The rulebook agreed to in Katowice summit is not ambitious enough to realize the goals set in The Paris Climate agreement. Discuss. Also highlight the challenges which a developing country like India faces to achieve its targeted INDCs.

Introduction: Give a brief introduction about targets agreed under the Paris Agreement.
Body: Explain the positives and negatives of rulebook agreed to in Katowice summit.
In this context, write challenges being faced by developing countries
Conclusion: Briefly talk about the role of developed countries in this regard.
In December 2015, Parties under the UNFCCC adopted the Paris Agreement, pledging to take on increasingly ambitious emission reduction targets aimed at keeping global temperature rise to at most 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The agreement also includes tools to help countries achieve their ambitions, including markets and mechanisms. While the Paris Agreement sets forth an innovative and potentially effective policy architecture for dealing with global climate change the required rules and guidelines means of implementation were discussed in CoP 24 held at Katowice in 2019.
• Paris Rulebook: The COP-24 finalized a “rulebook” to operationalise 2015 Paris Agreement.
○ The rulebook set out how countries will provide information about their Nationally Determined Contributions describing their domestic climate actions, mitigation and adaptation measures.
○ The rulebook covers areas such as how countries should report their greenhouse gas emissions, contributions to climate finance, what rules should apply to voluntary market mechanisms, such as carbon trading etc
• Climate finance Developed countries have committed to provide $100 billion annually from 2020 for dealing with climate change. The rulebook describes which loans, concessions and grants can be classified as climate finance.
• Rulebook applies a single set of rules for all countries for accounting and transparency in reporting.
• Global Stock take Mechanism was finalised.

  1. Provision of finance by developed countries: Now, developed countries have the choice to include all kinds of financial instruments, concessional and non-concessional loans, grants, aids etc. from various public and private sources, to meet their commitments.
    a. Developed countries now have the freedom to decide the amount and the kind of financial resources they want to give to the developing countries and do this without any strong mechanism of accountability.
    b. Further rules on ex-ante (forecasted) financial reporting and its review for adequacy has been significantly weakened.
    c. No roadmap adopted for the mobilisation of 100Bn $ till 2020.
  2. Loss and damage: The Warsaw International Mechanism has no financial resources to support vulnerable countries.With no financial provisions, the countries are now left on their own to address the impacts of climate change.
  3. Global stocktake (GST): The non- Policy prescriptive rulebook for GST ensures that the process will neither give any recommendations, nor will it give any prescriptive policy to everyone. This would result in the collection of a lot of information without any way ahead to increase ambition on
  4. mitigation or finance. Also, equity has been mentioned in the text, but there is no mechanism to operationalize it.
  5. Carbon market Mechanism: There has virtually been no progress made on non-market mechanisms to reduce emissions and enhance sinks in forests and land.
  6. There is no firm decision on Overall Mitigation in Global Emission (OMGE) mechanism. Also, the rulebook has different rules for different markets, which is non-transparent and makes emissions reductions unverifiable. Trading is allowed for sectors which are not covered in a country’s emissions targets, which will dilute the overall mitigation effect.
  7. Carbon Credits: Developing countries like China, India, and Brazil argued that their accumulated unused carbon credits should be considered valid in the new market mechanism. The developed countries questioned the authenticity of the unused carbon credits, pointing to weak verification mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol.
  8. No ambitious action promised: The absence of any indication towards increasing “ambition” of climate actions, so as to rein in temperature rise at 1.5°c at a faster pace, was another major disappointment
    In absence of robust climate finance and market mechanism, developing countries such as India will face difficulties in balancing developmental needs and climate commitments.
    ● India’s INDC include reduction in the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from 2005 level and to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
    ● Growing energy demand and urbanization in developing countries like India-With the responsibility of lifting around 360 million people out of poverty and raising the standard of living of an even greater number of people, greater monetary support is key for countries like India that can simultaneously address climate change and development needs.
    ● Technology development and transfer and capacity-building are key to ensuring adequate development and deployment of clean-technologies.
    ● The Paris Agreement had both bottom-up and top-down elements. Most of the top-down elements have been diluted in the rulebook. The Paris Agreement and its rulebook is now a totally ‘self-determined’ process. Countries are now on their own to mitigate, to adapt, and to pay the cost of climate impacts.
    The 1.5°C Report, which was produced by the IPCC in October 2018 states at current rate of emissions, the world is set to breach the global warming limit of 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052. Therefore, there is urgency to arrive at the consensus for contentious issues like climate financing, transparent stock taking issues of climate justice, Developed countries should be supportive and help in transfer of technology, remove barriers, create facilitative IPR regime, provide finance, capacity building support and create a global framework for Research & Development on clean coal and other technologies so that desired Paris Agreement targets can be achieved.
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary area of enquiry and application. How can it help improve the living standards in India?

Demand of the Question:
Introduction : Define Nanotechnology
Body: Discuss briefly how Nano-technology is a multidisciplinary area
Enumerate its possible applications in various fields to improve living standards in india.
Conclusion: Conclude briefly with India’s status in this regard
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular and supramolecular. It involves design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size on a nanometre scale of 1 to 100 nm.
Nanotechnology is considered as a multidisciplinary and inter-disciplinary area because conversion of any material in nanoscale results in alteration of its physicochemical, biological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties which can be utilised for different useful activities. Therefore nano-technology is employed in the fields of physics, space technology, electronics, biotechnology, nuclear science among others.
Nano-technlogy is helping in improvement of living standards of people by revolutionizing the fields of healthcare, agriculture, water and waste treatment, renewable energy, construction etc.
● Disease Diagnosis: Nano medicine have resulted in formation of Nano scale diagnostic device which are more efficient & able to detect cancer, bacterial and viral infection.
● Drug Delivery: Nanotechnology can be used in the formation of Nano-size drug called nano-phramaceuticals which will help in lowering overall drug consumption & side effect by depositing active agent at specific places in the body.
● Superbugs and anti-microbial resistance: Nanotechnology holds the key to stopping antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the deadly infections they cause.
● Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: Nanotechnology can locate & eliminate cancer cell using gold Nano cells. Nano cells are targeted to cancer cell by tagging or attaching antibodies to Nano cell surface.
● Tissue Engineering: Nanotechnology can help to repair damaged tissue through tissue engineering. It makes use of biodegradable polymer such as polycaprolactone coated with collagen to promote the wound healing process.
● Medical Nanorobot: Nanorobotics is a technique of creating machine or robot close to microscopic scale, nanometre. These Nano size robots can navigate the human body, transport important molecule, manipulate microscopic object and communicate with physician by way of miniature sensor.

  1. Nano-membranes for water purification, desalination and detoxification.
  2. Nano-sensors for the detection of contaminants and pathogens.
  3. Nano-porous zeolites and nano-porous polymers for water purification.
  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for water treatment and remediation.
  6. ● In the food processing industry antimicrobial nano-emulsions are used for applications in decontamination of food equipment, packaging and food,
  7. ● Nano-based antigen detecting biosensors for identification of pathogens contamination.
  8. ● Anti-bacterial products such as nano silver when used as a materials preserver maintain its ability to reduce odour-causing bacteria longer and require smaller quantities than other silver preservatives.
  9. ● Soil health can be maintained by neutralizing harmful chemical or biological agents.
  10. ● Bio indicators can be used to detect the bio-magnification of pesticides and fertilizers.
  11. ● Enhancement of agricultural productivity using bio-conjugated nanoparticles (encapsulation) for slow release of nutrients and water.
  12. ● For controlling pests state-of-the-art nanotechnology has evolved to hassle-free gel-based carriers for pheromones called nano gels.
  13. ENERGY
  14. ● Novel hydrogen storage systems based on carbon nanotubes and other lightweight nanomaterials
  15. ● Photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting devices based on quantum dots
  16. ● Carbon nanotubes in composite film coatings for solar cells.
  17. ● Nanocatalysts for hydrogen generation.
  19. • Heat resistant nano-materials to improve the quality of construction, design of self-cleaning surfaces with nano coatings etc.
  20. Recognising the significance of Nano-technology in various fields, Government of India has launched National Mission on Nano Science and Technology in 2007 to develop cross sectoral linkages and nurture a skilled workforce. As a result, India ranks 3rd in number of researchers in Nano Technology. Going forward, Government needs to formulate a regulatory ecosystem to address health, environment and security concerns associated with the use of Nano-material and nanotechnology to help meet critical human development needs.


No comments yet. Why don’t you start the discussion?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *