Demand of the Question:
Introduction : Start by defining environmental crimes and can quote some relevant data.
Body : Explain with examples what are the losses to biodiversity due to environmental crimes. Also state how to reduce such crimes.
Conclusion: As per the context.

An environmental crime is a violation of environmental laws that are put into place to protect the environment. When broadly defined, the crime includes all illegal acts that directly cause environmental harm. Such crimes are also referred to as ‘crime against the environment.

Ways to reduce environmental crimes :
a) Strict adherence to laws and regulations and timely punitive actions.
b) International consortiums to deal with cross boundary crimes like smuggling
c) Prepare databook in order to take fact based actions in time
d) Role of private players, role models, civil society should be considered in order to spread awareness
e) Education is the key to every step and children should be taught from school level to prevent such crimes
f) Individual action is utmost important such as using greener objects , using products with no animal experiments, etc.
According to UNEP-INTERPOL Report 2016 the estimated monetary value of environmental crimes was between USD 91-259 billion. They have been rising at 5-7% annually since 2014 . It is high time strict action is to be taken from individual to country level.


Demand of the Question:
Introduction : Define Genome Editing
Body: Discuss benefits of Genome editing for healthcare
Enumerate concerns associated with the use of Genome editing
Conclusion: Conclude as per context

A genome is the genetic makeup of an organism i.e. the full set of its DNA, which is the chemical compound that contains all the information that the organism needs to function. Genome editing is the addition, removal or replacement of DNA base pairs to change an organism’s genome structure.

  1. New technique CRISP- Cas 9 which is faster, cheaper and more accurate than earlier techniques and can precisely target a sequence of DNA, extract, edit or replace it even in embryo stage. It can prevent hereditary diseases such as sickle cells, thalassaemia, HIV, cancer and Huntingtons disease from passing to children.
  2. Mitochondrial Gene Therapy helps in preventing mitochondrial diseases being transferred from mother to child.
  3. Somatic Cell Gene Therapy targets only a group of cells and can be used to treat haemophilia.
  4. It could form the basis of highly efficient & cost-effective next generation antibiotics (based on bacteriophage viruses).
  5. Gene editing can be used to protect endangered species or bring to life extinct species.
  6. It can be used to grow healthier food (via fortification) and increasing harvest.
  7. It has the potential to slow down the spread of diseases by eliminating its means of transmission. E.g. Gene editing can be used to introduce sterile mosquitoes into the environment.
  8. Recently He Jiankui, an independent Chinese researcher, triggered global controversy over claims of world’s first genetically altered babies using CRISPR/Cas9
  9. Germline Editing causes Irreversible genetic changes, wherein Harmful consequences of germline modification might only present themselves in subsequent generations.
  10. It will encourage the notions of human beings as biologically perfectible artefacts. It could all too easily lead to a future society of genetic haves and have nots.
  11. Designer babies and inequality: Our society is already plagued by dramatic inequalities. ―Designer children‖ of the well-off would likely benefit disproportionately from these additional opportunities.
  12. It also raises concerns about children’s autonomy & selfhood and decisions about the allocation of funds and resources devoted to health care and research.
  13. There is still Uncertainty about outcomes regarding health and longevity. As a result, it has been tangled in legal permissions.
  14. Uncontrolled clinical trials: There are at present no standard norms for standardization of norms for clinical trials for checking the efficacy of the treatment.
    Bioethicists & researchers agree that human genome editing for reproductive purposes should not be attempted at this time. All clinical trials proceeding in germline editing should be allowed only when no alternative forms of disease prevention are available.
    There is a need for more research, risk analysis and regulations with involvement of all stakeholders at national and international level.


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