Domestic Violence Against the Women

In News

  • The Delhi High Court has stayed proceedings under the Protection of Women against Domestic Violence Act in a case where a man moved a local court accusing his wife of adultery, taking a prima facie view that protection under the DV Act is not available to the husband.

What is Domestic Violence?

  • Domestic violence can be described as the power misused by one adult in a relationship to control another. 
  • It is the establishment of control and fear in a relationship through violence and other forms of abuse. 
  • This violence can take the form of physical assault, psychological abuse, social abuse, financial abuse, or sexual assault. 
  • The frequency of the violence can be on and off, occasional or chronic.


  • Economic dependence has been found to be the central reason. Without the ability to sustain themselves economically, women are forced to stay in abusive relationships and are not able to be free from violence. 
  • Due to deep-rooted values and culture, women do not prefer to adopt the option of separation or divorce. They also fear the consequences of reporting violence and declare an unwillingness to subject themselves to the shame of being identified as battered women.
    • the everyday realities, obstacles, prejudices, and fears that women experience around sharing and reporting experiences of violence
    • Crucially women did not want to be a ‘burden’ on others, in particular, their families.
  • Lack of information about alternatives also forces women to suffer silently within the four walls of their homes.
  • Domestic violence has sometimes been referred to as the ‘shadow pandemic’ — as the world faced an unprecedented crisis and lockdowns became the norm in several countries, not only did women find themselves locked in with their abusers at home, but they also lost access to support services outside.
    • The economic distress faced by millions exacerbated the problem.

Prevalence in India 

  • The phenomenon of domestic violence is widely prevalent in India but remains invisible in the public domain. 
  • the latest round of the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-21) reveals that 32% of ever-married women aged 18-49 years have ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual violence committed by their husbands, with more rural than urban women reporting experiences of domestic violence.
  • Despite almost a third of women being subject to domestic violence, the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-21) reports that only 14% of women who have experienced domestic violence have ever sought help; and this number is much lower in the rural areas

Issues and Concerns

  • Violence against women is a problem across the globe and it is a violation of fundamental freedom and rights, such as the right to liberty and security
  • Despite the law existing on paper, women are still largely unable to access the law in practice. 
  • Its promise and provisions are unevenly implemented, unavailable, and out of reach for most Indian women.
  • Several States are yet to implement Protection officers. And where they are in post, they are under-resourced, under-skilled, and overworked, making their remit impossible.
  • It can have major short and long-term impacts on the physical and mental health of the victim, leading to substantial social and economic costs for governments, communities, and individuals.

Various Initiatives of Government 

  • Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. 
  • Maintenance of law and order, protection of life and property of citizens including prevention of domestic violence against women is primarily the responsibility of the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations.
  • The Government has ensured that their schemes of One Stop Centres (OSCs), Universalisation of Women Help Line (WHL), Ujjawala Homes, SwadharGreh, Emergency Response Support System (112) and various authorities under women-centric laws such as ‘The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005’, ‘The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961’, ‘The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006’, etc. remain operational and available for providing assistance to women.
  •  The Government has also undertaken sensitisation programs for the concerned officials of States and UTs for this purpose.

Suggestions and Way Forward 

  •  Sharing experiences of violence is a powerful step for women, accessing services and support often resulted in uncertainty, fear, and disappointment.
  • We, as a society, need to come together to take steps that can support individuals who are still living in such conditions.
    • As we talk about dealing with the effects of domestic violence, providing access to crisis helplines, creating awareness about the signs of abuse, training professionals working in this area, and creating the right support structures that can support victims is our collective responsibility. 
  • Concerted and co-ordinated multisectoral efforts are key methods of enacting change and responding to domestic violence at local and national levels.
  • Programs are required which intend to address battered women’s needs, including those that focus on building self-efficacy and livelihood skills.
    • The significance of informal and local community networks should be acknowledged in this regard. 
    • The survivors of domestic violence can be involved in program planning and implementation in order to ensure accessibility and effectiveness.
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 It came into effect in October 2006 and aims to provide protection and support to victims of domestic violence. The State Governments are required to appoint Protection Officers, register Service Providers and notify shelter homes and medical facilities for implementation of the Act. It is a Civil law meant to protect and provide support to victims of domestic violence. Under the Act, the aggrieved woman can seek various reliefs such as a protection order, residence order, custody order, compensation order, monetary relief, shelter, and medical facilities. The aggrieved woman can also file a complaint under Section 498A of IPC, where ever relevant. 


  • Recently, the Prime Minister of India recognized the valued utilization of India-UAE CEPA by Indian Exporters.

Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CEPA)

  • CEPA is a comprehensive agreement between India and the United Arab Emirates that seeks to enhance the economic and commercial ties between the two countries.
  • The agreement aims to increase trade and investment, improve market access, and promote economic growth between India and the UAE.
  • CEPA was signed in 2020 and is seen as a significant milestone in the economic relationship between India and the UAE.
  • Under CEPA, the two countries have committed to reducing barriers to trade and investment, which will make it easier for businesses from both countries to engage in trade and investment activities.
  • The agreement includes provisions for reducing tariffs on goods, services, and investment, as well as for promoting the movement of people, goods, and services between India and the UAE.
  • CEPA is expected to provide a major boost to the economic relationship between India and the UAE, as it will increase trade and investment, improve market access, and provide a more favorable environment for businesses to operate in.
  • The agreement is expected to benefit a range of sectors, including but not limited to information technology, engineering, pharmaceuticals, and services sectors.
  • CEPA is expected to promote the development of economic and commercial ties between India and the UAE, and to provide a foundation for further cooperation between the two countries in the future.
  • It is projected to reach US$100 billion in goods trade and over US$1.5 billion in trade in services in the next five years. Built on three pillars of trust, transparency, and talent.


  • For India:
    • Preferential market access provided by the UAE on more than 97 percent of its tariff lines, accounting for 99 percent of Indian exports to the UAE in value terms
    • Preferential market access for labour-intensive goods such as textiles, leather, footwear, sports goods, plastics, furniture, agricultural and wood products, engineering goods, pharmaceuticals, and automobiles
    • Preferential market access for services sector including computer-related services, health, tourism, travel, engineering, and accountancy
    • Creation of more than one million jobs for the Indian workforce through enhanced trade liberalisation and market access
    • UAE committed to issuing 140,000 employment visas to skilled Indian professionals by 2030
    • Three-year visa for intra-corporate transferes and a 90-day visa for business visitors and contractual suppliers from India
  • Benefits for the UAE:
    • Boost to the UAE’s GDP (US$9 billion) by 1.7 percent by 2030
    • Zero-duty market access for 90 percent of exports from the UAE into India, benefiting commodity exporters of petrochemicals, aluminum, and copper.

Importance of UAE

  • Trade and Investment: UAE is one of India’s largest trading partners, with bilateral trade reaching nearly $60 billion in 2019-20. UAE is also a significant source of foreign investment for India.
  • Energy Security: UAE is a major supplier of oil to India, making it an important partner in India’s energy security.
  • Strategic Location: UAE’s location makes it a gateway for India to access the wider Gulf region and Africa.
  • People-to-People Ties: There is a large Indian diaspora in the UAE, estimated to be around 3 million people, making it a significant cultural and economic bridge between the two countries.
  • Political and Defence Cooperation: India and UAE have a strong political and defence relationship, with regular high-level exchanges and cooperation on regional and global issues.


  • Balancing Relations with Iran: India has traditionally maintained close ties with Iran, but the UAE has been critical of Iran’s regional behaviour and has sought to counter its influence. India has had to balance its relationships with both countries, which has at times led to tensions.
  • Competition for Influence in the Gulf: Both India and the UAE are seeking to increase their influence in the Gulf region, and this competition has sometimes led to friction in their relationship.
  • Differences on Regional Issues: India and the UAE have different perspectives on some regional issues, such as the conflict in Syria, which has at times created tension in their relationship.
  • Labor Issues: There have been concerns raised about the treatment of Indian workers in the UAE, which have sometimes strained relations between the two countries.

Other Major Types of Trade Agreements

  • Free Trade Agreements (FTAs): Agreements between two or more countries to remove trade barriers and promote free trade between their territories.
    • India has signed FTAs with countries like Sri Lanka and trading blocs like ASEAN.
  • Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): An FTA between ten ASEAN member countries and six countries including Australia, China, Japan, South Korea, India, and New Zealand.
  • Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA): An agreement between two or more partners in which they offer privileged access to certain goods by reducing duties on specific tariff lines.
    • India signed a PTA with Afghanistan.
  • Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA): A trade deal that mainly focuses on negotiating trade tariffs and Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) rates.
    • India has signed a CECA with Malaysia.
  • Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT): A bilateral agreement between two countries to regulate the conditions for private investments by citizens and firms from both countries.
  • Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA): A trade pact between nations that sets a framework for expanding trade and resolving trade disputes.

Way Ahead

  • Despite these challenges, India and the UAE continue to work towards strengthening their relationship and overcoming these obstacles. Both countries recognize the importance of their relationship and have taken steps to deepen cooperation in various areas, including trade, investment, energy security, and people-to-people ties.
  • Overall, the UAE is an important partner for India in several areas, and the two countries continue to work towards strengthening their relationship.

 Source: IE

Lab-Grown Diamonds

In News

  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced in the budget 2023-24, the government’s proposal to focus on lab-grown diamonds by reducing the Customs duty on the seeds used in lab-grown diamond manufacturing.
    • FM also announced a grant to IITs to facilitate the growth of Lab-Grown Diamonds in India.
  • This will encourage the indigenous production of LGD seeds, machines and to reduce import dependency.

Lab-Grown Diamonds

  • About: 
    • Lab-grown diamonds (LGD) are diamonds that are produced in laboratories, using specific technology which mimics the geological processes that grow natural diamonds.
  • Production Process of LGDs:
    • LGDs are mostly manufactured through two processes – high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) method or Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) method.
    • High pressure, high temperature (HPHT) method: HPHT method requires extremely heavy presses that can produce up to 730,000 psi of pressure under extremely high temperatures (at least 1500 celsius).
      • Usually graphite is used as the “diamond seed” and when subjected to these extreme conditions, the relatively inexpensive form of carbon turns into one of the most expensive carbon forms.
    • Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)method: A thin slice of diamond seed is placed in a sealed chamber and heated to around 800 degrees celsius, and then the chamber is filled with other carbon rich gases such as methane.
      • The gases are ionised into plasma using microwaves, lasers, and other techniques. The ionisation breaks down the gases and allows the carbon to merge with the diamond seed, growing the diamond up layer by layer.
    • Both HPHT and CVD methods of growing diamonds artificially begin with a seed — a slice of another diamond.
  • Applications:
    • LGDs have basic properties similar to natural diamonds, including their optical dispersion, which provide them the signature diamond sheen. However, since they are created in controlled environments, many of their properties can be enhanced for various purposes.
    • LGDs are most often used for industrial purposes, in machines and tools. Their hardness and extra strength make them ideal for use as cutters.
    • Pure synthetic diamonds have high thermal conductivity, but negligible electrical conductivity. This combination is invaluable for electronics where such diamonds can be used as a heat spreader for high-power laser diodes, laser arrays and high-power transistors

Advantages of LGDs

  • The environmental footprint of a diamond grown in a laboratory is much lesser than that of a naturally-occurring diamond.A report by Diamond Foundry states that  it takes ten times more energy to extract a natural diamond from the earth than it takes in creating one above the ground
  • Since LGD’s are lab grown,they can be customised to improve properties that are specific to the application.Ex: hardness in industrial applications can be prioritised over optical or chemical properties. 

Indian diamond industry 

  • Diamond occurs in two types of deposits, primarily in igneous rocks of basic or ultrabasic composition and in alluvial deposits derived from the primary sources.
  • Diamond fields of India are grouped into four regions:
    • South Indian tract of Andhra Pradesh,comprising parts of Anantapur, Kadapa,Guntur, Krishna, Mahabubnagar and Kurnool districts;
    • Central Indian tract of Madhya Pradesh, comprising Panna belt;
    • Behradin-Kodawali area in Raipur district and Tokapal, Dugapal, etc. areas in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh; and
    • Eastern Indian tract mostly of Odisha,lying between Mahanadi and Godavari valleys.
  • India is the world’s largest cutting and polishing center for diamonds,accounting for over 90% of polished diamond manufacturing globally.India exports more than 75% of the world’s polished diamond, gems and jewellery. 
  • India depends largely on imports of rough gem diamonds for its Cutting and Polishing Industry as there is no notable production except for one producer in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Diamond cutting and polishing is one of the fastest-growing sectors, mostly export-oriented and being labour intensive employs more than 5 million people,contributing around 7% to the country’s GDP and 15% to India’s total merchandise export
  • Attributing factors: Well supported by government policies since it earns foreign exchange, easy availability of high skilled labour, cutting-edge technology and lower costs involved.
  • Challenges: Uncertainty in Supply of Raw Material, Unorganised Market consisting family owned firms,Expected Rise in Diamond Prices and Falling International Demand and Competition from China are some of the factors plaguing the industry.

Key Highlights: Budget 2023-24

In News

  • Recently, the Union Finance Minister presented the Budget in Parliament.
    • Seven priorities of the budget or ‘Saptarishi’ are: 
      • Inclusive development, 
      • Reaching the last mile, 
      • Infrastructure and investment, 
      • Unleashing the potential, 
      • Green growth, 
      • Youth power and 
      • Financial sector.

Budget highlights

  • Agriculture:
    • Atmanirbhar Clean Plant Program
      • The program to be launched to boost availability of disease-free, quality planting material for high value horticultural crops.
    • GOBARdhan:
      • 500 new ‘waste to wealth’ plants under GOBARdhan (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan) scheme to be established for promoting circular economy.
    • Bio-Input Resource Centres:
      • Centre to facilitate one crore farmers to adopt natural farming over the next three years. 
      • For this, 10,000 Bio-Input Resource Centres to be set-up, creating a national-level distributed micro-fertilizer and pesticide manufacturing network.
    • Agriculture Accelerator Fund:
      • Agriculture Accelerator Fund to be set-up to encourage agri-startups by young entrepreneurs in rural areas.
  • Environment:
    • PM-PRANAM:
      • “PM Programme for Restoration, Awareness, Nourishment and Amelioration of Mother Earth” (PM-PRANAM) to be launched to incentivize States and Union Territories to promote alternative fertilizers and balanced use of chemical fertilizers.
    • MISHTI:
      • ‘Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes’, MISHTI, to be taken up for mangrove plantation along the coastline and on salt pan lands, through convergence between MGNREGS, CAMPA Fund and other sources.
    • Green Credit Programme:
      • Green Credit Programme to be notified under the Environment (Protection) Act to incentivize and mobilize additional resources for environmentally sustainable and responsive actions.
    • Amrit Dharohar scheme:
      • Amrit Dharohar scheme to be implemented over the next three years to encourage optimal use of wetlands, enhance bio-diversity, carbon stock, eco-tourism opportunities and income generation for local communities.
  • Skill Development:
    • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 4.0
      • It is to be launched to skill lakhs of youth within the next three years covering new age courses for Industry 4.0 like coding, AI, robotics, mechatronics, IOT, 3D printing, drones, and soft skills.
    • Skill India International Centres:
      • 30 Skill India International Centres to be set up across different States to skill youth for international opportunities.
  • Businesses & Start Ups:
    • National Data Governance Policy:
      • National Data Governance Policy to be brought out to unleash innovation and research by start-ups and academia.
    • ODOPs (One District, One Product):
      • States to be encouraged to set up a Unity Mall for promotion and sale of their own and also all others states’ ODOPs (One District, One Product), GI products and handicrafts.
  • MSME:
    • PM Vishwakarma Kaushal Samman (PM VIKAS): 
      • The first-of-its-kind package assistance endeavours to improve the quality of, scale and reach of the products made by traditional artisans and craftspeople. 
      • Components of the scheme would not provide for financial support but also access to advanced skill training, knowledge of modern digital techniques and efficient green technologies, digital payments and social security. 
    • Vivad se Vishwas I: 
      • If MSMEs failed to execute contracts during the pandemic period, 95% of the forfeited amount relating to bid or performance security would be returned to them by the government or its undertakings. 
  • Education:
    • Eklavya Model Residential Schools:
      • Centre to recruit 38,800 teachers and support staff for the 740 Eklavya Model Residential Schools, serving 3.5 lakh tribal students over the next three years.
    • District Institutes of Education and Training:
      • District Institutes of Education and Training to be developed as vibrant institutes of excellence for Teachers’ Training.
    • National Digital Library:
      • A National Digital Library for Children and Adolescents to be set-up for facilitating availability of quality books across geographies, languages, genres and levels, and device agnostic accessibility.
  • Savings scheme for women – Mahila Samman Saving Certificate:
    • One-time new saving scheme Mahila Samman Saving Certificate for women to be made available for 2 years up to March 2025.
    • It will offer deposit facility of up to Rs 2 lakh in the name of women or girls for tenure of 2 years at fixed interest rate of 7.5 percent with partial withdrawal option.
  • Governance:
    • Entity DigiLocker:
      • Entity DigiLocker to be setup for use by MSMEs, large business and charitable trusts to store and share documents online securely.
    • Jan Vishwas Bill:
      • Jan Vishwas Bill to amend 42 Central Acts have been introduced to further trust-based governance.
  • The Urban Infrastructure Development Fund:
    • Urban Infrastructure Development Fund (UIDF) will be established through use of priority Sector Lending shortfall, which will be managed by the national Housing Bank, and will be used by public agencies to create urban infrastructure in Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities.
    • It would provide the impetus needed for the growth of infrastructure in cities.
  • Technology:
    • Make AI in India and Make AI work for India:
      • Three centres of excellence for Artificial Intelligence to be set-up in top educational institutions to realise the vision of “Make AI in India and Make AI work for India”.
  • Tourism:
    • ‘Dekho Apna Desh’ initiative:
      • Sector specific skilling and entrepreneurship development to be dovetailed to achieve the objectives of the ‘Dekho Apna Desh’ initiative.
    • Vibrant Villages Programme:
      • Tourism infrastructure and amenities to be facilitated in border villages through the Vibrant Villages Programme.
  • Finance:
    • National Financial Information Registry:
      • National Financial Information Registry to be set up to serve as the central repository of financial and ancillary information for facilitating efficient flow of credit, promoting financial inclusion, and fostering financial stability. 
      • A new legislative framework to be designed in consultation with RBI to govern this credit public infrastructure.
    • Comprehensive review: 
      • Financial sector regulators to carry out a comprehensive review of existing regulations in consultation with public and regulated entities. Time limits to decide the applications under various regulations would also be laid down.

Direct Taxes

  • Income Tax:
  • Budget 2023 focused on raising capital expenditure by the government, fiscal consolidation, and attractive incentives and rebates in the new income tax regime.
  • Income Tax payers:
    • No changes in the old tax regime
    • New tax regime to become the default tax regime. However, citizens can opt for the old tax regime.
    • No tax on income up to Rs 7.5 lakh a year in new tax regime (with inclusion of standard deduction)
    • Govt proposes to reduce highest surcharge rate from 37% to 25% in new tax regime
  • New Income Tax Slabs Under New Tax Regimes:
    • Rs 0-3 lakh: Nil
    • Rs 3-6 lakhs: 5%
    • Rs 6-9 lakhs: 10%
    • Rs 9-12 lakhs: 15%
    • Rs 12-15 lakhs: 20%
    • Rs Over 15 lakhs: 30%

Indirect Taxes

  • Through increased Indirect Taxes, following products will get Cheaper:
    • Mobile phones
    • TV
    • Lab-grown diamonds
    • Shrimp feed
    • Machinery for lithium ion batteries
    • Raw materials for EV industry
  • Through reduction of Indirect Taxes, following products will get Costlier:
    • Cigarettes
    • Silver
    • Compounded rubber
    • Imitation Jewellery
    • Articles made from gold bars
    • Imported bicycles and toys
    • Imported kitchen electric chimney
    • Imported luxury cars and EVs

Source: PIB

Three-Capital Plan of Andhra Pradesh

In News

  • Andhra Pradesh CM has said Vishakhapatnam will be the new capital of the state.


  • Andhra Pradesh needs a new capital since Hyderabad, the capital of undivided Andhra is now with Telangana.
  • The two states have been sharing the capital temporarily.
  • Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA) Act, 2014 has been scrapped by the current state government.

What is the Capital dispute about?

  • After the division of Andhra Pradesh, the state initially proposed the creation of a Grand capital in Amravati and enacted the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Act, 2014.
  • The state government following the recommendations of the High Power Committee passed the Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020.
  • The Act said Amaravati would be the “Legislative Capital”, Visakhapatnam the “Executive Capital”, and Kurnool the “Judicial Capital” of the state.
  • Farmers of the Amravati organised themselves under the banner of the Rajdhani Rythu Parirakshana Samithi.
  • A petition was filed in the Andhra HC challenging the Decentralisation decision. Post the HC verdict the state government decided to scrap the decentralisation law. 
  • The SC Bench had sought responses from the Centre, the Andhra Pradesh government, and the Amravati Samiti. 

Benefits of three capital formation

  • Governmental activities are the fulcrum around which several developmental activities spring up and boost the local economy bringing in greater productivity and employment for locals.
  • Balanced Regional Development: By having three capitals, it is believed that the development of different regions of the state can be balanced, leading to improved economic and social development.
  • Increased Investment: The formation of new capitals is expected to attract investment and create new job opportunities, boosting the local economy.
  • Improved Accessibility: The decentralization of the capital city is expected to improve accessibility to government services for citizens in different parts of the state.
  • From the urbanisation angle, it is better to work against a primate city with high population density and move in favor of mid-sized cities with decent economies.
  • Reduced congestion: The decentralization of the capital city is also expected to reduce congestion in the current capital and improve the quality of life for its residents.

Challenges with three capital formation

  • Separation and distance between the Legislature and the Executive will hamper coordination during assembly sessions.
  • Decentralisation and inclusive development will not get served by declaring three capital alone but functional and financial decentralisation and empowerment down to the third tier of governance is required, which makes local bodies self-governing institutions.
  • Consensus of all stakeholders is not there: Investors who had put in money and farmers who had contributed land had done so in the hope that certain gains will flow out of their initiatives.
  • Financial concerns: The cost of developing three capitals is estimated to be high, and there are concerns about the financial feasibility of the project.
  • Lack of infrastructure: The selected locations for the three capitals may lack adequate infrastructure, which could pose challenges for development and implementation.
  • Disengagement with Appointed Experts and Organisations: The World Bank, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, etc. have already wound up their funding commitment. It is bound to strengthen the ill reputation of course reversal on account of Internal  Politics.
  • Environmental impact: The formation of new capitals could also impact the environment, including deforestation and loss of biodiversity, as well as social impacts on local communities.

Examples of Multiple Capitals

  • Global
    • South Africa has a different capital for its judicial, legislative, and executive branches at the federal level (Pretoria, Cape Town, and Bloemfontein).
    • Countries with 2 capitals: So do Bolivia (with capitals in Sucre and La Paz), Chile (Valparaiso and Santiago), and Georgia (Tbilisi and Kutaisi).
  • Indian
    • In Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Kerala capitals are at Lucknow, Bhopal, Gandhinagar, and Thiruvananthapuram whereas the High Courts of these states are located at Prayagraj, Jabalpur, Ahmedabad, and Kochi.
    • Some states also move their legislative assemblies to a different city for part of the year. These include Maharashtra (Mumbai and Nagpur), Himachal Pradesh (Shimla and Dharmshala), and Karnataka (Bengaluru and Belgaum).

Way Forward

  • Consultation with Stakeholders: The government should engage in consultation with various stakeholders, including local residents, political leaders, and experts, to understand their perspectives and address any concerns they may have.
  • Feasibility Study: A comprehensive feasibility study should be conducted to assess the technical, financial, and administrative viability of the project.
  • Infrastructure Development: Adequate infrastructure should be developed in all three proposed capitals, including transportation, housing, and basic amenities, to ensure their viability as functional cities.
  • Environmental Impact Assessment: An environmental impact assessment should be conducted to ensure that the formation of new capitals does not have adverse effects on the environment and local communities.
  • Implementation Plan: A detailed implementation plan should be developed to ensure the smooth and efficient rollout of the three capitals, including the allocation of resources and responsibilities.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: The progress of the project should be regularly monitored and evaluated, and any necessary modifications should be made to ensure its success.


Judicial Majoritarianism

In News

As the recent majority judgment of the Supreme Court on demonetisation comes under criticism, the minority judgment by J. Nagarathna is being hailed for its challenge to the RBI’s institutional acquiescence to the Central government.

About judicial majoritarianism

  • As opposed to standard matters heard by Division Benches consisting of two judges, numerical majorities are of particular importance to cases that involve a substantial interpretation of constitutional provisions
  • In such cases, Constitutional Benches, consisting of five or more judges, are set up in consonance with Article 145(3) of the Constitution.
    • Such Benches usually consist of five, seven, nine, 11 or even 13 judges.
    • This is done to facilitate decision-making by ensuring numerical majorities in judicial outcomes.
  • The requirement for a majority consensus flows from Article 145(5) of the Constitution which states that no judgment in such cases can be delivered except with the concurrence of a majority of the judges but that judges are free to deliver dissenting judgments or opinions. 


  • The provision was passed by the Constituent Assembly without much debate and displays a tacit acceptance of simple numerical majorities in judicial decision-making by the Assembly.
  • It is possible that the majority may fall into either methodological fallacies and errors or be limited by their ‘judicial hunch’ respectively.
  • In such situations, a meritorious minority decision, irrespective of the impeccability of its reasoning receives little weightage in terms of its outcomes.


  •  It is pertinent at this stage to raise the question, however, as to why numerical majorities of judicial bodies are accepted without any debate.
  • There is a need to reflect upon the concept of judicial majoritarianism.
    • The academic discourse on this aspect is still nascent and developing. 
  • As pending Constitutional Bench matters are listed for hearing and judgments are reserved, we must reflect upon the arguments of judicial majoritarianism on the basis of which these cases are to be decided.


Amrit Bharat Station Scheme

In Context

  • Recently, 15 railway stations under the Ambala Railway Division were selected to be developed under the Amrit Bharat Station Scheme.
    • The Union Ministry of Railways launched Amrit Bharat Station Scheme in December 2022 to modernize over 1,000 small stations over the coming years.

Amrit Bharat Station Scheme

  • About:
    • The scheme envisages the development of stations on a continuous basis with a long-term vision. 
  • Aim:
    • The scheme aims at preparation of Master Plans of the Railway stations and implementation of the Master Plan in phases to enhance the facilities.
  • Key features for these proposed stations:
    • provisions for roof top plazas, 
    • longer platforms, 
    • ballastless tracks, 
    • and 5G connectivity.
  • Other Facilities Planned under this Scheme
    • Smooth access by widening of roads, properly designed signages, dedicated pedestrian pathways, well planned parking areas, improved lighting.
    • High level platforms(760-840 mm) shall be provided at all categories of stations.
    • Provide good cafeteria/retail facilities.
    • Space shall also be created for Executive Lounges and places for small business meetings.
    • Drainage of platform areas.
    • Ceremonial flags may be provided at appropriate space in the station.
    • Special amenities for the disabled.
    • Gradual shift to sustainable and environmentally friendly solutions as per availability of funds and condition of existing assets is considered.
  • The scheme will subsume all previous redevelopment projects where work is yet to begin.




  • Economic Survey 2022-23 states that Indian start-up companies are looking at ‘reverse flipping’.

What is Reverse-flipping

  • Flipping is the process of transferring entire ownership of an Indian company to an overseas entity.
  • It is generally accompanied by a transfer of all intellectual property and data owned by an Indian company.
  • Reverse Flipping is the process of shifting the domicile of those companies back to India who flipped earlier.
  • Companies reverse flip because of easy access to capital from private equity and venture capital, changes in rules regarding round-tripping, and the growing maturity of India’s capital market.

Why Companies flip?

  • Flipping happens at the early stage of the startups, driven by commercial, taxation and personal preferences of founders and investors. Some companies decide to ‘flip’ because the major market of their product is offshore. Sometimes, investor preferences like access to incubators drive the companies to ‘flip’ as they insist on a particular domicile.
  • For easy access to capital from private equity and venture capital, changes in rules regarding round-tripping, and the growing maturity of India’s capital market. 


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