Undersea Tunnel to Save Mangroves

In Context

  • A seven-km undersea tunnel will be constructed for the bullet train project to save mangrove forests in Maharashtra.

More about the news

  • About:
    • A seven-km undersea tunnel will be constructed for the bullet train project in a bid to save mangrove forests in Maharashtra’s Thane creek.
      • The tunnel will be a single tube tunnel to accommodate both up and down tracks.
  • Significance:
    • The tunnel construction is aimed towards conserving nearly 12 hectares of mangroves in the creek.
    • The tunnel will ensure the protection of the bird sanctuary and mangroves around Thane creek. 
  • Challenges:
    • The undersea tunnel will escalate the construction cost of the Mumbai-Ahmedabad High-Speed Rail Corridor project’s 21-km long stretch from Bandra Kurla Complex Station to Shilphata, from ?100 crores to ?10,000 crores.
Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Rail Corridor (MAHSR)MAHSR is an under-construction high-speed rail line connecting India’s economic hub Mumbai with the city of Ahmedabad.The total length of the corridor is 508 km, of which 156 km of construction will be in Maharashtra. It is slated to cut the shuttle time between Mumbai and Ahmedabad from over 6 hours to between 2 and 2.5 hours. 

More about Mangroves

  • About:
    • Mangroves are small trees and shrubs which grow along the coastlines. 
    • These trees thrive in salty water and form unique forests on the edge of land and the sea. 
    • They also grow in swamps
  • Features:
    • These forests have the ability to store up to 10 times more carbon per hectare than terrestrial forests. 
    • Mangrove forests can survive extreme weather conditions and require low oxygen levels to survive.
  • Distribution:
    • Globally:
      • Mangroves are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and are found in 123 countries.
      • Asia has the largest coverage of the world’s mangroves, followed by Africa, North and Central America, Oceania and South America. Approximately 75% of the world’s mangrove forests are found in just 15 countries.
    • India:
      • India contributes to nearly half of the total mangrove cover in South Asia. 
      • West Bengal has the highest percentage of mangrove cover in India. Sundarbans in West Bengal is the largest mangrove forest in the world.
      • It is followed by Gujarat and Andaman, and Nicobar islands. 
      • Maharashtra, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Kerala too have mangrove.

Significance of Mangrove

  • Natural defence: 
    • With notable adaptive features, mangroves are natural armed forces of tropical and subtropical nations. 
    • Mangrove thickets maintain water quality by filtering pollutants and trapping sediments originating from land.
  • Checking Global Temperature:
    • Mangrove’s unique ability to capture and store carbon is increasingly catching the attention of the world, which is desperately looking for ways to keep global temperature in check.
  • Fighting against Climate Change: 
    • They are the best option to fight against consequences of climate change such as sea level rise and increasing frequency of natural calamities like cyclones and storm surges.
  • Maintaining ecology:
    • Mangrove ecosystems are home to a variety of fish. 
    • Mangroves are also important resources for timber and fuelwood, when collected sustainably.

Major Threats

  • Developmental projects:
    • Coastal development, including the construction of shrimp farms, hotels, and other structures, is the primary threat to mangroves.
  • Conversion of land:
    • Mangrove forests are cleared to make room for agricultural land and human settlements.
  • Exploitation:
    • In India’s Sunderbans, salinisation, population pressure, and overexploitation are the primary threats to mangroves and the area’s biodiversity.
  • Indirect threats:
    • Indirect threats to mangroves include change in sedimentation rates and patterns, rising sea levels, and increase in pollutants, and these are often exacerbated by human actions.
  • Scientists estimate that at least one-third of all mangrove forests have been lost during the last few decades.

Government’s initiatives for Mangroves protection

  • Conservation and Management of Mangroves and Coral Reefs:
    • The promotional measures are being implemented through a Central Sector Scheme under the National Coastal Mission Programme on ‘Conservation and Management of Mangroves and Coral Reefs’. 
    • Under this programme, the annual Management Action Plan (MAP) for the conservation and management of mangroves is formulated and implemented in all the coastal States and Union Territories.
  • Magical Mangroves campaign: 
    • The World Wide Fund for Nature, (WWF), India has enjoined citizens in nine states, which include Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, West Bengal and Karnataka on mangrove conservation through the Magical Mangroves campaign
  • Scheme for Conservation & Management of Mangroves: 
    • The Government under Centrally sponsored scheme for conservation & Management of Mangroves, extends assistance to Coastal State/UTs for implementation of action plans including survey and demarcation, alternation and supplementary livelihood, protection measures and education and awareness activities.
    • The Union Budget for 2023-24 announced an initiative for mangrove plantation along the coastline and on salt pan lands, under MISHTI (Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes).

MISHTI will be implemented through convergence between the MGNREGS (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme), CAMPA (Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority) Fund and other sources.

Article 356 of the Indian Constitution

In News

Recently in Rajya Sabha the Prime Minister highlighted the misuse of Article 356 in the past by the Union Government.

What is Article 356?

  • Article 356 of the Indian Constitution contains provisions for the imposition of “President’s Rule” in a state and removing an elected government in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.
    • Whether the constitutional machinery has broken down may be determined by the President at any time, either upon receipt of a report from the Governor, or suo motu.
  • Ground: Article 356 empowers the President to withdraw to the Union the executive and legislative powers of any state “if he is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”.
  • Duration of President’s Rule: President’s Rule in a state can be imposed for six months at a time for a maximum duration of three years. 
    • Every six months, Parliamentary approval to impose President’s Rule will be required again.
  • Origin: Article 356 was inspired by Section 93 of the Government of India Act, 1935 with the difference that instead of the Governor, the President is vested with the said power . For the British, this provision allowed for a ‘controlled democracy’ – allowing the British authorities to exercise ultimate power when they deemed necessary.

Need of the Article 356

  • Several members of the Constituent Assembly strongly opposed the incorporation of article 356 (draft article 278) precisely for the reason that it purported to reincarnate an imperial legacy, it was yet thought necessary to have it in the view of the problems that the Indian republic was expected to face soon after independence. 
    • The socio-political experience of the framers of the Constitution made them acutely aware that security of the Nation and the stability of its polity could not be taken for granted. 
    • The vast difference in social, economic, and political life, the diversity in languages, race, and region were expected to present the nascent republic with many difficult situation. 
  • However, these objections were overridden by Dr. Ambedkar with the argument that no provision of any Constitution is immune from abuse as such and that mere possibility of abuse cannot be a ground for not incorporating it.
    • We ought to expect that such articles will never be called into operation and that they would remain a dead letter. If at all they are brought into operation, I hope the President will take proper precautions before actually suspending the administration of the provinces.

Misuse of Article 356

  • While the Constitution intended Article 356 to be used only under extraordinary circumstances, central governments repeatedly used the provision to settle political scores.
  • In the past, the President’s Rule has been extended for significantly longer periods under specific circumstances. For instance, Punjab was under President’s Rule from 1987-1992 due to the growing militancy.
  • As per the Sarkaria commission the use of article 356 has been rising with the passage of time.

Supreme Court’s Observations

  • In 1989, the Centre dismissed the S R Bommai government in Karnataka.
  • In it’s judgment the Supreme Court held that Article 356 can be invoked in situations of the physical breakdown of the government or when there is a ‘hung assembly’, but that it cannot be used without giving the state government a chance to either prove its majority in the House or without instances of a violent breakdown of the constitutional machinery.
    • A hung Assembly is when no single political party wins a majority, it is also known as a situation of no overall control.
  • Since the judgment, the arbitrary use of Article 356 has been largely controlled.

Relevant Committees/Commissions with respect to Article 356

  • Views of Sarkaria Commission on Article 356: The framers of the constitution expected that these provisions would be called into operation rarely, in extreme cases, as a last resort when all alternative correctives fail. 
    • The Commission then pointed out that ‘failure of constitutional machinery‘ can be examined under four heads, namely, (a) political crisis, (b) internal subversion, (c) physical breakdown and (d) non-compliance with constitutional directions of the Union Executive. 
  • View of National Commission to Review Working of the Constitution 2001:
    • The commission suggested that the stage to delete Article 356  has not yet arrived in the constitutional development, but the proper use of the Article can be ensured by appropriate amendments.
Emergency ProvisionsPart XVIII of the Constitution speaks of emergency provisions. The emergency provisions can be classified into three categories: Articles 352, 353, 354, 358, and 359 which relate to National emergency,Articles 355, 356, and 357 which deal with the imposition of President’s rule in States in a certain situation and, Article 360 which speaks of financial emergency.

Indo-French Strategic Partnership: 25th-anniversary

In News

  • India and France recently celebrated the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Indo-French Strategic Partnership.

India- France Relations

  • Beginning and Developments 
    • Signed in 1998, the Indo-French Strategic Partnership has continued to gain momentum over shared values and strategic autonomy.
    • France was among the first countries with which India signed a civil nuclear deal.
    • Paris also played a critical role in limiting India’s isolation in the non-proliferation order after the 1998 nuclear tests.
  • Trade & Commerce
    • France has emerged as a key trading partner of India with annual trade of $12.42 billion in 2021-22. 
    • France is the 11th largest foreign investor in India with a cumulative investment of $10.31 billion in past two decades, which represents 1.70% of the total foreign direct investment inflows into India. 
  • Defence
    • France has emerged as a key defence partner for India, becoming the second largest defence supplier in 2017- 2021
    • France is a major strategic partner for India with crucial defence deals and increased military to military engagement. Some of the examples are
      • Induction  of the French Scorpene conventional submarines, being built in India under technology transfer agreement of 2005,
      •  the Indian Air Force’s fulfilled order of 36 Rafale fighter jets. 
      • The Tata group’s tie-up with Airbus to manufacture C-295 tactical transport aircraft in Vadodara, Gujarat.
    • These relations are further fortified with the robust network of military dialogues and regularly held joint exercises — Varuna (navy), Garuda (air force), and Shakti (army). 
    • France is willing to  partner India as it builds its national industrial base for the defence industry and for critical strategic defence projects
  • Climate Change
    • India has supported France in the Paris Agreement expressing its strong commitment towards mitigating climate change impact. 
    • New Delhi and Paris, as part of their joint efforts on climate change, launched the International Solar Alliance in 2015.
  • Indo-Pacific
    • India and France are resident powers of the Indian Ocean and in the Indo-Pacific. 
    • Joint Strategic Vision of India-France Cooperation in the Indian Ocean Region” presents a blueprint for a strengthening of ties like Franco-Indian joint patrolling in the Indian Ocean.
    • India and France agreed to set up an Indo-Pacific Trilateral Development Cooperation Fund that will support innovative solutions for countries in the region. 
    • The two partners have formed a trilateral grouping with the United Arab Emirates to ensure security from the east coast of Africa to the far Pacific. 
  • Support for NSG :  
    • France supports India’s bid for permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council as well as its entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group

Common Concerns: 

  • Both countries share concerns over the rise of China and its aggressive behaviour, regionally and globally, and have committed to working together to ensure that there is no imbalance in the Indo-Pacific.
  • There is a broad understanding of each other’s position and resolve to coordinate to find a solution when they find themselves in opposite camps for example Russia-Ukraine crisis 
  • Having no  real substantive disagreements between the two nations is rare in international relations.

Future Outlook 

  • India’s partnership with France is built on common values and goals.
  •  The ongoing high-level India-France political dialogue in defence, maritime, counterterrorism, and the Indo-Pacific. is moving forward in  digitisation, cyber, green energy, a blue economy, ocean sciences, and space’, making this truly a decade for INDO-FRENCH cooperation.

Assessing Marine Protected Areas

In News

  • Recently, Specialists drew attention to the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas.

Key Takeaways:

  • Experts are calling for a closer look at the quality and performance of MPAs, emphasizing that a true assessment of their progress is only possible with a clear understanding of baseline data.
  • Presently, only a small fraction of the ocean, 6%, is designated as Marine Protected Areas, of which only a small portion, 2.4%, is fully and thoroughly protected, while an additional 3.6% is protected to a lesser extent.
  • In order to achieve the target of 30% protection, there is an urgent need for a significant increase in the creation of new MPAs within the next 7 years.

Status of MPA in India:

  • India is home to a vast and diverse marine ecosystem that sustains numerous species of fish, mammals, birds, and other marine organisms. 
  • In recognition of the critical importance of the marine environment, India has established a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) aimed at conserving and sustainably managing its marine resources.
  • Marine protected areas(MPAs) in India are defined as geographical regions that are set aside for conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biodiversity. 
  • These areas are designated for the protection and preservation of their unique ecosystems and the species that depend on them. 
  • India has enacted legislation for coastal and marine conservation including:
    • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
    • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991
    • National Biodiversity Act, 2002
    • The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 provides for the establishment of protected areas by state governments.
  • Examples of important MPAs in India: Gulf of Kachchh Marine National Park, Gulf of Mannar National Park, Sundarbans National Park and Wandoor Marine National Park.
Importance of MPAsChallenges of MPAs
Biodiversity Conservation: MPAs provide vital habitats for threatened and endangered species, including fish, marine mammals, birds, and other marine organisms. Ecosystem protection: MPAs protect important marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds.Sustainable resource use: By protecting marine ecosystems and species, MPAs can help to ensure that marine resources are used sustainably and that future generations will have access to these resources.Climate change mitigation: MPAs can help to mitigate the impacts of climate change by conserving marine ecosystems and their associated species, which play a critical role in regulating the Earth’s climate and weather patterns.Economic benefits: MPAs can provide economic benefits, including increased tourism and recreation opportunities, as well as commercial benefits, such as increased fish stocks and improved water quality.Lack of enforcement: The enforcement of regulations within MPAs can be challenging, particularly in remote and poorly patrolled areas. Porous boundary: It makes it difficult to prevent illegal fishing, poaching, and other activities that can have a significant impact on marine life and ecosystems.Conflicts with local communities: MPAs can sometimes conflict with the livelihoods of local fishing communities and other coastal users. Limited financial and institutional support: MPAs require significant resources for their effective management, including funding for monitoring, enforcement, and research. Limited scientific understanding: There is a lack of scientific understanding of the complex marine ecosystems and their associated species. This makes it difficult to effectively manage MPAs and to design conservation strategies that are based on a solid scientific foundation.

Global Efforts 

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a global treaty signed by 196 countries, including India, with the aim of conserving biodiversity, promoting sustainable use of its components, and ensuring the fair sharing of benefits from genetic resources.
  • Previously, the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the CBD held in Kunming, China in 2021, emphasized the role of marine protected areas (MPAs) in conserving marine biodiversity and promoting sustainable use of marine resources.

Way ahead:

  • MPAs play a critical role in conserving India’s rich marine heritage and sustaining its coastal communities. However, the effective functioning of MPAs is essential to ensure their success. 
  • Despite these challenges, there is a growing recognition of the importance of MPAs in conserving and sustainably managing India’s marine resources. 

To overcome these challenges, there is a need for greater collaboration between government agencies, academic institutions, and local communities.

Section 69(A) of IT Act

In News

  • Recently, The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) issued orders to block 138 online betting platforms and 94 money lending apps on an “urgent” and “emergency” basis.
    • It is done under Section 69(A) of the Information Technology Act, 2000.

Rationale behind Blocking 

  • The decision was based on a recommendation of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), which had received inputs from central intelligence agencies that some of the sites and apps were allegedly linked to China and contained “material prejudicial to the sovereignty and integrity of India”.

What are some other instances of the government using Section 69A?

  • Following cross-border tensions with China, the MeitY banned 59 apps on June 29, 2020.
  • Similarly, on September 1, 2020, the government banned 118 apps, including the gaming app PUBG, followed by another ban on 49 apps on November 19, 2020.

Section 69(A) of the Information Technology Act, 2000.

  • About:
    • Section 69 of the IT Act confers the center and the state government powers to issue content-blocking orders to online intermediaries such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs), telecom service providers, web hosting services, search engines, online marketplaces, etc if the information or content being blocked to be deemed a threat to India’s national security, sovereignty, or public order.
  • Process of Blocking Internet Websites:
  • Section 69A, for similar reasons and grounds (as stated above), enables the Centre to ask any agency of the government, or any intermediary, to block access to the public of any information generated, transmitted, received or stored or hosted on any computer resource.
  • Any such request for blocking access must be based on reasons given in writing.
  • Penalty:
    • Social media intermediaries failing to comply with the rules and regulations are liable to be monetarily penalized along with an imprisonment term which may extend up to 7 years.
  • The Safeguards for Section 69(A)
    • Blocking can only be resorted to where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary to do so
    • Such necessity is relatable only to some of the subjects set out in Article 19(2). 
    • Reasons have to be recorded in writing in such blocking order so that they may be assailed in a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution.

Supreme Court’s observations 

  • Shreya Singhal vs Union of IndiaIn a landmark 2015 ruling, the Supreme Court in “Shreya Singhal vs Union of India” struck down Section 66A of the Information Technology Act of 2000, which entailed punishment for sending offensive messages through communication services, etc.
    • Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 is struck down in its entirety being violative of Article 19(1)(a) and not saved under Article 19(2).
  • The plea had also challenged Section 69A of the Information Technology Rules 2009, but the SC held this to be “constitutionally valid”.
  • The Court noticed that Section 69A unlike Section 66A is a narrowly drawn provision with several safeguards.
    • First and foremost, blocking can only be resorted to where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary to do so. 
    • Secondly, such necessity is relatable only to some of the subjects set out in Article 19(2). 
    • Thirdly, reasons have to be recorded in writing in such blocking order so that they may be assailed in a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution.

Global Quality Infrastructure Index(GQII)

In News

  • Recently, India’s national accreditation system under the Quality Council of India (QCI) has been ranked 5th in the world in the recent Global Quality Infrastructure Index (GQII) 2021.

Global Quality Infrastructure Index(GQII )

  • The GQII ranks the 184 economies in the world on the basis of quality infrastructure (QI).
  • The GQII is a database and ranking that allows interested persons to compare the quality infrastructure of different countries worldwide.
  • The GQII program is an initiative of the independent consulting firms Mesopartner and Analyticar to research and disseminate data on Quality Infrastructure.
  • Quality Infrastructure means the international system of metrology, standardization, accreditation and quality-related services (testing, calibration, inspection, verification, training and awareness building).
  • It creates confidence in international trade and contributes to the protection of consumers and the environment.
  • GQII rankings are published and presented post-facto for each year based on the data collected till the end of that year. 
  • The 2021 rankings are based on data till the end of December 2021, collected and analyzed through 2022. 

India’s Performance

  • India’s overall QI system ranking continues to be in the Top 10 at the 10th position, with
    • the standardization system (under BIS) at 9th 
    • and the metrology system (under NPL-CSIR) at 21st position in the world.
  • This is the sign of a New India in the Amrit Kaal with a quality first approach.
  • India’s accreditation system is the youngest among the three QI pillars in India
  • Accreditation helps establish the competence and credibility of conformity assessment bodies (CABs) which perform testing, certification, inspection, etc
Quality Council of India (QCI)It is a body established in 1997 jointly by the Department for Promotion of Industry & Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce & Industry, and the Indian industry. It is operated through the constituent Boards of QCI, primarily the National Accreditation Board for Certification Bodies (NABCB), which provides accreditation to the certification, inspection, and validation / verification bodies, and the National Accreditation Board for Testing & Calibration Laboratories (NABL), which provides accreditation to the testing, calibration and medical laboratories.

India Energy Week 2023

In News

The Prime Minister inaugurated the India Energy Week (IEW) 2023, in Bengaluru.

  • The PM also launched E20 fuel and flagged off the Green Mobility Rally.

What is India Energy Week? 

  • India Energy Week is the first significant energy event of the G20 calendar organised from the 6th to the 8th of February and aims to showcase India’s rising prowess as an energy transition powerhouse. 
  • The event brings together leaders to discuss the challenges and opportunities that a responsible energy transition presents. 

Key Highlights of the Energy Week 

  • Unbottled Initiative: The uniforms under the ‘Unbottled’ initiative of Indian Oil were launched by the PM.
    • Guided by the vision of the Prime Minister to phase out single-use plastic, Indian Oil has adopted uniforms for retail customer attendants and LPG delivery personnel made from recycled polyester (rPET) & cotton. 
    • Each set of uniforms of IndianOil’s customer attendant shall support the recycling of around 28 used PET bottles.
    • IndianOil is taking this initiative further through ‘Unbottled’ – a brand for sustainable garments launched for merchandise made from recycled polyester.
      • Under this brand, IndianOil targets to meet the requirement of uniforms for the customer attendants of other Oil Marketing Companies, non-combat uniforms for the Army, uniforms/ dresses for Institutions & sales to retail customers.
  • Twin-cooktop model: The PM also flagged off the commercial roll-out of the twin-cooktop model of the IndianOil’s Indoor Solar Cooking System that works on both solar and auxiliary energy sources simultaneously, making it a reliable cooking solution for India.
  • E20 Fuel:In line with the Ethanol Blending roadmap, E20 fuel was launched at 84 Retail Outlets of Oil Marketing Companies in 11 States/UTs. 
  • E20 is a blend of 20% ethanol with petrol. The Government aims to achieve a complete 20% blending of ethanol by 2025, and HPCL and other oil marketing companies are setting up 2G-3G ethanol plants that will facilitate the progress.
India’s Energy MarketIndia’s energy demand has significantly increased and in the coming years, it will reach 11% of the global demand as compared to 5% currently. This offers opportunities for energy companies to invest in and collaborate with energy firms in the countryUnder the National Green Hydrogen Mission Government had set aside ?1 lakh crore for green hydrogen. India is taking lead in the green hydrogen space, and would replace grey hydrogen (created from natural gas, or methane, using steam methane reformation but without capturing the greenhouse gases made in the process), to increase its share to 25% in the next five years.Domestic exploration of fuels and an increase in production of such fuels was one of the focus areas for the energy sector in the country. To accommodate these changes, the government is prepared to play a catalyst in accelerating adoption of low-carbon options, including biofuels, electric vehicles, and green hydrogen.

Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile System (QRSAM)

In News 

The indigenous Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is set to be tested again in April with some changes suggested by the Army.

Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile System (QRSAM)

  • It is a Short Range Surface to Air Missile system designed to protect moving armoured columns from aerial attacks. 
  • The entire weapon system is configured on highly mobile platforms and is capable of providing air defence on the move. 
  • It is being inducted into the Indian Army (IA).
  • The uniqueness of the QRSAM weapon system is that it can operate on the move with search and track capability & fire on short halt. This has been proven during the mobility trials conducted earlier.
Do you Know?Medium Range SAM is being developed by the DRDO in collaboration with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). The maiden launch of the MRSAM Army Version was conducted in December 2020. The MRSAM has entered production. Its induction is on and is ready for deployment.

The Motion of Thanks

In News

The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi replied to the motion of thanks on the President’s address to Parliament in the Rajya Sabha.

  • The Prime Minister highlighted that the government has taken the significant step of achieving saturation in the Azadi Ka Amrit Kaal. 

About Motion of Thanks 

  • Articles 86 and 87 of the Constitution deal with the Address by the President.
    • Article 86 confers a right on the President to address either House of Parliament or both Houses assembled together, and for that purpose requires the attendance of members. 
    • Article 87 deals with Special Address by the President and provides that the President shall address both Houses of Parliament assembled together at the commencement of the first session after each general election to the Lok Sabha and at the commencement of the first session of each year and inform Parliament of the causes of its summons
    • The President’s speech essentially highlights the government’s policy priorities and plans for the upcoming year.
      • The address provides a broad framework of the government’s agenda and direction.
    • After the address, each House of Parliament discusses the Motion of Thanks, and the Prime Minister responds.
      • In the motion of thanks, MPs may move amendments to the motion, which are put to vote. An amendment to the address in Lok Sabha is treated as a vote of no confidence against the government.


No comments yet. Why don’t you start the discussion?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *