Grammy Awards

In News 

  • Music composer Ricky Kej has won his 3rd Grammy Award and became the only Indian to hold three Grammy Awards.


  • He won his first Grammy in 2015 in the Best New Age Album category for ‘Winds of Samsara’. The project had debuted at No. 1 on the US Billboard New Age Albums Chart – a first for any person of Indian origin. 
  • In 2022, Kej won a second Grammy under the same category for his collaborative work with Copeland.

Grammy Awards

  • Popularly known as Grammy Award, it is originally named Gramophone Award,  presented annually in the United States by the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (NARAS; commonly called the Recording Academy) to honour artistes in the music industry for their exceptional work in a year.
  • It was started in 1959 to respect the performers for the year 1958. Once it was made, the committee decided to call it Grammy as a tribute to Emile Berliner’s gramophone.


  • The “General Field” are four awards that are not restricted by genre:
    • Album of the Year
    • Record of the Year
    • Song of the Year
    • Best New Artiste 
  • Winners are selected from more than 25 fields, which cover such genres as pop, rock, rap, R&B, country, reggae, classical, gospel, and jazz, as well as production and postproduction work, including packaging and album notes. The honorees receive a golden statuette of a gramophone.

Earthquake in Turkey

In Context

  • Recently, three earthquakes measuring 7.8, 7.6, and 6.0 magnitude on the Richter scale hit wide swaths of Turkey and neighbouring Syria.

More about the news

  • Epicentre:
    • The epicentre was about 26 km east of the Turkish city of Nurdagi at a depth of about 18 km on the East Anatolian Fault. 
    • The quake radiated towards the northeast, bringing devastation to central Turkey and Syria.
  • Damage:
    • This is the strongest earthquake to shake the region in more than 100 years. 
    • It has killed at least 3,800 people across Turkey and Syria.
  • Vulnerability of the region:
    • The area has many buildings constructed of brittle concrete (which makes them prone to cracking, spalling, loss of strength, or steel corrosion), making them “extremely vulnerable to earthquake shaking.
EarthquakeIt is the shaking of the surface of the Earth which results in a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s lithosphere (rocky outer part of the Earth) that creates seismic waves.Earthquakes can cause severe damage, particularly in an area where homes and other buildings are poorly constructed and landslides are common.An earthquake’s point of initial rupture is called its hypocenter or focus. The epicentre is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.It is measured in the Richter scale.Plate Tectonic Theory/Plate TectonicPlate tectonic theory had its beginnings in 1915 when Alfred Wegener proposed his theory of “continental drift. According to the Plate Tectonic theory, Earth has a rigid outer layer, known as the lithosphere, which is typically about 100 km (60 miles) thick and overlies a plastic (moldable, partially molten) layer called the asthenosphere. The lithosphere is broken up into:seven very large continental- and ocean-sized plates,six or seven medium-sized regional plates, and several small plates. These plates move relative to each other.They typically move at rates of 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) per year, and interact along their boundaries.They converge, diverge, or slip past one another. Outcomes:Responsible for Earthquakes:Such interactions are thought to be responsible for most of Earth’s seismic and volcanic activity, although earthquakes and volcanoes can occur in plate interiors.Mountain formation:Plate motions cause mountains to rise where plates push together or converge. Ocean formation:Continents fracture and oceans are formed where plates pull apart or diverge.

Reasons of Turkey’s Earthquakes

  • Turkey’s proneness to earthquakes:
    • Turkey is frequently shaken by earthquakes.
      • In 2020 itself, it recorded almost 33,000 earthquakes in the region, according to Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD). 
      • Out of these, 332 earthquakes were of magnitudes 4.0 and higher. 
    • Turkey’s proneness to earthquakes comes from its tectonic location.
      • According to one estimate, almost 95% of the country’s land mass is prone to earthquake.
      • About a third of the country is at high risk, including the areas around the major cities of Istanbul and Izmir and the region of East Anatolia.  
  • Significance of location:
    • Anatolian tectonic plate:
      • Turkey is located on the Anatolian tectonic plate, which is wedged between the Eurasian and African plates
      • On the north side, the minor Arabian plate further restricts movement. 
    • North Anatolian fault (NAF) line:
      • One fault line — the North Anatolian fault (NAF) line, the meeting point of the Eurasian and Anatolian tectonic plates — is known to be “particularly devastating”
      • The NAF, one of the best-understood fault systems in the world, stretches from the south of Istanbul to northeastern Turkey, and has caused catastrophic earthquakes in the past.
    • East Anatolian fault line:
      • Then there is the East Anatolian fault line, the tectonic boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the northward-moving Arabian Plate. 
      • It runs 650 kilometers from eastern Turkey and into the Mediterranean. 
    • Aegean Sea Plate:
      • In addition to this, the Aegean Sea Plate, located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea under southern Greece and western Turkey, is also a source of seismic activity in the region. 
Damage to the ancient historical sitesGaziantep Kalesi:The historic 2,200-year-old stone castle sitting atop a hill in the centre of Gaziantep. Known locally as Gaziantep Kalesi, the historic stone castle was first constructed as an observation point by the Hittite Empire during the second millennium BC.For over 2,000 years, Gaziantep Castle stood strong, its structure remaining intact despite waves of invasion and conquest that saw it controlled by a series of Middle Eastern empires.It is the most famous landmark of Gaziantep which was used as an observation point during Roman times – has been damaged, with its walls and watch towers disintegrated. Yeni Mosque:One of the most prominent sites in Maltaya, the famous Yeni Mosque which dates back to the 13th century, has collapsed due to the earthquake. 

Parliament: The North Star of Democracy

In News

  • Recently, Rajya Sabha Chairman Jagdeep Dhankhar termed Parliament as the “North Star of democracy”


  • Recently, Both the houses of Parliament were adjourned due to the opposition creating a ruckus and demanding a discussion on the Hindenburg report on the Adani conglomerate.
  • The report by Hindenburg Research, a US-based investment firm has accused the Adani Group of “stock manipulation and accounting fraud” leading to a steep fall in the share prices of group firms.
  • Previously, the Chief Justice of India D Y Chandrachud had described the basic structure of the Constitution, laid down by the Supreme Court in the 1973 Kesavananda Bharati judgment, as the “North Star” 
  • The Doctrine of Basic Structure is a form of judicial review that is used to test the legality of any legislation by the government and gives certain direction to the interpreters and implementers of the Constitution.

What is North Star?

  • The North Star, also known as Polaris, is a bright star located in the constellation Ursa Minor.
  • It is located less than 1° away from the north celestial pole and is in direct line with the Earth’s rotational axis.
  • Its position and brightness make it useful for navigation since late antiquity.
  • Polaris was first charted by the Roman mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy and became central to human history during the Age of Exploration.
  • The North Star has been used in literature as a metaphor for something that provides guidance and direction, with “constant as the Northern Star” being a famous example from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar.
  • The title of “North Star” passes to different stars over time as the Earth’s axis of rotation wobbles like a spinning top, causing the celestial pole to “wander in a slow circle”.
  • Polaris is around 2,500 times more luminous than the Sun and is approximately 323 light years away from Earth.

Indian Parliament


  • The Indian Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. 
  • It is responsible for making laws and policies that govern the country and serves as a platform for representatives of the people to voice their opinions and concerns.


  • The Indian Parliament has a long and rich history that dates back to the colonial era. The Indian National Congress was established in 1885, and in the following years, the demands for independence and self-rule grew louder.
  • The Government of India Act 1935 established a federal structure of government and provided for a bicameral legislature.
  • India achieved independence from British rule on August 15, 1947, and the Constituent Assembly was established to draft the country’s constitution.
  • The Indian Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, and the Parliament of India was constituted under its provisions.

Structure of Indian Parliament

  • The Parliament of India is a bicameral system, consisting of two houses: the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
  • The Rajya Sabha is the upper house, composed of members appointed by the President and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
  • It has a maximum strength of 250 members, with 238 members being elected and 12 members appointed by the President.
  • The Lok Sabha is the lower house, composed of directly elected members, with a maximum strength of 552 members.

Organs of Indian Parliament

The Parliament of India has several organs, including:

  • The President: The President of India is the constitutional head of state and is elected by an Electoral College composed of members of both houses of Parliament and the legislative assemblies of the states.
  • Vice-President: The Vice-President of India is elected by members of both houses of Parliament and serves as the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
  • Speaker and Deputy Speaker: The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha are elected from among its members and preside over its proceedings.
  • Chairman and Deputy Chairman: The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha are elected from among its members and preside over its proceedings.

Importance of Parliament

  • The Indian Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the country and is responsible for making laws and policies that govern India.
  • It serves as a platform for representatives of the people to voice their opinions and concerns and to hold the government accountable for its actions.
  • The Parliament is also responsible for controlling the nation’s finances, including the imposition of taxes, the management of public funds, and the preparation of the national budget.

Key challenges of Parliament:

  • Political polarization: The political polarization between different parties in the Parliament has lead to gridlock and prevent meaningful legislation from being passed. This can result in a lack of progress on important issues and a failure to address the needs of the people.
  • Lack of attendance and participation: Many members of Parliament fail to attend sessions regularly, leading to a lack of participation in the legislative process. This can result in a lack of accountability and a failure to represent the views and interests of the people.
  • Disruptive behavior: Unparliamentary behavior by members of Parliament often disrupts the functioning of the House and prevent meaningful debates and discussions from taking place. This can result in a lack of progress on important issues and a failure to address the needs of the people.
  • Corruption:It remains a major challenge for the Indian Parliament, as some members may be influenced by money or other incentives to vote in a certain way resulting in legislation that benefits a select few rather than the general public.
  • Lack of representation: The current system of representation in the Parliament may not accurately reflect the diverse views and interests of the people resulting in a lack of representation for marginalized groups and a failure to address their needs and concerns.

Way Ahead

  • Bridging the gap: The relationship between the judiciary and parliament is crucial in any democratic system of government as both institutions play important roles in ensuring the rule of law and protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens. 
  • Strengthening attendance and participation: It can improve the functioning of the House and can be achieved through measures such as fines for absentees or incentives for regular attendance.
  • Encouraging constructive debate: It can improve the functioning of the House and can be achieved through measures such as allowing members to freely express their views and opinions, and creating a culture of respectful disagreement.
  • Addressing corruption: Addressing corruption is crucial for it to function effectively and can be achieved through measures such as increased transparency, accountability, and penalties for corrupt behaviour.
  • Increasing representation: Increasing representation for marginalized groups through measures such as reserving seats for underrepresented groups, or implementing a more proportional representation system.
  • Enhancing transparency and accountability: This can be achieved through measures such as regular reporting on the activities of the Parliament and increased public access to information about the legislative process.

Source: TH

Deepfakes Voice

In News

  • A social media platform used speech synthesis to make deep fakes of celebrities.
    • These deep fake audios made racist, abusive, and violent comments.


  • Deepfakes:
    • Deep fake is a type of Artificial Intelligence (AI) used to create convincing images, audio, and video hoaxes.
    • Deepfakes use deep learning AI to replace the likeness of one person with another in video and other digital media. 
    • The most common method relies on the use of deep neural networks involving autoencoders that employ a face-swapping technique.
    • Although deepfakes could be used in positive ways, such as in art, expression, accessibility, and business, it has mainly been weaponized for malicious purposes.
    • Deepfakes can harm individuals, businesses, society, and democracy, and can accelerate the already declining trust in the media.
  • Deepfake voice:
    • Deepfake voice, also called a synthetic voice, uses AI to generate a clone of a person’s voice. The voice can accurately replicate the tone, and accents, of the target person.
    • Synthetic voices are used for business, entertainment, and other purposes to advance them, deepfake voices are usually associated with copying human voices to fool someone.
    • Creating deep fakes needs high-end computers with powerful graphics cards, leveraging cloud computing power. 
    • Deepfakes can also be used to carry out espionage activities. Doctored videos can be used to blackmail government and defence officials into divulging state secrets

Concerns about using Deepfake voice

  • Lack of Regulations: Laws pertaining to their use do not exist in many countries. Law enforcement agencies in many countries are busy establishing proper regulations for producing and using artificially synthesized voices.
  • Ethical Concerns: It can cause impersonation, identity theft and defamations.
    • Deepfakes are widely used in the political arena to mislead voters, manipulate facts, and spread fake news. 
  • Breach of Public trust: Erosion of public trust will promote a culture of factual relativism, unraveling the increasingly strained fabric of democracy and civil society.
  • Easy Availability: Gathering clear recordings of people’s voices is getting easier and can be obtained through recorders, online interviews, and press conferences.
    • Voice capture technology is also improving, making the data fed to AI models more accurate and leading to more believable deepfake voices.

Ways to detect Deepfake voice

  • Research labs use watermarks and blockchain technologies to detect deepfake technology, but the tech designed to outsmart deepfake detectors is constantly evolving.
  • Multifactor authentication (MFA) and anti-fraud solutions can also reduce deepfake risks. 
  • Callback functions of call centres can end suspicious calls and request an outbound call to the account owner for direct confirmation.

Legislations to deal with Deepfakes

  • Currently, very few provisions under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and the Information Technology Act, 2000 can be potentially invoked to deal with the malicious use of deepfakes.
  •  Section 500 of the IPC provides punishment for defamation.
  •  Sections 67 and 67A of the Information Technology Act punish sexually explicit material in explicit form.
  • The Representation of the People Act, 1951, includes provisions prohibiting the creation or distribution of false or misleading information about candidates or political parties during an election period.

Way Ahead

  • In India, the legal framework related to AI is insufficient to adequately address the various issues that have arisen due to AI algorithms. The Union government should introduce separate legislation regulating the nefarious use of deepfakes and the broader subject of AI.

LCA lands on INS Vikrant

In News

In a significant milestone, the Naval variant of the indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) undertook its maiden landing onboard the country’s first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) INS Vikrant. 

  • It demonstrates India’s capability to design, develop, construct and operate IAC with indigenous fighter aircraft.”

History of Aircraft Carriers in India:

Right from its Independence, India was well aware of the need for aircraft carriers to establish itself as a blue water navy. 

  • INS Vikrant (R11)- India’s First Aircraft Carrier: The INS Vikrant was launched in 1945 as Hercules.
    • India purchased it from Britain in 1957. 
    • It was the first ever carrier for an Asian country and remained so for a long time.
      • the INS Vikrant saw action during the Goa Liberation Operation in 1961.
      • It played a crucial role in the 1971 war with its aircraft decimating the enemy. 
      • Its new capability inspired the induction of INS Vikramaditya and the plans for its reincarnation.
      • it was decommissioned from active service in 1997.
  • INS Viraat- Over 30 Years of Service to the Nation: INS Viraat was originally commissioned by the British Royal Navy as HMS Hermes in 1959. 
  • It was commissioned by the Indian Navy in 1987. 
  • INS Viraat’s first major operation was ‘Operation Jupiter’ in 1989 as part of Peace Keeping Operations in Sri Lanka, following the breakdown of the Indo- Sri Lankan Accord of 1986. 
  • It also played a pivotal role in Operation Parakram, which was carried out in the wake of the 2013 terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament. 
  • By establishing a blockade against Pakistan during the 1999 Kargil War, the INS Viraat also played a crucial part in Operation Vijay. 
  • INS Vikramaditya- Indian Navy’s Biggest ShipRussia’s refurbished Admiral Gorshkov was commissioned into the Indian Navy as INS Vikramaditya at Severodvinsk, Russia in 2013.
  •  It is a state-of-the-art ship, capable of operating a versatile range of high-performance aircraft, such as the MiG 29K fighters, KM 31 AEW helicopters, multi-role Seakings, and utility Chetaks. 
  • INS Vikrant (IAC-1): The Self-Reliant Rebirth: Designed by Indian Navy’s in-house Warship Design Bureau (WDB) and built by Cochin Shipyard Limited, a Public Sector Shipyard under the Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways.
    • The Indigenous Aircraft Carrier is named in honour of her historic predecessor, India’s first aircraft carrier, which played an essential part in the war of 1971.
    • It has been built with state-of-the-art automation features and is the largest ship ever built in the maritime history of India.
    • The 262-meter-long carrier has a full displacement of close to 45,000 tonnes which is much larger and advanced than her predecessor. 
    • The ship is powered by four Gas Turbines totaling 88 MW power and has a maximum speed of 28 Knots. 
    • It has an overall indigenous content of 76%.
    • The ship is capable of operating air wing consisting of 30 aircraft comprising of MIG-29K fighter jets, Kamov-31, MH-60R multi-role helicopters, in addition to indigenously manufactured Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) (Navy). 
  • Relevance: It would provide India with two operational aircraft carriers, which will greatly improve the country’s maritime security.
    • It serves as a shining example of the country’s pursuit of “Aatmanirbhar Bharat” and gives the Government’s “Make in India” initiative further momentum. 
    • With the IAC Vikrant, India has joined an elite group of countries with the specialised capacity to design and construct an aircraft carrier domestically, including the U.S.A., U.K., France, Russia, and China.
Do you Know?Aircraft carriers are extremely strong and have powerful weapons. Their military capabilities, which include carrier-borne aircraft, have completely changed the marine domain. An aircraft carrier offers a wide range of strategic benefits. It offers incredibly flexible operational options. Surveillance, air defence, airborne early warning, protection of Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC), and anti-submarine warfare are some of its principal functions.

Ladakh’s fragile ecology & demand of Sixth Schedule

In News

  • Recently, Ladakhi innovator and engineer Sonam Wangchuk completed his five-day “climate fast”.

More about the news

  • About:
    • The fast was held by Mr. Wangchuk in an effort to draw the attention of Indian leaders to the region’s fragile ecology and to secure its protection under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
  • About Sonam Wangchuk: 
    • Mr. Wangchuk is an education reformist and an engineer and is known for taking on multiple challenges to improve the lives of the people of Ladakh and to protect the region’s ecosystems
    • He has received various prizes, including the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay award.
    • He is also the founding director of the Himalayan Institute of Alternatives (HIAL).

Issue of Ladakh’s fragile Ecology

  • About:
    • Ladakh and the Himalayas form the ‘third pole’ of the world and are among its few frozen freshwater sources.
    • The Himalayas, along with all glaciers and river basins, are also called the “water tower of Asia”.
    • People of the region depend on glaciers to fulfill their water needs.
  • Melting glaciers of Ladakh:
    • Ladakh is a cold desert and extremely sensitive to climate change. 
    • Glaciers in Ladakh have been melting at an alarming rate. 
    • According to a study published in 2021, glaciers in the Pangong region retreated around 6.7% between 1990 and 2019.
  • The melting of glaciers has the following effects on the lives of Ladakh’s people: 
    • Water scarcity: 
      • They lose potable water
      • Agriculture practices specific to the region are threatened; and 
      • Sustainable practices that support life in the region, like surviving on a minimal quantity of water, are slowly eroded. 
    • Loss of livelihood and culture:
      • Loss of sustainable practices due to scarcity of water may also affect the livelihoods of locals and their cultural heritage, and force them to migrate.
    • Loss of biodiversity: 
      • A change in the ecological balance of Ladakh will also impact the biodiversity of the area. 
      • The flora and fauna of Ladakh are highly evolved to survive in harsh climatic conditions and will be threatened due to changes in the local ecosystems.
    • Collapsing ecosystem:
      • Even the slightest disturbances in an ecosystem as fragile as Ladakh can lead to the collapse of the whole ecosystem
  • Potential challenges:
    • Excessive rainfall:
      • According to experts, it is possible climate change will lead to excessive rainfall in Ladakh by around 2045 due to global warming
      • An increase in temperature has a direct impact on precipitation in an area, which changes agriculture practices. This eventually affects food security.
    • Uncontrolled development:
      • Unabated development in sensitive areas like Ladakh, without keeping in mind the sustainable practices that have supported life under extreme conditions, will eventually lead to disruption of the area’s ecology. 
      • It may also lead to land subsidence like we recently witnessed in Joshimath since Ladakh is even more fragile than Chamoli district.

Ladakh’s demand of Sixth Schedule

  • About:
  • After its special status was removed, several political groups in Ladakh have been demanding that land, employment, and the cultural identity of Ladakh, should be protected under the Sixth Schedule.
  • Issues faced by Ladakh:
    • No decentralization of power:
      • There had been four MLAs from the region in the erstwhile J&K Assembly; the administration of the region is now completely in the hands of bureaucrats. 
      • To many in Ladakh, the government now looks even more distant than Srinagar. 
    • Changed domicile policy in Jammu and Kashmir: 
      • Also, the changed domicile policy in Jammu and Kashmir has raised fears in the region about its own land, employment, demography, and cultural identity.
    • Limited Finances:
      • The UT has two Hill councils in Leh and Kargil, but neither is under the Sixth Schedule. 
      • Their powers are limited to collection of some local taxes such as parking fees and allotment and use of land vested by the Centre.
  • Recommendations:
    • Recommendation of the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes:
      • In September 2019, the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes recommended the inclusion of Ladakh under the Sixth Schedule. 
        • The Commission took note of the fact that the newly created Union Territory of Ladakh is predominantly a tribal region in the country.
    • Report highlights of the Parliamentary Standing Committee:
      • The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs recently tabled a report in the Rajya Sabha.
      • The report stated that, according to the 2011 Census, the tribal population in the Union Territory of Ladakh is 2,18,355, that is 79.61% of the total population of 2,74,289. 
      • Special Status:
        • The committee recommended that special status may be granted to the Union Territory of Ladakh considering the developmental requirements of the tribal population. 
      • Examining the possibility of fifth or sixth Schedule: 
        • The Committee further recommends that the possibility of including Ladakh in fifth or sixth Schedule may be examined.
More about the Sixth ScheduleWhat is the Sixth Schedule?The Sixth Schedule under Article 244 provides for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions — Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) — that have some legislative, judicial, and administrative autonomy within a state.Application:The Sixth Schedule applies to the Northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram (three Councils each), and Tripura (one Council).About ADCs:ADCs have up to 30 members with a term of five years.They can make laws, rules and regulations with regard to land, forest, water, agriculture, village councils, health, sanitation, village- and town-level policing, inheritance, marriage and divorce, social customs and mining, etc. Exception:The Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam is an exception with more than 40 members and the right to make laws on 39 issues.

Amorphous ice

In News

  • Recently, A team of researchers at University College London and the University of Cambridge have created a rare new form of ice called Medium-density Amorphous Ice.


  • Methodology: 
    • They used a technique called ball-milling, which grinds crystalline ice into small particles using metal balls in a steel jar, to create the amorphous ice.
      • Ball milling is commonly used in industries to grind and blend materials into amorphous forms. 
    • The study team used liquid nitrogen to cool a grinding jar to -200°C and vigorously shook crystalline ice with steel ball bearings.
  • Properties:
  • The new form of ice more closely resembles liquid water.
  • It has the same density as that of liquid water, while being in solid state.

Crystalline vs. Amorphous Ice:

  • Almost all of the ice we see in the natural environment of Earth (e.g. in snow, your freezer, in the polar caps) is crystalline ice. 
  • Amorphous ice consists of water molecules arranged in a disordered state, with no large-scale regularity to their orientations or positions.

Projects Inaurgated by PM in Tumakuru

In News

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday inaugurated the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited’s helicopter factory — the country’s largest chopper manufacturing facility — in the Tumakuru district of Karnataka.

About the Projects 

  • Bengaluru-headquartered HAL plans to produce more than 1,000 helicopters in the range of 3-15 tonnes with a total business of more than ?4 lakh crore over a period of 20 years.
    • The factory will be augmented to produce other helicopters such as Light Combat Helicopters (LCHs) and Indian Multirole Helicopters (IMRHs). 
    • It will also be used for maintenance, repair, and overhaul of LCH, LUH, Civil Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), and IMRH in the future.
    • It is a dedicated new greenfield helicopter factory that will enhance India’s capacity and ecosystem to build helicopters.
  • PM also unveiled the  Light Utility Helicopter(LUH) which has been flight tested.
    • LUH is designed and developed as a replacement for Cheetah & Chetak helicopters which are being operated by the Indian Armed forces.
    • LUH is a new generation helicopter in the 3-Ton class incorporating the state of the art technology features like a Glass cockpit with Multi-Function Displays (MFD) and powered by a single Turbo Shaft engine with sufficient power margin to cater to demanding high-altitude missions.


  • The proximity of the factory, with the existing HAL facilities in Bengaluru, will boost the aerospace manufacturing ecosystem in the region and support skill and infrastructure development such as schools, colleges, and residential areas
  • It will enable India to meet its entire requirement of helicopters without import and giving a much-needed fillip to the Prime Minister’s vision of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ in helicopter design, development, and manufacture.
Tumakuru The present town has a history of just a couple of centuries and is said to owe its origin to Kante Arasu, a member of the Mysore royal family. The area comprised in district consists of a few places of great antiquarian interest and several places of historical importance. The district has a megalithic site also and this is located on the crest of the low ridge near Keralakatte village.

Visva-Bharati University

In Context

  • Visva-Bharati University will soon get the ‘heritage’ tag from UNESCO to take the distinction of world’s first living heritage university.


  • Founded by:
    • The university was founded by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921.
    • Visva-Bharati Society was registered as an organisation in May 1922.
    • Rabindranath Tagore also donated some of his property, including land and a bungalow, to the society.
  • Background
    • Visva-Bharati was declared to be a Central University and an institution of national importance by an Act of Parliament in 1951.
  • Its first vice-chancellor was Rathindranath Tagore, the son of Rabindranath Tagore.
  • Rabindranath believed in open-air education and introduced that system at the university, which prevails to date.
  • It will be the world’s first heritage university.
    • Normally a heritage tag is given to a dead monument. For the first time in the world, a living university which is functioning is going to get the heritage tag from UNESCO.
  • Structure:
    • Their educational programmes are based on the founding principles of excellence in culture and culture studies.
    • The President of India is the Paridarsaka (Visitor) of the University, the Governor of West Bengal is the Pradhana (Rector), and the Prime Minister of India acts as the Acharya (Chancellor).
    • The President of India appoints the Upacharya (Vice-chancellor) of the University.
World Heritage SitesIt is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)  for having cultural, historical, scientific or other forms of significance for having cultural, historical, scientific or other forms of significance. A World Heritage Site can be either cultural or natural areas objects which are inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List for having “outstanding universal value”.


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