmative duty to protect when there is a threat to personal liberty, even by a non-state actor. 
      • The fundamental right to free speech and right to dignity could be enforced against private parties
      • There was no need to bring in further shackles on free speech in the guise of protecting the competing fundamental right to life and dignity under Article 21 of persons at the receiving end of a Minister’s comments.
    • Whip not possible in multi party systems:
      • In a country like India, where there is a multi­-party system and where coalition Governments are often formed, it is not possible at all times for a Prime Minister/Chief Minister to take the whip whenever a statement is made by someone in the Council of Ministers.
    • Constitutional Tort –Punishment or Fine:
      • No one can either be taxed or penalised for holding an opinion which is not in conformity with the constitutional values. 
      • It is only when his opinion gets translated into action and such action results in injury or harm or loss that an action in tort will lie.
  • Arguments Against: 
    • Principle of collective responsibility: 
      • A Minister’s statement, if traceable to any affairs of the State or for protecting the government, can be attributed vicariously to the government by invoking the principle of collective responsibility, so long as such statement represented the view of the government too.
      • If such a statement is not consistent with the view of the government, then it is attributable to the Minister personally.
    • Reasonable Restrictions: 
      • But a derogatory speech which closely resembled hate speech did not fall within the ambit of the free speech right.
    • Article 21:
      • Public functionaries and other persons of influence and celebrities, having regard to their reach, owe a duty to the citizenry at large to be more responsible and restrained in their speech. 
      • Therefore, when such speech has the effect of infringing the fundamental right under Article 21 of another individual, it would not constitute a case which requires balancing of conflicting rights.
    • Hate Speech:
      • Hate speech struck at the foundational values and violated the fraternity of citizens from diverse backgrounds.
      • The Preamble of the Constitution assures that the dignity of individuals cannot be dented by means of unwarranted speech being made by fellow citizens, including public functionaries.
    • Constitutional Tort –Punishment or Fine:
      • A proper legal framework was necessary before taking action as a constitutional tort. 
      • The Parliament could enact a legislation or code to restrain citizens in general and public functionaries in particular from making provoking remarks against fellow citizens. 
      • Similarly, political parties could come up with a code of conduct to regulate and control the actions and speech of their functionaries and members.
Constitutional TortA ‘constitutional tort’ is a violation of one’s constitutional rights, particularly fundamental rights, by an agent of the government, acting in his/her official capacity. A court of law can award monetary compensation to the victim in such a case.

Parliamentary Privileges

  • About:
    • Article 105 of the Constitution expressly mentions two privileges, that is,
      • Freedom of speech in Parliament and 
      • Right of publication of its proceedings.
    • All Members of Parliament (MPs) enjoy rights and immunities, individually and collectively, so that they can discharge their duties and functions effectively. 
  • Applicability:
    • The Constitution also extends the parliamentary privileges to those persons who are entitled to speak and take part in the proceedings of a House of Parliament or any of its committees. These include the Attorney General of India.
    • The parliamentary privileges do not extend to the President who is also an integral part of the Parliament. Article 361 of the Constitution provides for privileges for the President.
  • Other Privileges:
    • Apart from the privileges as specified in the Constitution, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, provides for freedom from arrest and detention of members under civil process during the continuance of the meeting of the House or of a committee thereof and forty days before its commencement and forty days after its conclusion.
  • Rules Governing Privilege:
    • Rule No. 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha rulebook governs privilege.
    • Rules say that a member may, with the consent of the Speaker or the Chairperson, raise a question involving a breach of privilege either of a member or of the House or a committee thereof.
  • Role of the Lok Sabha Speaker and Rajya Sabha Chairperson:
    • The speaker of Lok Sabha and the Chairperson of Rajya Sabha are the first levels of scrutiny of a privilege motion in the two Houses of Parliament. 
    • They can either take a decision on the privilege motion or can also refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament. 
    • Once the Speaker or the House Chairperson gives consent under Rule 222, the concerned member is allowed to explain himself or herself.
  • Privilege Committee:
    • The Speaker of Lok Sabha nominates a committee of privileges consisting of 15 members of parliament from each party. 
    • While the Rajya Sabha committee has 10 members.
    • The report prepared by the committee is submitted to the House for its consideration. 
    • The Speaker may also allow a half-hour debate on the report by the committee before passing orders or directing that the report be tabled before the House.
  • Punishment for Breach:
    • Any instance when these rights and immunities are disregarded by any member of Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha is an offence, called ‘breach of privilege’, which is punishable under the Laws of Parliament.

Way Ahead

  • India is the largest democracy in the world and the right to free speech and expression is an essential ingredient of democracy.
  • The expression or thought that is not in consonance with the policy of the government of the day should not be considered sedition.
    • The Law Commission has rightly said, “an expression of frustration over the state of affairs cannot be treated as sedition”. 
    • If the country is not open to positive criticism, there would be no difference between the pre-and post-Independence eras.

New National Medical Commission (NMC) Board

In News

  • The draft National Medical Commission (NMC) bill 2022 seeks to introduce a fifth autonomous body under the country’s apex medical education regulator to conduct the National Exit Test (NExT).


  • Background: 
    • This comes at a time when the role of NMC is expanding, with the government working towards implementing NexT.
  • National Exit Test (NExT): 
    • It is a two-part examination that will act as a qualifying exam for granting registration to doctors as well as the basis for post-graduate admissions. 
  • Board of Examinations in Medical Sciences:
    • It will take over the functions of the National Board of Examinations that currently conducts the entrance tests for all post-graduation and super-speciality courses.
      • The National Board of Examinations also conducts the screening test for foreign medical graduates, which will also be replaced by the new NExT examination.
    • In addition to conducting the NExT tests, the new board will also accredited institutions for diploma, diplomat, postgraduate fellowship, and super-speciality fellowships. 
    • It will determine the minimum requirements for conducting these courses and grant them.
    • The UG entrance is conducted by the National Testing Agency and no changes have been suggested to that in the new bill.
  • 5th body:
    • This will be the fifth autonomous board under NMC after:
      • Under-Graduate Medical Education Board (sets norms for undergraduate courses), 
      • Post-Graduate Medical Education Board (sets norms for post-graduate courses), 
      • Medical Assessment and Rating Board (inspects and rates the medical education institutes), and 
      • Ethics and Medical Registration Board (regulates professional conduct of the doctors and registers them).


  • Three draft regulations:
    • License to Practice Medicine, 2022; 
    • Registration of Additional Qualifications, 2022; and 
    • Temporary Registration of Foreign Medical Practitioners to Practice Medicine in India.
  • Working: 
    • The guidelines provide a framework for creating a dynamic national medical register.
    • It will have a unique ID assigned to each student who qualifies NEET, with professional qualifications such as post-graduation and super-speciality training being added to the same ID.
  • Open to foreigners: 
    • The registration is open for foreign doctors who want to come to India to study in post-graduation courses, fellowships, clinical research, or voluntary clinical services. 
  • Change in Permission: 
    • Until now foreign experts were being granted “permission” by the Health Ministry. 
    • Now, the NMC will grant a temporary registration to such doctors that will end with the duration of the programme.
      • The maximum duration of such a temporary registration will be 12 months.
  • Registration Process:
    • Indian: Indian medical graduates would be eligible for registration in the National Medical Register after:
      • Completion of MBBS degree from a recognised college, 
      • Completion of year-long mandatory internship, and 
      • Pass the National Exit Test (NExT). 
    • Foreign: Foreign medical graduates can be registered after:
      • Completed education in a country other than India, 
      • Are registerable as doctors in the said country, 
      • Have completed a year-long internship in India, and 
      • Have passed the NExT exam.
  • A new portal for all documents:
    • At present, every state maintains its own medical register, which is then sent to NMC for a consolidated country-wide register.
    • After a unique ID is created, a portal will be thrown open to all recognised institutes in India who can upload all verified documents of their students to it. 
  • Jurisdiction:
    • Any cases against the commission by medical colleges or institutions will lie under the jurisdiction of the Delhi high court. 
  • Appeals: 
    • There is a provision for patients and their relatives to appeal with the Ethics and Medical Registration board or the National Medical Commission against decisions of the state medical council in cases of medical negligence.


  • It will streamline and fast track admissions.
  • It will help in eliminating confusion which arose recently, leading to wastage of seats due to poor work ethics, lack of coordination, and disparate bodies doing disparate components of the same job. 
  • An apex body controlling every facet of medical education will help in having no discrepancies of decision making between NMC, NBE, and MCC.

Challenges faced by medical education in India

  • Lack of skills: 
    • There is a lack of technical skills. 
    • Finding faculties in clinical and non-clinical disciplines is difficult and there are very few faculty development programs for upskilling the existing lot.
  • Lack of infrastructure:
    • The gap in digital learning infrastructure is currently the biggest challenge the sector is facing. 
  • Lack of research and innovation:
    • The education system needs to focus more on increasing the quality of research. 
    • Additionally since industry academia partnership is not available, hence innovation also takes a back-seat.

Way Ahead for Medical Education Reform

  • There is an urgent need to adopt technology and have resources available to facilitate e-learning.
  • Capitalising on e-learning and facilitating infrastructure to support it
  • Revising curriculum to have more practical training, competency based skill development
  • Inculcating problem solving approach by situational/case-based examination
  • broad-based faculty development program to sharpen competency of teachers
  • Eliminating caste-based reservation and paving way for merit-based admission
  • Industry academia collaboration to facilitate innovation

Mural Art

  • The Wall of Peace, a great work of modern mural art on the 700-feet long compound wall of Government Vocational Higher Secondary School at Cherpulassery, was inaugurated in Kerala.
    • The word ‘peace’ has been embossed on the wall in 250 world languages.

The Mural Art

  • About:
    • Mural art is basically an artwork made on a wall or a permanent surface. INDIA has one of the greatest traditions of painting of the ancient world.
  • History:
    • The history of Indian murals begins in earliest and early medieval times, from 2nd century BC to 8th – 10th century AD.
    • The earliest surviving mural paintings in the Indian subcontinent are those of Ajanta. The paintings of Ajanta were made in two phases and the oldest dated to around the 2nd century B.C. The wonderful final phase was around the 5th century A.D., under the patronage of the Vakatakas.
  • Features of Indian Mural Paintings:
    • The Mural Paintings are comparatively different from all other forms of illustrative art. The two major characteristics which make them significant are their organic relation to architecture and broad public importance. The Indian murals are rich in expressive practicality.
    • The utilization of colour, design, and thematic treatment in mural paintings has the capability to bring about an extreme change in the sensation of spatial proportions of the building. Mural Paintings are the only form of artwork which is truly three-dimensional, since it modifies and shares a given space.
    • The colour materials on the mural paintings were derived from the natural materials like terracotta, chalk, red ochre and yellow ochre mixed with animal fat. 
    • The significant mural paintings are found at Bagh in Madhya Pradesh, caves of Badami in Karnataka, Sittannavasal in Tamil Nadu and the Kailashanatha temple in Ellora, Maharashtra of 8th century AD and known for their linear styles.
  • Different types of Indian Mural Paintings:
    • Tempera Painting: Tempera painting is done by preparation of pigment into a water-miscible medium. 
    • Oil Painting: Oil Painting is a standard of painting in oil colours which grips suspension of pigments into drying oils.
    • Fresco Painting: Fresco Painting is an ancient practice that engrossed painting of water-based pigments on recently applied plaster, usually on wall façade.
  • Other ancient Mural Paintings of India:
    • There are fragments of paintings of the time of Ajanta which survive at many Buddhist cave sites, including Pitalkhora near Ellora, in Maharashtra.
    • Nine caves were excavated on the slopes of the Vindhya hills above the Bagh river during the reign of the Guptas, between the 4th and 6th centuries A.D.
    • Very little of the paintings survive in the 6th century Hindu caves of Badami in Karnataka.
    • Expression to themes relating to Siva in the paintings in the temples of Panamalai and Kailashanatar in Kancheepuram.
    • In the 9th century Jain cave of Sittannavasal in Tamil Nadu, there is a marvellous lotus pond painted on the ceiling. 
    • The monastery of Alchi is an oasis of beauty and colour in the midst of the vast and barren landscape of Ladakh. One of the masterpieces of the Alchi paintings is the Green Tara. 
    • The temple at Lepakshi was built in the 16th century by the Nayaka brothers, Virupanna and Viranna, at a centre of trade and pilgrimage in the Vijayanagar empire.

Birth Anniversary of Rani Velu Nachiyar

In News

  • The Prime Minister of India has paid tributes to Rani Velu Nachiyar on her birth anniversary.

About Rani Velu Nachiyar

  • She was the first queen to fight against the British colonial power in India. 
  • She is known by Tamils as Veeramangai
  • Early Life: She was the princess of Ramanathapuram and the only child of Raja Chellamuthu Vijayaragunatha Sethupathy and Rani Sakandhimuthal of the Ramnad kingdom.
  • Skills Acquired: She was trained in war to match weapons usage, martial arts like Valari, Silambam (fighting using a stick), horse riding, and archery.
    • She was a scholar in many languages and she had proficiency with languages like French, English and Urdu.
  • Marriage: She married the king of Sivagangai, with whom she had a daughter.
  • Succession: She succeeded her husband in 1780 and
    • She granted powers to the Marudu brothers to administer the country in 1780. 
  • She died a few years later,on 25 December 1796

Asian Pacific Postal Union (APPU)


  • India takes over leadership of the Asian Pacific Postal Union.

Key Facts

  • India will take over the leadership of the Asian Pacific Postal Union from January 2023.
  • Dr. Vinaya Prakash Singh will assume the charge of Secretary General of the Union during India’s four year tenure there.

Asian Pacific Postal Union (APPU)

  • Asian Pacific Postal Union (APPU) is an intergovernmental organisation comprising 32 member countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • It is headquartered in Bangkok, Thailand.
  • It is the only restricted union of the Universal Postal Union (UPU) in the region, which is a specialised agency of the United Nations.
  • It is the Secretary General who leads the activities of the Union. It is made up of three bodies namely, Congress, Executive Council and APPU Bureau.
  • Asian Pacific Postal Union (APPU) aims to extend, facilitate and improve postal relations between the member countries and promote cooperation in the field of postal services.

Domestically Systemic Important Banks

  • Context
  • The Reserve Bank of India said that the State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, and HDFC Bank continue to be identified as Domestic Systemically Important Banks (D-SIBs).
    • The RBI announced SBI and ICICI Bank as D-SIBs in 2015 and 2016 while HDFC Bank was added to the list as on March 31, 2017.

What are Domestic- Systematically Important Banks (DSIBs)?

  • DSIBs are also referred to as “Too Big To Fall” (TBTF) because of their size, cross jurisdictional activities, complexity and lack of substitute and interconnection.
  • Banks whose assets cross 2% of the GDP are considered DSIBs. If these banks fail, they can have a disruptive effect on the economy. 
  • D-SIBs are categorised under five buckets. According to these buckets the banks have to keep aside the Additional Common Equity Tier 1 as a percentage of Risk Weighted Assets (RWAs).
  • D-SIBs are mandated under special provisions and are closely monitored by the central bank to ensure their better functioning and prevent the indulgence of such banks in any grey areas such as money laundering etc.
  • The Systematically Important Banks domestically are identified by Central Banks of a country and globally by BASEL committee on banking supervision.
  • At present State Bank of India is placed under Bucket 3 & HDFC and ICICI are under Bucket 1.


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