Landslide Atlas of India

In News

  • ISRO recently released the Landslide Atlas of India identifying landslide hotspots in the country.


  • ISRO’s National Remote Sensing Centre created a database of landslide-prone regions of India based on events during 1998 – 2022.
  • In addition to aerial images, high-resolution satellite images captured using ResourceSat-1 and 2, etc., were used to study the landslides.
  • The pan-India database classifies landslides into – seasonal (2014, and 2017 monsoon seasons), event-based and route-based (2000 – 2017).

What are Landslides?

  • A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope.
  • They are a type of mass wasting, which denotes any downward movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity. They generally occur in clay-rich soil.
  • In India the entire Himalayan tract, hills/mountains in sub-Himalayan terrains of North-east India, Western Ghats, the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu and Konkan areas are landslide-prone.

India’s Vulnerability:

  • India is among the top five landslide-prone countries globally, where at least one death per 100 sq km is reported in a year due to a landslide event.
  • Excluding snow-covered areas, the Atlas states that
    •  approximately 12.6 per cent of the country’s geographical land area (0.42 million sq km) is prone to landslides. 
    • As many as 66.5 percent of the landslides are reported from the North-western Himalayas, about 18.8 per cent from the North-eastern Himalayas, and about 14.7 per cent from the Western Ghats.
    • Rainfall variability pattern is the single biggest cause of landslides in the country, with the Himalayas and the Western Ghats remaining highly vulnerable.

Region-wise Distribution:

  • Nearly half of the country’s landslide-prone area (0.18 sq km) is located in the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and Nagaland.
  • Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir cover 0.14 million sq km of the total landslide-prone areas.
  • Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu account for 0.09 million sq km.
  • The Araku region in Andhra Pradesh along the Eastern Ghats too has reported landslide events.

State-wise Distribution:

  • Uttarakhand, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh reported the highest number of landslides during 1998 – 2022.
  • Mizoram topped the list, recording 12,385 landslide events in the past 25 years, of which 8,926 were recorded in 2017 alone. 
  • 2,071 events of the total 2,132 landslides reported in Nagaland during this period occurred during the 2017 monsoon season
  • Manipur, too, showed a similar trend, wherein 4,559 out of 5,494 landslide events were experienced during the rainy season of 2017. 
  • Of the total 690, Tamil Nadu suffered 603 landslide events in 2018 alone.
  •  The Himalayan state of Uttarakhand has experienced the second-highest number (11,219) of landslides since 1998, all events occurring post-2000.
  • Despite fewer events in the Western Ghats, landslides were found to be making inhabitants significantly vulnerable to fatalities, especially in Kerala.

Government Initiatives to deal with landslides

  • National Landslide Risk Management Strategy (2019):
    • It covers all aspects of landslide disaster risk reduction and management, such as hazard mapping, monitoring, and early warning systems.
    • It includes awareness campaigns, capacity building, training, regulations, and policies, as well as landslide stabilisation and mitigation.
  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) Guidelines on Landslide Hazard Management (2009):
    • It outlines the steps that should be taken to reduce the risk of landslides.
    • It also identifies regions that are prone to landslides
    • Encourages the use of effective landslide rehabilitation and mitigation techniques.
  • National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM):
    • It was set up to provide capacity building and support to various national and state-level authorities in the area of disaster management and disaster risk reduction 

National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR)

In News

  • The Prime Minister inaugurated the 3rd Session of the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR) in New Delhi.

Highlights of the Session

  • The main theme of the session is “Building Local Resilience in a Changing Climate”.
  • The PM also felicitated awardees of the Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar. 
  • The PM gave an example of Bhunga houses of Kutch which survived the earthquake to a large extent. 
Bhunga Houses of KutchAfter the devastating earthquake of 1819, the people of Kutch came up with an innovative circular design of bhungas to minimize the damage to their lives as well as properties. They are traditional houses, a unique type of round mud hut walled with thatched roof.The reworked design of bhungas that is about 200 years old stood very firm during the earthquake of 2001 when it was very close to the epicenter.These houses are commonly called ‘Architecture without Architect’ because of the superior architectural knowledge gained by the locals through the years.The design of the house is such that it keeps the interior cool in summers and warm in winters and they are tremendously strong and can withstand natural calamities like desert storms and earthquakes.


  • It is a multi-stakeholder platform constituted by the Government of India in 2013 to facilitate dialogue, sharing experiences, views, ideas, action-oriented research & explore opportunities in the area of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).
  • It aims to bring together the whole range of India’s disaster risk community from Government, Parliamentarians, Mayors, Media, International Organizations, NGOs, local community representatives, scientific and academic institutions and corporate businesses etc. 
  • The output from the National Platform will offer a strategic direction and a road map for the formulation of the future National Action Plans on DRR.


  • To review the progress made in the field of disaster management from time to time.
  • To appreciate the extent and manner in which the Disaster Management Policy has been implemented by the Central and State Governments, and other concerned agencies, and to give appropriate advice in the matter.
  • To advise on coordination between the Central and State Governments/UT Administrations, local self-governments and civil society organizations for Disaster Risk Reduction.
  • To advice suo-moto or on a reference made by the Central Government or any other State Government or a Union territory Administration on any question pertaining to disaster management.
  • To review the National Disaster Management Policy.

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)

  • It is aimed at preventing new and reducing existing disaster risk and managing residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to the achievement of sustainable development.
  • DRR strategies and policies define goals and objectives across different timescales and with concrete targets, indicators and time frames. 

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030

  • It is a global, agreed policy of disaster risk reduction and is set out in the United Nations endorsed Sendai Framework adopted in March 2015 in Sendai Japan, whose expected outcome over the next 15 years is: 
    • The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.
  • It was the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda and provides Member States with concrete actions to protect development gains from the risk of disaster.
  • The Sendai Framework works hand in hand with the other 2030 Agenda agreements, including The Paris Agreement on Climate Change, The Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the New Urban Agenda, and ultimately the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • It recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.

WHO Report on Sodium Intake Reduction

In News

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the report to monitor progress and identify areas for action in the implementation of sodium reduction policies and other measures.

Major Highlights of the Report

  • The world is off-track to achieve its global target of reducing sodium intake by 30 percent in the next two years (by 2025).
  • Reducing sodium intake is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve health and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases, as it can avert a large number of cardiovascular events and deaths at very low total programme costs.
  • The global burden of unhealthy diets constitutes a major public health and development challenge worldwide. Urgent action is required to modify the production and consumption of foods and beverages, including industry manufactured (pre-packaged) food. 
  • Only 5% of WHO Member States are protected by mandatory and comprehensive sodium reduction policies and 73% of WHO Member States lack full range of implementation of such policies.
About Sodium Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and halite (NaCl).The body needs a small amount of sodium to work properly, but too much sodium increases the risk of heart disease, stroke and premature death. The main source of sodium is table salt (sodium chloride), but it is also contained in other condiments such as sodium glutamate. 

Issues with High Intake of Sodium

  • The largest number of diet-related deaths, an estimated 1.89 million each year, is associated with excessive intake of sodium, a well-established cause of raised blood pressure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • The global average salt intake is estimated to be 10.8 grams per day, more than double the WHO recommendation of less than five grams of salt per day (one teaspoon). 
  • More evidence is emerging documenting links between high sodium intake and increased risk of other health conditions such as gastric cancer, obesity, osteoporosis and kidney disease.
Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs)NCDs, also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioural factors.The main types of NCD are cardiovascular diseases (such as heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.The major NCDs share four behavioral risk factors- unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, and use of tobacco and alcohol. Factors contributing to the rise of NCDs also include ageing, rapid unplanned urbanization and globalization.NCDs including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung disease, are collectively responsible for 74% of all deaths worldwide. 

NCDs in India

  • NCDs account for 60% of all deaths in India. 
  • Cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension) contribute to 45% of all NCD deaths followed by chronic respiratory disease (22 %), cancers (12 %) and diabetes (3%). 
  • Tobacco use has been identified as the single largest risk factor attributable to NCDs. 
  • The prevalence of obesity and overweight is also showing a rapid increase in trends.
  • Nearly one out of every ten persons aged 18 years and above in India has raised blood glucose
  • More than two-thirds of the adolescents aged 11-17 years are physically inactive in India as per WHO standards. The level of physical inactivity among adults is around 13 %. 

Steps Taken by Government of India to Prevent NCDs

  • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS): Government of India provides technical and financial support to the States/UTs under the programme as part of National Health Mission (NHM).
    • It focuses on strengthening infrastructure, human resource development, health promotion & awareness generation for Cancer prevention, early diagnosis, management and referral to an appropriate level of healthcare facility for treatment of the NCDs.
  • Screening under NHM: A population-based initiative for prevention, control and screening for common NCDs i.e. diabetes, hypertension and common cancers has been rolled out in the country under
    • Under the initiative, persons more than 30 years of age are targeted for their screening for the three common cancers i.e oral, breast and cervical. 
    • Screening of these common cancers is an integral part of service delivery under Ayushman Bharat – Health and Wellness Centres.
  • Ayushman Bharat Health Wellness Centre scheme: Preventive aspect of Cancer is strengthened under Comprehensive Primary Health Care through scheme, by promotion of wellness activities and targeted communication at the community level. 
  • Awareness Programmes: Other initiatives for increasing public awareness about Cancer and for promotion of healthy lifestyle includes observation of National Cancer Awareness Day& World Cancer Day.
    • In addition, NPCDCS gives financial support under NHM for awareness generation (IEC) activities for Cancer to be taken by the States/UTs as per their Programme Implementation Plans (PIPs).
  • Fit India Movement: It is implemented by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, and various Yoga related activities are carried out by the Ministry of AYUSH. 

Recommendations by WHO

  • WHO recommends lowering sodium content in food products; implementing front-of-pack labelling to help consumers select food products with lower sodium content; conducting mass media campaigns to alter consumer behaviour around sodium; and implementing public food procurement and service policies to reduce sodium content in food served or sold. 
  • Modelling indicates the estimated potential impact of policy implementation on sodium intake to be a 23% reduction, and on cardiovascular death a 3% reduction, globally, by 2030. 
  • Although the modelled global sodium reduction is below the 30% target by 2030, achieving the target can still be considered attainable with the rapid implementation of government-led and comprehensive mandatory sodium reduction policies and other measures

Amendments to PMLA rules and impact

In News

  • The Finance Ministry has amended money laundering rules to incorporate more disclosures for non-governmental organisations by reporting entities like financial institutions, banking companies or intermediaries.
    • It has also defined “politically exposed persons” (PEPs) under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) in line with the recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).
    • The expanded definitions also included cryptocurrencies under provisions to monitor illicit financial flows.


  • The government has been struggling in recent years to formulate an appropriate regulatory response to deal with the pandemic-era upsurge in advertisements soliciting investment in virtual assets as well as reports of actual investment.
  • A July 2021 online report had estimated India as being the country with the highest number of ‘crypto owners’, which was more than threefold the number of owners of crypto assets in the second-ranked U.S.

Amendments in the PMLA Rules

  • The new clause in the rules for PMLA compliance defines “Politically Exposed Persons” as individuals who have been “entrusted with prominent public functions by a foreign country, including the heads of States or Governments, senior politicians, senior government or judicial or military officers, senior executives of state-owned corporations and important political party officials”.
    • The move will bring uniformity with a 2008 circular of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for KYC norms/anti-money laundering standards for banks and financial institutions, which had defined PEPs in line with FATF norms.
    • The ED is the main agency probing allegations under PMLA.
  • The amended rules also have lowered the threshold for identifying beneficial owners by reporting entities, where the client is acting on behalf of its beneficial owner, in line with the Companies Act and Income-tax Act.
    • The term ‘beneficial owner’ are those with the entitlement of more than 25% of shares or capital or profit of the company, which has now been reduced to 10%.
  • Reporting entities are now required to register details of the client if it’s a non-profit organisation on the DARPAN portal of NITI Aayog.
    • If not already registered, and maintain such registration records for a period of five years after the business relationship between a client and a reporting entity has ended or the account has been closed, whichever is later.
  • The due diligence documentation requirements, which were until now limited to obtaining the basic KYCs of clients such as registration certificates, PAN copies and documents of officers holding an attorney to transact on behalf of the client, have now been extended.
  • Virtual digital assets (VDA) trade has been brought under PMLA. As of now, cryptocurrencies are unregulated in India, though the government has taxed their withdrawals into rupees.
    • New rules mandate crypto exchanges and intermediaries dealing in virtual assets to maintain the KYCs of their clients and report suspicious transactions to financial intelligence units.
    • The new rules will make the legal position clearer for both the investigating agency as well as people indulging in fraud via such modes of digital currency.
    • It will prevent the misuse of crypto, and NFTs through money laundering and other illegal activities.

Significance of the FATF-related changes

  • The amendments assume significance ahead of India’s proposed FATF assessment, which is expected to be undertaken later this year.
  • The broader objective is to bring in legal uniformity and remove ambiguities before the FATF assessment.
  • In its recommendations, the FATF states that financial institutions should be required to have appropriate risk-management systems to determine whether a customer or beneficial owner is a domestic PEP or a person who is or has been entrusted with a prominent function by an international organisation.


  • The definition of PEP, however, leaves a lot to interpretation and in the absence of clear markers as to what rank, up to how much time after demitting office etc, would an individual be considered a PEP, it would give the authorities too much discretion. Such discretion, if not checked, could easily be misused and it would be best to define the ambiguities left in this amendment.


  • The decision to mandatorily bring all trade in virtual digital assets under the PMLA now lays the onus of ascertaining the provenance of all activity, including safekeeping, in such assets upon individuals and businesses participating in or facilitating these transactions.

Restoration of ties between Iran and Saudi Arabia

In News

  • Recently, China-Brokered Talks have led to the normalcy of diplomatic relations between the middle-eastern countries of Iran and Saudi Arabia


  • Iran and Saudi Arabia have agreed to restore ties and reopen diplomatic missions after a seven-year-long rift that has fuelled tensions in the Gulf and deepened conflicts from Yemen to Syria.
  • The agreement was reached recently during talks in Beijing between top security officials from the two rival Middle East powers.
  • While the rivalry between predominantly Shia Iran and Sunni Saudi Arabia has dominated Middle East politics in recent years, spreading into Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Yemen.
  • The execution of Shia cleric Nimr al-Nimr in Tehran in 2016 was the most recent incident which led to protests and the cutting of ties between Iran and Saudi Arabia.

Major highlights of the agreement:

  • Iran and Saudi Arabia have agreed to respect state sovereignty and not interfere in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Both countries have also agreed to activate a security cooperation agreement signed in 2001.
  • The foreign ministers of both nations will meet to prepare for the exchange of ambassadors.

Potential Consequences

  • The deal could have implications for a US-led effort to isolate Iran economically through sanctions.
  • If there is a genuine warming of Saudi relations with Tehran, one consequence is likely to be Saudi investment inside Iran.
  • A further potential consequence of the diplomatic re-engagement is that Saudi Arabia may rein back its London-based satellite channel Iran International.
  • The pact does not necessarily mean any change in the Saudi approach to the Palestinian conflict, where it has been warning Israel that it is on course to cause dangerous bloodshed.

Implications of Agreement

  • The agreement has potentially wide implications for the Iran nuclear deal and the civil war in Yemen, where the two sides are locked in a proxy war.
  • The deal shows the new determination of Saudi Arabia to conduct a foreign policy independent of the West.
  • Some quarters from Israel have described the pact as a “serious and dangerous” development and a “fatal blow to the effort to create a regional alliance” against the Islamic Republic.
  • Saudi Arabia has refused to join the Abraham accords that normalized relations between Israel and some Arab states.

Timeline for Severed Ties

Iran and Saudi Arabia have had a contentious relationship over the years, marked by proxy wars and diplomatic tensions.

  • 2011: The Arab Spring leads to accusations from Saudi Arabia that Iran was inciting protests in Bahrain. Iran denies the accusations.
  • 2011: The Syrian war begins, with Iran backing President Bashar al-Assad and Saudi Arabia supporting rebel groups. Later, both countries join a US-led coalition to fight ISIS.
  • 2015: The Yemen civil war begins, with Saudi Arabia backing the internationally recognized government and Iran supporting the Houthi rebels.
  • 2015: A stampede in Mecca during the annual Hajj pilgrimage results in Iran accusing Saudi Arabia of mismanaging the event. Tensions rise further when Saudi Arabia executes prominent Shia leader Nimr al-Nimr and Iran protests.
  • 2016: Saudi Arabia cuts ties with Iran after protesters in Tehran storm the Saudi embassy in response to Nimr’s execution.
  • 2016: Iran suspends participation in the Hajj, and Saudi Arabia launches a Persian-language television station covering the pilgrimage.
  • 2017: Saudi Arabia, along with the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt, impose a blockade on Qatar, accusing it of being too close to Iran and supporting terrorism. The blockade is lifted in 2021.
  • 2017: Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri resigns unexpectedly from Riyadh, citing Iran’s influence on his country through Hezbollah.
  • 2018: President Donald Trump withdraws the US from the Iran nuclear deal, a move praised by Saudi Arabia and Israel.
  • 2019: Saudi Arabia blames Iran for a series of attacks on targets in the kingdom, including one that temporarily halved the country’s crude production.
  • 2020: Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani is killed in a US drone strike in Baghdad, and Saudi media celebrates the attack.
  • 2021: Iran and Saudi Arabia hold their first direct talks since cutting off official ties in April, with talks continuing throughout the year and into 2022.
  • 2023: Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi visits China in February, and in March, Saudi Arabia and Iran announce they have decided to re-establish ties.

Way ahead

  • Iran and Saudi Arabia have a long and complex history of adversarial relations, marked by proxy wars, diplomatic standoffs, and geopolitical tensions.
  • However, recent developments, including the resumption of direct talks and the agreement to restore ties, offer a glimmer of hope for improved relations between these two regional powers.
  • As both countries face common challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, economic pressures, and security threats, the restoration of diplomatic ties could pave the way for greater cooperation and stability in the Middle East.
  • While many obstacles remain, the recent diplomatic efforts provide a positive sign for the future of Iran-Saudi Arabia relations.

Source: TH

MSME Competitive (LEAN) Scheme

In News

  • The Union Minister for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises launched the MSME Competitive (LEAN) scheme.


  • The Scheme is a business initiative to reduce “waste” in manufacturing.
  • It provides for building awareness of lean manufacturing practices in MSME clusters as well as cost sharing of consultant’s fees with MSME units who opt for such interventions. 
  • Under the scheme, the Centre’s contribution will be 90 per cent of the implementation cost for handholding and consultancy fees as against 80 per cent previously.
  • Lean Manufacturing Techniques are adopted with the objective of
    • reducing waste, 
    • increasing productivity, 
    • introducing innovative practices for improving overall competitiveness, 
    • inculcating good management systems and imbibing a culture of continuous improvement.
  • The Pilot Phase of Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme (LMCS) was approved in 2009 for 100 Mini Clusters. 
  • Under the scheme, MSMEs will implement LEAN manufacturing tools like 5S, Kaizen, KANBAN, Visual workplace, Poka Yoka etc under the guidance of trained and competent LEAN Consultants to attain LEAN levels like Basic, Intermediate and Advanced. 
  • Nodal Agency: National Productivity Council (NPC)
  • Eligibility: The Scheme is open to Micro, Small or Medium as per the definition of the MSME Act. (The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006.) 
  • The units are required to form a Mini Cluster of 10 or so units.


  • Under the Scheme, MSMEs are assisted in reducing their manufacturing costs, through proper personnel management, better space utilization, scientific inventory management, improved processed flows, reduced engineering time and so on.
  • LMCS (Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme) also brings improvement in the quality of products and lowers costs, which are essential for competing in national and international markets.


  • The larger enterprises in India have been adopting LMCS to remain competitive, but MSMEs have generally stayed away from such programs as they are not fully aware of the benefits. 
  • Besides these issues, experienced and effective Lean Manufacturing Counsellors or Consultants are not easily available and are expensive to engage and hence most MSMEs are unable to afford LMCS.

Fifth India – USA Commercial Dialogue

In News

  • Recently, the US Secretary of Commerce visited India to participate in the India-US bilateral Commercial Dialogue 2023.


  • The India-US Commercial Dialogue aims to strengthen US-India Comprehensive Global Strategic Partnership by enhancing commercial collaboration 
  • It is because of such collaborations that the bilateral goods and services trade has almost doubled since 2014, surpassing $191 billion.


  • India showed  interest in partnering with the United States in developing a secure pharmaceutical manufacturing base and diversifying supply chains for critical and strategic minerals (including rare earth).
  • Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed on establishing a semiconductor supply chain and innovation partnership under the framework of India – US Commercial Dialogue.
  • A new Working Group on Talent, Innovation and Inclusive Growth under the Commercial Dialogue was launched to further the cooperation on Start-ups, SMEs, Skill Development and Entrepreneurship including in digital and emergent technologies
  • Re-launched the Travel and Tourism Working Group to  address  new challenges and opportunities to create a stronger travel and tourism sector.
  • Launched Standards and Conformance Cooperation Program  (Phase III) to be carried out in partnership between ANSI (American National Standard Institute) from the US side and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards from the Indian side in furtherance of standards cooperation.
  • Announced U.S.-India Energy Industry Network (EIN) as a broad platform for facilitating U.S. industry involvement in the Clean EDGE Asia initiative to discuss opportunities in the Indian energy sector.
Clean EDGE Asia initiativeClean EDGE Asia is a US government Initiative to support and accelerate Asia’s clean energy transition.It works in collaboration with US’s partners to develop markets that attract private investment, support the deployment of cutting-edge U.S. technologies and services,develop transparent energy infrastructure procurement practices, identify and remove barriers to clean energy investment,mobilise financing options for projects. 

Semiconductor Sub-Committee

In News

  • Recently, India and the U.S. agreed to form a semiconductor sub-committee during the relaunched India-U.S. Commercial Dialogue.


  • The Semiconductor Sub-Committee is part of India-US efforts to  increase private-sector cooperation in the area of semiconductors  with a view to reducing their dependence on China and Taiwan. 
  • It is led by the Department of Commerce for the US side and the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry for the Indian side.
  • Setting up of the Semiconductor Sub-Committee comes after India and US signed an  MoU to build a resilient supply chain in the semiconductor sector.
  • The MoU aims to leverage the complementary strengths of both countries and facilitate commercial opportunities and the development of semiconductor innovation ecosystems through discussions on various aspects of the semiconductor value chain.


  • Semiconductors are the building blocks of almost every modern electronic device from smartphones to connected devices in the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • The chip-making industry is a highly-concentrated one, with the big players being Taiwan, the U.S. and China. 
  • The global chip shortage coupled with the U.S.-China tensions over Taiwan, and the supply chain blockages owing to the Russia-Ukraine conflict have made major economies realise the importance of the chip-making sector.

Indian initiatives

  • In 2021, the MeitY  launched the Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme to nurture at least 20 domestic companies involved in semiconductor design 
  • India has also launched the Scheme for Promotion of Manufacturing of Electronic Components and Semiconductors (SPECS) for manufacturing electronic components and semiconductors.
  • India  announced an outlay of Rs 76,000 crore (around $10 billion), under  the PLI scheme for the development of a semiconductor and display manufacturing electronics ecosystem.

Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar

In News

  • The PM felicitated awardees of the Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar during the 3rd Session of the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR). 

Awardees for the Year 2023

  • Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA)
  • Lunglei Fire Station, Mizoram

About the Award

  • It is an award to recognize the excellent work done by individuals and Institutions in India in the field of Disaster Management like Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Rescue, Response, Relief, Rehabilitation, Research/ Innovations or Early Warning. 


  • Only Indian nationals and Indian institutions are eligible to apply for the award.
  • For institutions, voluntary organisations, corporate entities, academic/research institutions, response/ uniformed forces or any other institution may apply as an institution for the award.
  • The candidate for the award must have worked in the area of Disaster Management related work in India.
  • The application must be accompanied by details of the work done in disaster management and must highlight achievements.

Who can nominate? 

  • Any individual and institution can nominate an individual or institution for the award. The application for the same can be filed between 1st July to 31st August each year.

Ceremony Details:

  • The award shall be announced on 23rd January each year, on the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • It carries a cash prize of ?51 lakhs and a certificate in the case of an institution and ?5 lakhs and a certificate in the case of an individual.


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