Voice of the Global South Summit

In News

  • The Honorable PM of India recently inaugurated a virtual event, “Voice of the Global South Summit”.

More about the news

  • About the Summit:
    • About:
      • India hosted the summit in a bid to articulate the views of the developing countries regarding the effects of the pandemic and the war in Ukraine.
      • The event has planned eight ministerial sessions including finance, energy, education, foreign affairs, and commerce. 
    • Theme:
      • It was held under the theme – ‘Unity of Voice, Unity of Purpose’ – essentially envisages bringing together countries of the global south and sharing their perspectives and priorities on a common platform across a whole range of issues.
  • Uniting Global south:
    • Prime Minister through this event has set the stage on behalf of developing countries, many of which are united by a history of colonisation. 
    • Offering to become the voice of the Global South, India during the event gave a new agenda to the world on behalf of the countries of the South: ‘respond, recognise, respect, and reform’.
      • The ‘Global South’ broadly refers to countries in Asia, Africa, and South America.
  • Voice of global South in the ongoing Crisis:
    • According to PM, the world is facing a lasting crisis and there is no clarity about how long this “state of instability” will last.
    • The Global South does not have adequate voice in the “eight decades old model of global governance” and that it should shape the “emerging order”.
      • As stated by him, “Most of the global challenges have not been created by the Global South. But they affect us more. We have seen this in the impact of COVID pandemic, climate change, terrorism and even the Ukraine conflict. The search for solutions also does not factor in our role or our voice”.
  • India’s goal:
    • The goal of India in 2023 is to represent the Global South
    • As India begins its G20 Presidency this year, it is natural that our aim is to amplify the voice of the Global South.
More about the “Global South”Global North  & Global South:Global North refers loosely to countries like the US, Canada, Europe, Russia, Australia and New Zealand.Global South includes countries in Asia, Africa and South America. Significance of categorisation:For a long time in the study of international political systems, the method of categorising countries into broad categories for easier analysis has existed. The concepts of ‘East’ and ‘West’ is one example of this, with the Western countries generally signifying greater levels of economic development and prosperity among their people, and Eastern countries considered as being in the process of that transition.

Significance of categorization

  • Shared similarities:
    • What sets the terms Global North and South apart are that first, they are arguably more accurate in grouping countries together, measuring similarly in terms of wealth, indicators of education and healthcare, etc. 
    • Another commonality between the South countries is that most have a history of colonisation, largely at the hands of European powers.
  • Present requirements: 
    • Why the concept is being reiterated now is partly because of the economic emergence of some of these South countries, such as India and China, in the last few decades. 
    • Many consider the world to now be multipolar rather than one where the US alone dominates international affairs. 
  • Challenging the ideal:
    • The progress achieved by many Asian countries is also seen as challenging the idea that the North is the ideal.


  • The term is too broad: 
    • The problem of proper naming is still not resolved.
    • North countries paying for funding green energy, having historically contributed to higher carbon emissions, many in the Global North have objected to China and India’s exclusion from this, given their increasing industrialisation.
  • No different objective:
    • There is also the question of whether the South simply aims to replace the North and the positions it occupies, again continuing a cycle in which a few countries accumulate crucial resources. 
  • Possible neglect of Africa:
    • In the rise of Asia, the continued neglect of Africa has been questioned as well.

Way ahead

  • In this multipolar world, the whole North and South needs to come together to fight the issues of developed and developing countries and promote the East like the West.
  • Some economists have argued that international free trade and unhindered capital flows across countries could lead to a contraction in the North–South divide.
    • In this case more equal trade and flow of capital would allow the possibility for developing countries to further develop economically.
  • As some countries in the South experience rapid development, there is evidence that those states are developing high levels of South–South aid.
Role of United NationsMDGs:The United Nations has also established its role in diminishing the divide between North and South through the Millennium Development Goals, all of which were to be achieved by 2015. These goals seek to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve global universal education and healthcare, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development.SDGs:MDGs were replaced in 2015 by 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, set in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and intended to be achieved by 2030, are part of a UN Resolution called “The 2030 Agenda”.

Human Rights Watch’s World Report 2023

In Context

  • Recently, the 33rd edition of Human Rights Watch’s World Report was released.
    • This edition reviews human rights practices in close to 100 countries. 

Report highlights

  • Politically motivated charges:
    • In the section on India, the HRW said authorities throughout India arrested activists, journalists, and other critics of the government on what it called “politically motivated” criminal charges, including that of terrorism
  • On minorities:
    • The report also said that Indian authorities had “intensified and broadened” their crackdown on activist groups and the media through 2022.
    • Abuse & repression:
      • It added that the “Hindu nationalist” Bharatiya Janata Party-led government used “abusive and discriminatory policies to repress Muslims and other minorities”. 
    • Demolishing properties:
      • The authorities in several BJP-ruled states demolished Muslim homes and properties without legal authorization or due process as summary punishment for protests or alleged crimes, the HRW said. 
    • Religious conversions: 
      • It added that authorities also “misused” laws forbidding forced religious conversions “to target Christians, especially from Dalit and Adivasi communities”. 
  • Bilkis Bano case & Violence against women:
    • Referring to the release of the 11 Hindu men convicted and sentenced to life in jail for the gang rape of Bilkis Bano and the murder of 14 members of her family, and the celebration of their release by some BJP members, the HRW said, “The action highlighted the government’s discriminatory stance toward minority communities even in cases of violence against women.”
  • On J&K:
    • On Jammu and Kashmir, the HRW said that even after three years of removal of Article 370 and creation of two federally-administered territories, “the government continued to restrict free expression, peaceful assembly, and other basic rights there”. 
    • The global human rights observer referred to suspected militant attacks on minority Hindu and Sikh communities in the Kashmir Valley 
  • Welcoming the Supreme Court rulings:
    • The HRW also noted the increasingly liberal steps taken by the Supreme Court in India.
    • It also referred to the top court’s following significant rulings: 
      • Extending abortion rights to all women regardless of marital status and to people other than cisgender women, 
      • Widening the definition of a family to include same-sex couples, single parents, and other households. 
      • It also took note of the SC’s banning of the two-finger tests.

About Human Rights Watch (HRW)

  • About:
    • Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization.
    • The group pressures governments, policymakers, companies, and individual human rights abusers to denounce abuse and respect human rights, and often works on behalf of refugees, children, migrants, and political prisoners.
  • HQ: 
    • It is headquartered in New York City that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
  • Basic human rights:
    • Pursuant to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Human Rights Watch opposes violations of what the UDHR considers basic human rights.
      • This includes capital punishment and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. 
    • Freedoms:
      • HRW advocates freedoms in connection with fundamental human rights, such as freedom of religion and freedom of the press.
  • Aim:
    • It seeks to achieve change by publicly pressuring governments and their policymakers to curb human rights abuses, and by convincing more powerful governments to use their influence on governments that violate human rights.

Significant Constitutional provisions in India

  • The six fundamental rights are:
    • Right to equality (Article 14–18)
    • Right to freedom (Article 19–22)
    • Right against exploitation (Article 23–24)
    • Right to freedom of religion (Article 25–28)
    • Cultural and educational rights (Article 29–30)
    • Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)
  • Freedom of Speech and Expression: 
    • It is protected as a fundamental right in the Constitution of India under Article 19(1) (a) which states that all citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression.
  • Freedom of Religion under the Indian Constitution:
  • Various fundamental rights are provided as well as guaranteed by our Indian Constitution under Part III
  • Articles 25-28 of the Indian Constitution guarantee the right to freedom of religion to all citizens who are residing within the territory of India.
    • Freedom of conscience and free profession of religion. (Article 25)
    • Freedom to manage religious affairs (Article 26)
    • Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion( Article 27)
    • Freedom to attend religious instructions ( Article 28)
  • India, being a secular nation gives every citizen the right to follow the religion he believes in.
    • By the 42nd amendment, 1976 of the Indian Constitution, the term ‘Secular’ was inserted in our preamble.

Kesavananda Bharati & Doctrine of Basic structure

In News

  • Recently, at the 83rd All-India Presiding Officers Conference in Jaipur, the Vice President rekindled the debate over the “Basic Structure” doctrine especially in the context of the Supreme Court striking down the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act of 2015.


  • Article 368 of the Indian Constitution defines the amendment in the Indian Constitution in response to new challenges and it also takes into account the unanticipated and unforeseen circumstances which were not in consideration by the constitution makers.
  • The Supreme Court in its landmark 1973 decision in the Kesavananda Bharati case determined that Parliament had the power to modify the Constitution but not its fundamental principles or basic structures.
  • However, this fundamental principle was not defined and has been evolving to add new dimensions since the judgment.
  • Judicial review is the tool which is used by courts to examine and decide the validity of any amendment introduced by the Parliament by way of and can declare a statute as ultra vires or invalid if it breaches any provision of the Constitution.
  • Regardless, the extent of amending powers of the Parliament became a source of endless conflict between the Parliament and the Supreme Court.

Who was  Kesavananda Bharati?

  • Born in 1940, Kesavananda Bharati was the head to the Edneer Mutt, a Hindu monastery in Kasargod, Kerala who challenged the Constitution (29th Amendment) Act, 1972, which placed the Kerala Land Reforms Act, 1963 and its amending Act into the 9th Schedule of the Constitution.
  • The 9th Schedule was added to the Constitution by the First Amendment in 1951 along with Article 31-B to provide a “protective umbrella” to land reforms laws in order to prevent them from being challenged in court.
  • He argued that this action violated his fundamental right to religion (Article 25)freedom of religious denomination (Article 26), and right to property (Article 31).

Evolution of Basic structure

A.K. Gopalan Vs. State of Madras (1950):

  • The Supreme Court held that the protection under Article 21 is available only against arbitrary executive action and not from arbitrary legislative action.
  • Secondly, the Supreme Court held that ‘personal liberty’ means only liberty relating to the person or body of the individual.

Shankari Prasad Vs. Union of India (1951):

  • The Supreme Court ruled that the power of the Parliament to amend the Constitution under Article 368 also includes the power to amend Fundamental Rights.
  • Therefore, the Parliament can abridge or take away any of the Fundamental Rights by enacting a constitutional amendment act and such a law will not be void under Article 13.

Berubari Union Case (1960):

  • According to the Supreme Court, Preamble shows the general purposes behind the several provisions in the Constitution and is thus a key to the minds of the makers of the Constitution.
  • However, despite this recognition of the significance of the Preamble, the Supreme Court specifically opined that the Preamble is not a part of the Constitution and thus, it is not enforceable in a court of law.

Golaknath Vs. State of Punjab (1967):

  • SC held that the Parliament cannot take away or abridge any of the Fundamental Rights.
  • The Court held that the Fundamental Rights cannot be amended for the implementation of the Directive Principles.
  • The Parliament enacted the 24th Amendment Act (1971) which declared that the Parliament has the power to abridge or take away any of the Fundamental Rights by enacting Constitutional Amendment Acts.
  • Also, Parliament through 25th Amendment Act inserted a new Article 31C which held that no law which seeks to implement the socialistic Directive Principles shall be void on the ground of contravention of the Fundamental Rights conferred by Article 14, Article 19, or Article 31.

Kesavananda Bharati Vs. State of Kerala (1973):

  • It involved a property dispute which was decided by a special bench of the Supreme Court of India consisting of 13 judges which ruled with a 7–6 majority on 24 April, 1973, that Article 368 of the constitution did not provide the Parliament the authority to change the basic structure of the Constitution.
  • The Court propounded what has come to be known as the “Basic Structure of the Constitution” which could not be abrogated even by a constitutional amendment”.

Indira Gandhi Vs. Raj Narain Case (1975):

  • The doctrine of basic structure of the constitution was reaffirmed and applied by the Supreme Court.
  • SC invalidated a provision of the 39th Amendment Act (1975) which kept the election disputes involving the Prime Minister and the Speaker of Lok Sabha outside the jurisdiction of all courts.

42nd Amendment Act (1976):

  • The Parliament reacted to this judicially innovated doctrine of ‘basic structure’ by enacting Act to amend Article 368 and declared that there is no limitation on the constituent power of Parliament.
  • Also, no amendment can be questioned in any court on any ground including that of the contravention of any of the Fundamental Rights.

Minerva Mills Vs. Union of India (1980):

  • SC held that ‘the Indian Constitution is founded on the bedrock of the balance between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles.
  • The Parliament can amend the Fundamental Rights for implementing the Directive Principles, so long as the amendment does not damage or destroy the basic structure of the Constitution.

Waman Rao Case (1981):

  • Basic Structure doctrine was reiterated to draw a line of demarcation as April 24th, 1973 i.e., the date of the Kesavananda Bharati judgment, and held that it should not be applied retrospectively to reopen the validity of any amendment to the Constitution which took place prior to that date.

Indra Sawhney and Union of India (1992):

  • SC examined the scope and extent of Article 16(4), which provides for the reservation of jobs in favor of backward classes. It upheld the constitutional validity of 27% reservation for the OBCs with certain conditions (like creamy layer exclusion, no reservation in promotion, total reserved quota should not exceed 50%, etc.)
  • Here, ‘Rule of Law’ was added to the list of basic features of the constitution.

S. R. Bommai Vs. UoI (1994):

  • The Supreme Court laid down that the Constitution is federal and characterized federalism as its ‘basic feature’.
  • It also observed the fact that under the scheme of our Constitution, greater power is conferred upon the Centre vis-a-vis the states does not mean that the states are mere appendages of the Centre.

Critical Analysis of Keshvanand Judgement

Arguments in SupportArguments against
According to Granville Austin, an American historian of the Indian Constitution, Basic Structure Doctrine strikes a balance between the responsibilities of Parliament and Supreme Court for protecting the seamless web of Indian Constitution.As per Upendra Baxi, a legal scholar, the doctrine facilitates constitutional change paving the way for fundamental, social change through peaceful democratic means.Plurality of opinions yielded in the Kesavananda judgment gave no clarity and thus it is an uncertain authority to limit the amending powers of the Parliament. It has given rise to :Judicial Activism, in which the court makes decisions that are based, in whole or in part, on the Judge’s personal or political aspects rather than on present or established laws.Judicial Overreach, which is the excessive interference of the judiciary with the legislature and the executiveAccording to Raju Ramachandran, former Additional Solicitor General of India, the Basic Structure Doctrine is anti-democratic because ultimately the court’s own view of its area of competence and effectiveness becomes the only check on the exercise of its own judicial power. There is also criticism that ultimately the unelected judges have assumed the political power not given to them in the Constitution.

Way Ahead

  • With the changing requirements of the populace, the constitution also requires amendments to accommodate and manage the strain between the political system and constitutional ideals.
  • Although there is need to respect the judiciary, the vagueness around basic structure needs a revisit considering that Parliamentary sovereignty and autonomy cannot be permitted to be qualified or compromised as it is quintessential to survival of democracy.
What is “Basic structure”?About: The phrase ‘basic structure’ was recognised for the first time in the historic case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala in 1973 by the Supreme Court.Definition: Indian courts define basic structure as inherent features that are built on the basic foundation, i.e., the dignity and freedom of the individual and of supreme importance which cannot by any form of amendment be destroyed.Important features:o   Supremacy of the Constitution;o   Republican and Democratic forms of Government.o   Secular character of the Constitution;o   Separation of powers between the Legislature, the executive and the judiciary;o   Federal character of the Constitution.o   Rule of lawo   Judicial reviewo   Parliamentary systemo   Rule of equalityo   Harmony and balance between the Fundamental Rights and DPSPo   Free and fair electionso   Limited power of the parliament to amend the Constitutiono   Power of the Indian Supreme Court under Articles 32, 136, 142 and 147o   Power of the High Court under Articles 226 and 227Any law or amendment that violates these principles can be struck down by the SC on the grounds that they distort the basic structure of the Constitution.Way ahead: Proponents of the basic structure doctrine consider it to be a safety valve against majoritarian authoritarianism. Without it, it is plausible that Indira Gandhi’s 1975 Emergency could have had far more deleterious effects on the health of Indian democracy.However, opponents claim that the doctrine amounts to judicial overreach over the legislature – something that itself is undemocratic.

Uranium Contamination in Ground Water

In News

  • Recently, a report titled “Groundwater yearbook 2021-2022” was released on the state of groundwater released by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB).

Key Findings

  • Twelve Indian states have uranium levels beyond permissible limits in their groundwater.
  • Punjab is the worst-affected state in terms of the percentage of wells found to have uranium concentration of more than 30 ppb. 
  • Haryana is the second state in terms of uranium prevalence in groundwater.
  • 9.2 percent of the samples from Uttar Pradesh had a high concentration of uranium.
  • Uranium concentration is found to be within safe limits in 13 states.
    • The safe levels prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) is 30 ppb.
StateMaximum value of Uranium observed (in ppb)Percentage of samples beyond permissible limit of BIS (U >30 ppb)
Uttar Pradesh2399.2
Tamil Nadu1593.4
Madhya Pradesh1491.3

Source: Groundwater yearbook 2021-22

Causes of contamination

  • Geogenic processes are responsible for uranium contamination.
  • High levels of uranium are largely due to natural uranium content in aquifer rocks, oxidation state and groundwater chemistry.
    • Overexploitation of groundwater has been observed in all types of aquifers in the country, confirmed in another 2021 study by researchers from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Homi Bhabha National Institute.
  • Extreme bicarbonate levels were also found at the sites with high uranium levels.
    • Bicarbonates help to bring the uranium out of the source rocks and is a reason for the high occurrence of the element. 
    • The interaction of the extracted uranium with other chemicals in the groundwater, such as bicarbonate, which can further enhance its solubility.
  • Water-rock interactions that cause the uranium to be extracted from those rocks.
  • Oxidation conditions that enhance the extracted uranium’s solubility in water.
  • The human-made causes too are behind this:
    • Over-exploitation of groundwater from irrigation further exacerbates uranium mobilisation. 
    • It is likely to be one of the reasons for uranium and other geogenic contaminants, including arsenic and fluoride.
    • Nitrate pollution. 
    • Groundwater table decline

What is Uranium?

  • As an element: 
    • It is a naturally occurring element found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water.
    • Uranium is a weak radioactive substance because of its long physical half-life.
    • It is the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on earth. 
  • Groundwater: 
    • Uranium is a nephrotoxic element and can have an adverse impact at very high concentrations. 
    • This means that people dependent on groundwater containing the element are at a higher risk of impaired renal function and kidney disease. Exposure to uranium may also lead to other adverse health impacts, including bone toxicity.

Threat to Groundwater

  • Degradation from human activities, often associated with poor land, agricultural, and waste management threatens:
    • Current uses of groundwater and 
    • Human and ecosystem health 
    • Limits benefits of future generations
  • The problem is more pronounced in South Asia because much of the groundwater is heterogenous. Some 70 percent of groundwater is hosted only in 30 percent of land cover in south Asia and the rest is hosted in areas covered by Himalayan rivers.
  • Water pollution is another issue as much of the groundwater is polluted by contaminants like arsenic and Fluoride. More than 400 million people are exposed to these pollutants. So, it is not just a quantity issue but also a water quality issue in India.

Health Impact

  • Exposure to uranium may lead to numerous adverse health impacts including bone toxicity and impaired renal function.
  • Exposure to uranium could also cause cancer.

Significance of Groundwater

  • Ground water has become an increasingly important natural resource catering to the fresh water requirements of various sectors in India. 
  • Ground water has steadily emerged as the backbone of India’s agriculture and drinking water security.
  • About 90% of this was used for irrigation, the rest went to towns and villages.
  • Groundwater is the principal water source for a fourth of the world’s population. India is the world’s largest groundwater user; nearly 250 cubic kilometres was taken out in 2017. 

Way Ahead

  • There is a need for an urgent response from all stakeholders. Protection of groundwater must be guaranteed across all sectors including agriculture.
  • Governance, actions and investments on groundwater should be prioritized in vulnerable and climate change / hazard-exposed regions, including sub-Saharan Africa, Small Island Developing States and coastal zones, areas with no or slowly renewable and vulnerable aquifers, and aquifers with naturally occurring but hazardous contaminants, like arsenic
  • Reverse osmosis (RO) is one of the latest membrane-based technologies used in water purification systems to remove uranium. 
  • More studies and Research is needed on the removal of uranium from drinking water using a hybrid membrane technique.

Demand for Greater Tipraland

In News

  • Recently, TIPRA (Tipraha Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance) Motha chief announced that they will ally with any political party that gives them written assurance to support their demand for Greater Tipraland.

Greater Tipraland

  • Regional extent: It includes the region under Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous district Council (TTADC) and 36 villages out of it, within the Tripura State boundaries. 
  • Demand of Tipra Motha: Tipra Motha is demanding that this area should be carved out as a State or a Union Territory. 
  • Encouraged by: It is essentially an extension of the ruling tribal partner Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura – IPFT’s demand of Tipraland, which sought a separate state for tribals of Tripura.
  • Includes: The new demand seeks to include every tribal person living in an indigenous area or village outside the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) under the proposed model.
  • Applicable to: The idea doesn’t restrict to simply the Tripura tribal council areas but seeks to include ‘Tiprasa’ of Tripuris spread across different states of India like Assam, Mizoram etc. as well, even those living in Bandarban, Chittagong, Khagrachari and other bordering areas of neighbouring Bangladesh.

Reasons for demand

  • The TTADC receives two percent of the State budget while it has 40% of the State’s population.
  • The call of Greater Tipraland arose due to unfulfilled demands of revising National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Tripura and opposition to CAA in the past.
  • Tripura saw turbulent violent struggles by different outlawed insurgent outfits like the Tripura National Volunteers (TNV), United Bengali Liberation Front (UBLF), National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT), All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF) etc. – all demanding self-determination and sovereignty, albeit on different ethnic and community lines.

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Constitutional Provisions for the formation of new States

  • The reorganisation of the states: The procedure for the formation of new States laid down in Article 3 of the Constitution provides that a State has no say over the formation of new States beyond communicating its views to Parliament.
  • The basis of reorganisation could be:
    • Linguistic, 
    • religious, 
    • Ethnic or 
    • Administrative.
  • Article 3:
    • It assigns to Parliament the power to enact legislation for the formation of new States.
    • Parliament may create new States in a number of ways, namely by
      • Separating territory from any State
      • Uniting two or more States
      • Uniting parts of States
      • Uniting any territory to a part of any State.
    • Parliament’s power under Article 3 extends to increasing or diminishing the area of any State and altering the boundaries or name of any State.
    • A bill calling for the formation of new States may be introduced in either House of Parliament only on the recommendation of the President.
    • Such a bill must be referred by the President to the concerned State Legislature for expressing its views to Parliament if it contains provisions that affect the areas, boundaries or name of that State.

Reasons for the demand for new states

  • Economic backwardness of sub-regions within large states has also emerged as an important ground on which demands for smaller states are being made.
  • The lack of industryagrarian crisis, and a low level of infrastructural facilities push demand for such states.
  • Linguistic and cultural reasons, which were the primary basis for creating new states in the country, have now become secondary in most of these cases.


  • Setting up various institutions, government offices, universities, hospitals, etc. require huge sums of money, therefore, the new state might end up depending on the Union for funds, which may or may not be available.
  • Different statehood may lead to the hegemony of the dominant community/ caste/ tribe over their power structures.
  • This can lead to the emergence of intra-regional rivalries among the sub-regions.

Way Forward

  • There should be certain clear-cut parameters and safeguards to check the unfettered demands.
  • It is better to allow democratic concerns like development, decentralisation and governance rather than religion, caste, language or dialect to be the valid bases for conceding the demands for a new state.

Rajmata Jijau

In News

  • Recently, the Prime Minister of India has paid tributes to Rajmata Jijau on her Jayanti.

Jijabai Bhonsle (12 January 1598 – 17 June 1674)

  • About:
    • She was referred to as Rajmata, Rashtramata, Jijabai or Jijau.
    • Jijabai was born to Mahalasabai Jadhav and Lakhuji Jadhav of Deulgaon, near Sindkhed, in present-day Maharashtra. 
    • Jijabai was married at an early age to Shahaji Bhosle. 
    • She was the mother of Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire. 
    • She died at Pachad village near Raigad Fort
  • Role & Contributions:
    • She managed her husband’s Jagir in Pune and developed it.
    • Mentored a great person like Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
    • She taught Shivaji about swarajya and raised him to be a warrior.
    • She also renovated Kevareshwar Temple and Tambadi Jogeshwari Temple.


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