Dear Candidates, Introduction and conclusion of an essay should be such that it should attract the attention of the examiner and give a sense of what someone is about to write in the next few pages. So, special care should be taken while introducing and concluding an essay. An essay can be introduced in multiple ways, there is no fixed formula or pattern for it. However, some of the popular and suggestible introduction includes

 Introducing using an anecdote/story  Introducing using some quotes  Introducing with some current incident  General introduction which may contain historical examples or straight away paragraphs. Here, you can start with the story of the egg-seller who broke all her eggs in dreaming about her future.

Story: Once upon a time there lived an egg-seller in a certain village. Once, carrying the basket of eggs over her head, she left for the market. On the way, she began day-dreaming and thought that today I would sell the eggs and make profit out of it. With the money, I shall buy a cow. The cow will give birth to a calf. I shall then start selling milk daily. Then, I will get married and have children. When my children will grow up and commit mischief, I shall slap them. In the process, she swung her hand in the air. She fumbled and the basket of eggs fell down. All the eggs were broken. The moral of the story is to live in the present and strike a balance between day-dreaming and imagination/planning, present occupation and unrealistic dreams.

These are some of the quotes that can be used in this essay: 1. Always hold fast to the present. Every situation, indeed every moment, is of infinite value, for it is the representative of a whole eternity. — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 2. Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is a mystery. Today is a gift. That is why it is called the present. –A. M. Earle. 3. The ability to be in the present moment is a major component of mental wellness. — Abraham Maslow 4. Remember then: there is only one time that is important– Now! It is the most important time because it is the only time when we have any power. The most necessary man is he with whom you are, for no man knows whether he will ever have dealings with anyone else: and the most important affair is, to do him good, because for that purpose alone was man sent into this life! — Leo Tolstoy 5. Stop acting as if life is a rehearsal. Live this day as if it were your last. The past is over and gone. The future is not guaranteed. — Wayne Dyer 6. Do not dwell in the past and focus your mind in the present moment. -Buddha 7. Forever is composed of nows. – Emily Dickinson
The foremost query that the given topic raises is what is the link between the present and the future? Both are notions of time that describe the journey of our lives. It is a human tendency to be concerned about the future. After all, why do students study hard or sports persons practice strenuously even if they are leading a comfortable life at present. Even if Virat Kohli doesn’t play

two-three tournaments, his fortune will not decline instantly. However, what we do in the present, either good or bad may not produce immediate results but will surely show-up in the future. Hence, acting wisely in the present is considered to be the best option to secure a better future.
The aforementioned quote, the future depends on what we do in the present is attributed to the ‘father of the nation’, M.K. Gandhi. We are also aware of Mahatma Gandhi’s saying that ‘my life is my message’ as he believed in practicing what he preached. Can anyone believe that a global leader of saintly temperament and a preacher of the philosophy of ‘truth’ had lied as a young boy? His autobiographical account is full of misadventures in his youth. But do we remember Gandhi for his vices in his adolescence or do we revere him as Mahatma?
“Every saint has a past and every sinner has a future”, wrote the acclaimed 20th century author Oscar Wilde. Past cannot be changed and future cannot be predicted. It is the present moment which can be made best use of. One of the biggest apostles of non-violence whom Gandhi revered was Gautam Buddha. Known for his immense wisdom, he had preached, “Do not dwell in the past and focus your mind in the present moment.” Buddhist philosophers highlight the significance of mindfulness, i.e. being aware in the present moment.
The future depends on what we do in the present is an optimistic philosophy. No matter how terrible a person’s past is, if s/he makes a determined effort in the present, s/he can overturn her/his fortunes. Robber Angulimaal’s metamorphosis into a sage mentioned in the legendary Jataka tales is a case in point. The author of the epic Ramayana, Sage Valmiki would never have earned the title of Adi Kavi had he not given up robbery at the behest of a Saint. He made a name for himself for eternity by taking care of his present and letting-go his tainted past.
Examples from contemporary age:
Who does not know Dhirubhai Ambani, the founder of reliance Industries? But, many do not know that he was the son of a school teacher who struggled his way to establish himself. Despite hailing from a humble background, he worked diligently to establish a grand business empire, ensuring a good future for generations to come.
A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, fondly known as the ‘missile man of India’, went on to become the 11th President of India. As a young boy, he sold newspapers to support his family. He worked hard to create a bright future not only for himself but also for the space programme of India. Though his family was financially weak, he made best use of every opportunity in his present circumstances. No wonder, he was also awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna. He aptly preached what he practiced: “Knowledge without action is useless and irrelevant. Knowledge with action converts adversity into prosperity”.
L.B.Shastri, India’s 2nd Prime Minister was also from a humble background. In popular cultural imagination, he has been represented as “gudri ka lal”, that is, “the son of the poor’. Despite his impoverished background, he went on to become one of the most prominent figures of in Indian history.
The most recent example of an individual who proved the validity of the philosophy (The future depends on what we do in the present) is athlete Hima Das. The sportswoman hailing from a poor family of farmers in Assam remained undefeated in her pursuit and won Gold medal at several championships and brought laurels to the country.
All these examples prove that a person’s future depends on his/her actions and attitude in the present moment. Rome was not built in a day. Living every single day with sincerity can pave the

way for a better future. What is required is proper planning and strict implementation to achieve one’s desired goal, be it personal, professional or spiritual.
Greek and Roman philosophers have highlighted the significance of focusing on the present moment and deriving the best from it. Roman poet Horace in his Ode uses the phrase, Carpe Diem, meaning ‘Seize the day’. Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher, Marcus Aurelius wrote in the Meditations, “Do not indulge in dreams of having what you have not, but reckon up the chief of the blessings you do possess, and then thankfully remember how you would crave for them if they were not yours.” The Stoics highlighted that in order to be happy and content, one must live in the present moment with gratitude.
Our thoughts and actions in the present, not only determine our material well-being, but are also linked to our mental well-being. According to World Health Organization, more than 300 million people around the world are affected by depression. Stress-related illness and ailments are increasing day by day. These days, even teenagers complain of stress due to increased competitiveness in academics, often leading to psychiatric disorders. To tackle these issues, several meditative techniques are being advertised on social media platforms. The ancient wisdom from Patanjali’s ‘Yoga Sutra’ provides several yogic asana and pranayama to tackle anxiety and depression. The given Gandhian wisdom equally applies to nations and to the world at large. The much-debated concept of Sustainable development is also rooted in the idea of being cautious in the present for a sustainable future. Sustainable development is a form of development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. However, to ensure that the future generation is able to meet its needs, concrete and timely action must be taken. Civil Society as well as governments must not shift the bale on each other and work unitedly for a better future for coming generations.
Unfortunately, myopic vision of the policy makers as well as millennial generation is the root cause of several problems plaguing nations today. Lack of foresight and prudence has resulted in policy failures. Resources are depleting fast and managing the ever-increasing population has become a huge problem. The current water crisis in India is a case in point. The Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) report by the Niti Aayog in 2018 suggested that 21 major cities (Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad and others) are racing to reach zero groundwater levels by 2020. This will adversely affect access of drinking water for 100 million people.
Lack of ingenious solutions to the ongoing crisis of resources and basic amenities presents a bleak picture for the future. Population explosion is another related problem that the policy makers in India have failed to tackle. While China was much ahead of India in population, it took concrete measures for population control. It’s one child policy and family-planning awareness drive has been a boon. Governments in India, on the other hand have failed to create awareness on the dangers of ever-growing population. People at large also do not seem to perceive the gravity of the issue. As per the United Nation’s World Population Prospects report of 2019, India is projected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country by 2027. Population control measures must be implemented at war-footing level. Though we need not use coercive methods, but the Government can generate awareness, provide incentives etc. to deter people from producing more than two children. The preference for sons in our country is another reason that leads families to produce more children. Government schemes like, “Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana” for single girl child is a commendable step to encourage parents to be happy with one

girl child and not consider her as a burden. The scheme secures the future of the girl financially as by making small savings at present, dividends can be earned in the future.
Millennium Development Goals:
It is with the concern for the future generations that the United Nations came up with the idea of “Millennium Development Goals.”
By the UN Millennium Declaration, countries committed themselves to reduce extreme poverty and improve the basic living status by setting eight-goals with a deadline of 2015. These goals included:
 to eliminate extreme poverty and hunger;
 to achieve global primary education,
 to empower women and promote gender equality;
 to reduce child mortality;
 to promote maternal health;
 to fight malaria, HIV/AIDS, and other diseases;
 to promote environmental sustainability; and
 to develop a universal partnership for development. Though most of the targets could not been achieved by 2015, a substantial progress has been recorded over the 15 years, as follows-  Since 1990, the number of people living in extreme poverty declined by more than half.  The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half.  The primary school enrolment rate in the developing regions has reached 91 percent, and many more girls are now in school compared to 15 years ago.  Remarkable gains have also been made in the fight against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.  The under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half, and maternal mortality is down 45 percent worldwide.  The target of halving the proportion of people who lack access to improved sources of water was also met. Thus, focusing on the present with set-targets in the future is not only a prerequisite for survival but also a necessity for achieving any goal, be it personal or global. Economics also teaches this principle that whatever investment decisions we make at the present, we will get returns accordingly in the future. Insurance companies lure customers to invest in policies at present to mitigate the ill-effects of any adversity in the future. After all, Life-insurance plans are bought with a concern for the future of one’s family. The entire banking sector and their schemes like Fixed-deposit etc. works on this principle. However, being driven by the desire to make quick money, people often get trapped in fraudulent schemes that promise to give double returns.
Five-year plans in India
India in its formative years, needed a concrete development plan. The five-year plans aimed at target based action plan to achieve growth, development and stability. The

foresight of the erstwhile political leaders ensured that the nation must shed the tag of backwardness. Today, India is one of the fastest growing economy. After the Green Revolution, India resolved its food-shortage crisis.
Nature also teaches us this principle. If we sow chilly seeds, we will not get mangoes in return. Our results depend on our efforts in the present. The philosophy of Karma from the Bhagwat Geeta, the sacred text of the Hindus, too, enunciate this principle. In the popular representation, one may think of Kabir’s couplet, which focusses on the need to inhabit the present and work hard: “Kaal kare so aaj kal, aaj kare toh ab, pal mein parlay hoyegi bahuri karega kab”
Similarly, in the western context, the German philosopher Hegel argued that in modern times one’s social, filial, community and religious ties does not define one’s identity. A modern individual identity is validated and authenticated by his own actions. What he does in present, determines his future and shapes his identity. Hegel has captured this in the phrase ‘self-authenticating self’, which means that one’s identity is determined by his own individual self and not by his past ties. This idea lies at the heart of modern form of identity.
Kings, artists, warriors, princes and writers know well that if they want to have a future, if they don’t want to be erased from the public memory in the upcoming years, they must do something exceptional. Achilles, the protagonist of the eighth century BC Greek poet Homer’s epic the Iliad, joins the Trojan war and chooses to die because he knows that what he does at present will echo in eternity. He is driven by the desire to be represented in songs, in poetry. For him, future means immortality. Epic heroes are always concerned with how they are going to be remembered and what kind of future will they have in public memory. This has been the preoccupation of not only the epic heroes but of all the eminent personalities of the world. These great men and women want to leave their footprints on the sands of time through their deeds and valor in present times. The desire to achieve immortality has been at the heart of human civilization. This desire enables people to utilize each and every second of their present moment and shape their future, which includes both life as well as after-life.


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