Hazards of Trans-fats in Foods


  • WHO cautions nearly 5 billion people are at risk for heart disease owing to exposure to Trans-fats.


  • Recently, a new report from the World Health Organization (WHO) has found that nearly 5 billion people worldwide remain unprotected from harmful trans fats, which can increase their risk of heart disease and death.
  • WHO first called for the global elimination of industrially produced trans-fats in 2018, with a target for elimination set for 2023.
  • Denmark became the first country to ban trans fats in 2003, followed by Chile and Switzerland in the next five years.

Key Takeaways

  • Trans fats are commonly found in packaged foods, baked goods, cooking oils, and spreads and are responsible for up to 500,000 premature deaths from coronary heart disease each year.
  • Nine of the 16 countries with the highest estimated proportion of coronary heart disease deaths caused by trans fat intake do not have a best-practice policy.
  • While nearly 43 countries are now implementing policies for tackling trans fats in food, this still leaves 5 billion people at risk, with the global goal for total elimination in 2023 unattainable at this time.
  • Trans fats are commonly found in packaged foods, baked goods, cooking oils, and spreads and are responsible for up to 500,000 premature deaths from coronary heart disease each year.

What are Trans-fats?

  • About:
    • Trans fats, also known as trans-fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occurs naturally in small amounts in some animal-based foods.
    • These are most commonly produced industrially by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil to make it more solid through a process called hydrogenation. 
    • Trans fats raise the bad cholesterol i.e., very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) besides lowering the good cholesterol which are high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) in our body. 
    • Prolonged consumption of trans fats have risks including heart diseases, overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and some types of cancers.
  • Types of trans-fats based on Source:
    • Natural trans-fats: These are also called ruminant trans fats, as they are present in small quantities in meat and dairy products obtained from ruminant animals such as cows, sheep and cattle.
      • These types of trans fat are not generally considered harmful.
    • Artificial trans fats: These are also called industrial trans fat as they are manufactured industrially by a chemical process of partial hydrogenation or thermal treatments of edible oils containing unsaturated fatty acids, e.g. refining of vegetable oils and during the process of frying.
      • They are generally considered harmful and are present in large quantities in partially hydrogenated vegetable fats (vanaspati, margarine and bakery shortenings). 

Why are trans fats used in India?

  • Cost-effectiveness: Trans fats are cheaper than other types of fats and oils, making them an attractive option for food manufacturers and restaurateurs looking to cut costs.
  • Shelf life: It can help increase the shelf life of foods, making them a popular choice for packaged foods and baked goods that need to have a longer shelf life.
  • Cooking characteristics: These have a high smoke point, which makes them suitable for deep frying and other high-heat cooking methods like pastries and fried foods more flavourful and crispier.
  • Lack of awareness: Many people in India may not be aware of the negative health effects of trans fats, and therefore may not make an effort to avoid them in their diet.
  • Limited regulations: India has not implemented strict regulations on the use of trans fats in food, unlike some other countries, which may make it easier for food manufacturers to use them.

What are the hazards of using trans-fats in foods?

  • Negative effects on heart health: Trans fats can raise levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) and lower levels of good cholesterol (HDL) in the blood, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Increased risk of other chronic diseases: Consuming trans fats can also increase the risk of other chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and other inflammatory diseases.
  • Adverse effects on brain function and the immune system: Studies have shown that a diet high in trans fats can negatively impact cognitive function and negatively affect the immune system.
  • Limited nutritional value: Trans fats provide no nutritional value and can displace healthier fats in the diet.
  • Cost to the healthcare system: The negative health effects of trans fats can put a strain on healthcare systems, as the treatment and management of the conditions they contribute to can be costly.
  • Limited regulations: Due to lack of effective regulations to limit the use of trans fats in food, it becomes  harder for consumers to avoid them in their diet.
  • Contributes to obesity: Trans fats have been linked to weight gain, obesity and are considered a major contributor to the obesity epidemic.
Government steps to remove trans-fats in India
Freedom from Trans Fat @75: Recognizing the health hazards associated with consumption of industrial trans fats, Food Safety and Standards Authority(FSSAI) employed two-pronged strategies to eliminate trans fat from the diet in a phased manner by 2022.Regulation: On the supply side, FSSAI has notified several crucial regulations to regulate trans fat in industrial products, encouraging the edible oil industry and food business operators to eliminate trans fat from their products. The FSSAI has capped the amount of trans fatty acids (TFA) in oils and fats to 3% for 2021 and 2% by 2022 from the current permissible limit of 5% through an amendment to the Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restriction on Sales) Regulations.“Heart Attack Rewind” campaign: On the demand side, FSSAI has launched a mass media campaign which is a 30-second Public Service Announcement (PSA) with the aim to create awareness about the harmful effects of trans fat by,REPLACE: In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for the elimination of industrially produced trans fats by 2023 and released a guide called ‘REPLACE’ to help countries frame policies.Capping the limit: India’s FSSAI imposed a cap of 10% on trans fats in oils and fats in 2011, which was revised to 5% in 2015.Eat right movement: It is a large-scale effort to transform the country’s food system in order to ensure safe, healthy and sustainable food for all Indians through the ‘Eat Right India’ movement.Green Purple initiative: It is a 6-month programme teaches trans-fat free cooking by using less sodium (salt) and certifies the chefs by guiding them on sustainable cooking methods and food safety legal requirements. Trans Fat-Free logo: It was launched by FSSAI in 2019 which allows food sector establishments such as manufacturers and restaurants which produce foods with less than 0.2g/100g trans fat to use this “Trans-fat free” logo on their products and at their outlets as well.

What more can be done to eliminate the use of trans fats in food?

  • Implement regulations: Governments can create regulations to limit the use of trans fats in food by setting maximum limits for the amount of trans fats that can be present in food products or by banning partially hydrogenated oils (a major source of trans fats) in food.
  • Increase public awareness: Education campaigns can be used to inform the public about the negative health effects of trans fats and how to identify and avoid them in their diet.
  • Develop alternatives: Researchers and food scientists can work on developing alternatives to trans fats that can provide the same functionality in food without the negative health effects.
  • Encourage the food industry to reformulate: Food manufacturers can be encouraged to reformulate their products to reduce or eliminate trans fats.
  • Promote healthy eating: Encourage people to eat a diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein, and low in saturated and trans fats.
  • Designation as sin good: Government can increase taxes on products that have trans fats, to discourage their use and consumption
  • Positive incentives: Government can incentivize food manufacturers who produce food with low or no trans fats. 

Sexual Harassment in Sports

In News

  • The Union Sports Minister announced that six-time World champion and Olympic medallist boxer M.C. Mary Kom would head a government-appointed five-member Oversight Committee to investigate the charges levelled by some prominent wrestlers against Wrestling Federation of India (WFI) president Brij Bhushan Sharan Singh.
Do you Know?Wrestling in India has been practiced since the 5th millennium B.C. In Ancient India, wrestling was most famously known as MallaYudha. It is also known as Dangal, and it is the basic form of a wrestling tournament. It is also called kushti in Punjab and Haryana

About oversight committee

  • Members: Olympic medallist wrestler Yogeshwar Dutt, well-known shuttler Trupti Murgunde, former Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS) CEO Commander Rajesh Rajagopalan, and former Executive Director (Team) of the Sports Authority of India (SAI) Radhica Sreeman are the other members of the committee.
  • Objectives:  It will investigate the serious charges levelled by the wrestlers and will submit its report within a month. Till then the committee will carry out the WFI’s day-to-day work.
  • The panel will probe the allegations of sexual misconduct, harassment and intimidation, financial irregularities, and administrative lapses.

About Sexual harassment in sport

  • Sexual harassment is “where any form of unwanted verbal, nonverbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature occurs, with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment”.
  • Sexual harassment sports are regarded as an abuse of professional ethics, status, and power.


  • Sexual harassment in sports lowers self-esteem and limits the ability of women and girls to develop their full potential in sports and fitness activities. 
  • It compromises the professional integrity of the coach and the educational mission of athletics
  • It subverts the mission of sports organizations and educational institutions to provide leadership and resources for the purpose of improving the physical, mental and emotional well-being of all females through sports and fitness participation
  • In a country like India where the sport is still not considered a viable career option, incidents of sexual harassment in sports could discourage parents from sending their daughters to stadiums.


  • The Sports Authority of India (SAI) has issued guidelines to the National Sports Federation of India (NSFOI) that women coach mandatorily accompany the contingent with female athletes during domestic or international travel.
  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) issued notices to the Union Youth Affairs and Sports Ministry and the Sports Authority of India on the reported inappropriate behaviour of a coaches.
  • The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act was passed in 2013.
    •  It defines sexual harassment, lays down the procedures for a complaint and inquiry, and the action to be taken. 
    • It broadens the Vishaka guidelines, which were already in place.
  • Vishaka guidelines: They are considered to be the most powerful tool for women to guard them against sexual harassment and punish the guilty. Supreme Court laid down the norms in ‘Vishaka and others Vs State of Rajasthan and others.
    • The public interest litigation was filed by women’s rights groups, including Vishakha in the case of the alleged gang-rape of Bhanwari Devi, a social worker from Rajasthan.
  • Apart from the Vishakha guidelines, women employees can take legal steps under the Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act.
    • The steps can be taken under Section 294, Section 354, and Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code.
  • SHe-Box: The Ministry of Women & Child Development launched the Sexual Harassment electronic Box (SHe-Box) to provide single window access to every woman, irrespective of her work status, whether working in the organized or unorganized, private or public sector, to facilitate the registration of complaint related to sexual harassment.
  • The National Commission for Women (NCW) has asked all States to ensure strict implementation of the sexual harassment at workplace law by coaching centres and educational institutes.

Suggestions and Conclusion 

  • Leaders of sports governing bodies, educational institutions, and athletic programs need to be encouraged to formulate, implement and evaluate policies on sexual harassment. 
    • The policy should clearly define sexual harassment and explain the sanctions for sexual harassment.
  •  Develop a complaint procedure for reporting sexual harassment
  • Ensure that procedures for reporting sexual harassment protect the privacy of any athlete or coach involved as much as possible.
    • It is helpful to distinguish between informal and formal procedures for reporting sexual harassment.
  • All athletes should be encouraged to immediately report an incident she believes is a form of sexual harassment by a coach, whether the incident was directed at her or she observed it happening to someone else
  • The International Olympic Committee must help boost safeguards for athletes against sexual abuse or risk losing them

Human-Animal Conflict


  • Kerala forest officials  captured a wild elephant code-named Palakkad Tusker-7 (PT 7), which had been terrorising several villages in Palakkad district since two years. 


Facts Figures

  • Elephant: India has the largest number of wild Asian Elephants, estimated at 29,964 according to the 2017 census by Project Elephant, i.e. about 60% of the species’ global population.
  • In 2020-21 (upto December 2020), 87 elephants and 359 people lost their lives in human-elephant conflict.
  • Tigers- According to the latest Tiger Census of 2018-19 conducted in India, 2,967 Tigers live in the country. The population growth rate of Tiger is six percent per annum. India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world.
  • Asiatic Lions – As per the 2020 survey, the estimated population of Asiatic Lions is 674 lions in India.
  • Asian leopards, Bears, wolves, Jaguars and spectacled bears are the animals often in conflict with humans.

What is Human-Animal conflict?

  • Human-wildlife conflict is when encounters between humans and wildlife lead to negative results, such as loss of property, livelihoods, and even life. 

Reasons/ Factors causing Human-Animal conflict

  • Urbanisation & Development
  • Lack of Protected areas
  • Population explosion
  • Deforestation
  • Agricultural expansion
  • Climate change 
  • Invasive species
  • Increase in eco-tourism
  • Substantial increase in the population of prolific breeders like wild boars and peacocks.

Impacts of Human-Animal conflict

  • Decline and potential eradication of species,
  • Financial losses and threats to health and safety, livelihoods, food security, and property.
  • Increase in Road and Railways Accidents due to infrastructure development in forested areas.

Steps Taken by Government

  • Project Elephant: It was launched by the Government of India in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • Wildlife Protection Act 1972: It lays down the rules and regulations for the conservation and protection of Animals in India.
  • Protected Areas and reserves: There are 106 National Parks, 567 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 105 existing Conservation Reserves.
  • Project Tiger: It was launched by the Government of India in  1973, initially, the Project started with 9 tiger reserves, at present there are 53 tiger reserves in India.
  • Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE): It was established by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) at the tenth Conference of the Parties in 1997.
  • It measures the levels, trends and causes of elephant mortality, providing an information base to support international decision-making related to conservation of elephants in Asia and Africa. 
  • Operation Thunderbird: Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB), Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, coordinated Operation in India to fight against wildlife crime.
  • Plan Bee: It is adopted by the Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) which is a unique method to keep elephants away from railway tracks and plans are afoot to implement it all over the country to save the lives of elephants.

Way Ahead

  • Awareness: The communication and interaction between the forest department and the locals has to be improved so that they can be sensitized about the issues and animals.
  • Wildlife corridors: Corridors allow animals to freely move from one habitat patch to another without crossing human-caused barriers which can put animals, and potentially humans, in danger. 
  • Community Participation: Effective planning and implementation of such measures requires consideration of good principles in community led-conservation, in collaboration with the communities affected.
  • Increase in Protected areas: To conserve the animals and avoid any human-animal interaction more protected areas need to be developed by the Government.
  • Other measures: Includes barriers (fences, nets, trenches), guarding and early-warning systems, deterrents and repellents (sirens, lights, beehives), translocation (moving wildlife), compensation or insurance, providing risk-reducing alternatives, as well as managing tensions between stakeholders involved in these situations.

SEBI Launches Information Database on Municipal Bonds

In News

  • Recently, Markets regulator SEBI launched an information database on municipal bonds.

More about the news

  • Programme on municipal bonds and municipal finance:
    • As part of efforts to develop the bond markets, an outreach programme on municipal bonds and municipal finance was organised by SEBI in New Delhi.
  • The information database:
    • The information database contains a wide range of information in the form of
      • Statistics and regulations, 
      • Circulars, 
      • Guidance note and 
      • Frequently Asked Questions issued by Sebi in respect of municipal debt securities.

About Municipal Bonds

  • About:
    • A municipal bond or muni bond is a debt instrument issued by municipal corporations or associated bodies in India. 
  • Utilisation:
    • These local governmental bodies utilise the funds raised through these bonds to finance projects for socio-economic development through building bridges, schools, hospitals, providing proper amenities to households, etc.
  • Maturity period & returns:
    • Such bonds come with a maturity period of three years, whereby municipal corporations provide returns on these bonds either from property and professional tax collected or from revenues generated from specific projects or both.
  • SEBI’s guidelines related to the issuance of municipal bonds:
    • The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) revised the guidelines related to the issuance of municipal bonds in 2015 in an attempt to enable ULBs or local government bodies to raise finances from such sources. 
    • Following this measure, different cities have capitalised on the new guidelines to fund initiatives such as Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urbanisation Transformation (AMRUT) and Smart Cities Mission.

Types of Municipal Bonds in India

  • There are primarily two types of municipal bonds in India, categorised as per their usage. These are –
    • General Obligation Bonds:
      • As the name suggests, General Obligation Bonds are issued to raise finances for general projects such as improving the infrastructure of a region. 
      • Repayment of the bond, along with interest, is processed through revenue generated from different projects and taxes.
    • Revenue bonds:
      • Revenue bonds, on the other hand, are issued to raise finance for specific projects, such as the construction of a particular building. 
      • Repayment of such bonds (principal and accrued interest) shall be paid through revenues explicitly generated from the declared projects.

Advantages of Municipal Bonds

  • Transparency: 
    • These bonds that are issued to the public are rated by renowned agencies such as CRISIL, which allows investors transparency regarding the credibility of the investment option.
  • Exemption from taxation:
    • In India, municipal bonds are exempted from taxation if the investor conforms to certain stipulated rules. In addition to such conformation, interest rates generated on such investment tools are also exempt from taxation policy.
  • Low Risk:
    • These are issued by municipal authorities, implying involvement of minimal risk with these securities.
  • Significant for ULBs:
    • They are crucial for the financial independence of the Urban Local Bodies. 


  • The yield is low and the bonds may not be able to beat inflation over the long term.
  • The bonds lose value as the interest rate goes up and may get traded at a value less than face value.
  • There is also a need for State guarantees for the bonds.
More about the BondsMeaning:A bond is simply a loan taken out by a company. Instead of going to a bank, the company gets the money from investors who buy its bonds. Interest coupon:In exchange for the capital, the company pays an interest coupon, which is the annual interest rate paid on a bond expressed as a percentage of the face value. Interest:The company pays the interest at predetermined intervals (usually annually or semiannually) and returns the principal on the maturity date, ending the loan.Significance:The bond market can help investors diversify beyond stocks.Some of the characteristics of bonds include their maturity, their coupon (interest) rate, their tax status, and their callability.Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)About:SEBI is a statutory body established on April 12, 1992 in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.Before SEBI came into existence, Controller of Capital Issues was the regulatory authority; it derived authority from the Capital Issues (Control) Act, 1947.Aim: To protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and regulate the securities market.It is the regulator of the securities and commodity market in India owned by the Government of India.Statute:Initially SEBI was a non statutory body without any statutory power.It became autonomous and given statutory powers by SEBI Act 1992.

Light Pollution & Dark-Sky Reserve

In News

  • Recently, the district administration of Ladakh designated six hamlets within the Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary as a dark-sky reserve.

New Study

  • Title: 
    • Citizen scientists report global rapid reductions in the visibility of stars from 2011 to 2022
  • What they Found: 
    • Researchers from Germany and the U.S. analysed a global database of what the dimmest star visible from a particular location is.
    • They found that non-natural light had increased the brightness of the artificial glow of the night sky, or skyglow, by 9.2-10% every year between 2011 and 2022. 
    • The skyglow had brightened around:
      • 6.5% over Europe, 
      • 10.4% over North America, and 
      • 7.7% over the rest of the world.
  • Disagreement with satellite data: 
    • Satellite-based data has indicated that the rate of increase has been around 2% per year. 
  • Reason of discrepancy:
    • The discrepancy is probably because satellites are unable to ‘sense’ blue light emitted by LEDs and to study light that is emitted parallel to the ground.
    • Visible light emitted by many sources is divergent, so light emitted insufficiently downward could find its way into the sky. 
    • Almost all surfaces in cities reflect light, meaning a portion of entirely down-cast light will be reflected upwards, contributing to night-time light pollution. 
  • Global Status:
    • Africa:
      • It had just 452 observations between January 2011 and August 2022 in the database. 
    • China & Brazil:
      • There were no entries from China or Brazil — both rapidly industrialising nations — in the study. 
  • India: 
    • A small Observation was made at the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) before and after the power cut in Hanle, the number of stars that become invisible when the monastery is lit is striking. 
    • 19.5% of India’s population — the lowest fraction among G20 countries — experiences a level of skyglow that would at least keep the Milky Way galaxy out of sight and at most render “dark adaptation for human eyes” impossible. 
    • Between 2012 and 2016, India’s lit area increased by 1.07-1.09%.
    • The average radiance of “stably lit areas” — for example, excluding wildfires — increased by 1.05-1.07%.

Dark-Sky Reserve

  • About: 
    • It is an area whose sky is free of light pollution
    • It is a designation given to a place that has policies in place to ensure that a tract of land or region has minimal artificial light interference. 
    • The authorities safeguard telescopes’ access to dark skies by actively lowering light pollution around their sites.
    • Several such reserves exist around the world but none so far in India.
  • Origin: 
    • When private space venture company SpaceX’s Starlink constellation of small satellites began covering the view of ground-based telescopes around the Earth, the idea of the sky as a natural resource capable of being polluted became popular. 
    • These incidents highlighted the absence of a global treaty to reduce light pollution more noticeable. 
  • Nomination by: 
    • The International Dark Sky Association is a U.S.-based non-profit that designates places as International Dark Sky Places, Parks, Sanctuaries and Reserves, depending on the criteria they meet. 
  • Significance:
  • The reserve will boost astro tourism in India and will be one of the world’s highest-located sites for optical, infrared, and gamma-ray telescopes.
  • The astronomical observatories located in the area particularly to keep the skies dark.


  • Health impact: 
    • It stimulates the cone cells in human eyes, which is possible only when an environment is considered to be well-lit.
    • By disrupting the circadian rhythm, artificial light at night can hamper the production of melatonin, an influential hormone in the human body which affects sleep, moods and cognition.
    • Circadian disruption increased the risk of breast cancer among night-shift workers by 40%. 
  • Affects Flora and fauna: 
    • Artificial light at night affects both people and wildlife in significant ways. Lit beaches deter sea turtles from coming ashore to nest. 
    • Skyglow keeps trees from sensing seasonal variations. 
    • Young burrow-nesting seabirds don’t take flight unless the nesting site becomes dark. 
    • Clownfish eggs don’t hatch when exposed to artificial light at night, killing the offspring.
    • It interferes with multiple aspects of insect life and allows insect predators to hunt for longer.
  • Use of LEDs:
    • Regardless of historical or geographical context, humans tend to use as much artificial light as they can buy for about 0.7 percent of GDP. 
    • Even though LEDs have become more efficient, their utilisation hasn’t decreased, which in turn means the carbon emissions due to their production and use hasn’t decreased.

Way Ahead

  • Villagers and residents also need to be trained to help visitors with astronomical observations.
  • There should be restrictions during the evening and night to vehicles and headlights. 
Indian Astronomical Observatory – Changthang Wildlife SanctuaryThe Indian Astronomical Observatory, the high-altitude station of IIA, is situated to the north of Western Himalayas, at an altitude of 4,500 metres above mean sea level. Located atop Mt. Saraswati in the Nilamkhul Plain in the Hanle Valley of Changthang, it is a dry, cold desert with sparse human population and has the Hanle monastery as its nearest neighbour. The cloudless skies and low atmospheric water vapour make it one of the best sites in the world for optical, infrared, sub-millimetre, and millimetre wavelengths.Hanle It is about 4,500 metres above sea level and it hosts telescopes .It is regarded as one of the world’s most optimal sites for astronomical observations. The Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT), High Energy Gamma Ray telescope (HAGAR), the Major Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiment Telescope (MACE) and GROWTH-India are prominent telescopes located at the Hanle observatory.

National Girl Child Day

In News

  • Recently, the Government of India celebrated  National Girl Child Day.

About National Girl Child Day

  • It was first initiated in 2008 by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • It is celebrated in the country on January 24 every year with the objective to provide support and opportunities to the girls of India.
  • It aims towards promoting awareness about the rights of the girl child and to increase awareness on the importance of girl education, health and nutrition 
  • It also aims to promote the girl’s position in society to make their living better among the society. 
  • Gender discrimination is a major problem that girls and women face throughout their life.
    • It also aims to support the girl child of the nation and remove gender-based biases. 
    • The main focus is on changing society’s attitude towards girls, decreasing female feticide and creating awareness about the decreasing sex ratio.

Steps Taken by the Government

  • The government of India has taken several steps over the years to improve the conditions of girls. The government has started several campaigns and programmes some of them are :
  • Save the Girl Child,
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao,
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
  • CBSE Udaan Scheme
  • Free or subsidized education for the girl child,
  •  Reservation for women in colleges and universities
  •  National Scheme of Incentive to Girls for Secondary Education


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