60 Years of Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

In News

  • The premier investigating police agency of India, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), completes its 60 years of service to the nation.


  • Diamond Jubilee Inauguration
    • On this Occasion, the Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Diamond Jubilee Celebrations in New Delhi.
    • The PM said the CBI has established itself as a trustable and efficient institution. From bank frauds to wildlife-related frauds, CBI’s scope of work has increased manifold. CBI keeps the spirit of truth alive in the hearts of the common people.
  • Zero tolerance against corruption 
    • The Prime Minister said that the CBI is strengthening New India’s policy of zero tolerance against corruption.
    • Corruption disrupts the opportunities of youth and demeans talent, supporting only the privileged. It hampers the capability of the nation, which impacts its progress.
  • Quality investigation through use of tech & innovation
    • The PM elaborated that the use of technology and innovation will improve the quality of investigation.
  • Extension of CBI office
    • Prime Minister Modi also inaugurated the newly constructed office complexes of the CBI at Shillong, Pune, and Nagpur. He released a Postage Stamp and Commemorative Coin marking the Diamond Jubilee Celebration year of the CBI.

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

  • History of the CBI:
    • The CBI came into being during World War II, when the colonial government felt the need to probe cases of corruption in the War and Supply Department. A law came in 1941. It became the DSPE Act in 1946.
    • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was established by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, dated April 1, 1963.
    • The CBI is not a statutory body but derives its power to investigate from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
    • The CBI functions under the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions of the central government, and is exempted from the purview of the Right to Information (RTI) Act.
  • Functions:
    • In 1963, the CBI was established by the Government of India with a view to investigate serious crimes related to the defence of India, corruption in high places, serious fraud, cheating, and embezzlement and social crime, particularly hoarding, black marketing, and profiteering in essential commodities, having all-India and inter-state ramifications.
    • It is also the nodal police agency in India that coordinates investigations on behalf of Interpol member countries.
  • Jurisdiction: 
    • Section 6 of the DPSE Act authorises the central government to direct CBI to probe a case within the jurisdiction of any state on the recommendation of the concerned state government. The courts can also order a CBI probe, and even monitor the progress of investigation.
    • CBI can suo-moto take up investigation of offences only in the Union Territories.
    • The Lokpal Act 2013 prescribed that the CBI director shall be appointed on the recommendation of a committee comprising the Prime Minister, Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha and Chief Justice of India or a judge of the Supreme Court nominated by him
  • Conviction rate : 
    • According to the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) annual report, its conviction rate is as high as 65 to 70%, which is comparable to the best investigation agencies in the world.
General ConsentGiven that the CBI has jurisdiction only over central government departments and employees, it can investigate a case involving state government employees or a violent crime in a given state only after that state government gives its consent. Thus, it gets a general consent instead of a case-specific consent to avoid taking permission each time.The general consent is normally given for periods ranging from six months to a year.How many types of consent are there for the CBI?There are two types of consent for a probe by the CBI. These are: general and specific.When a state gives a general consent to the CBI for probing a case, the agency is not required to seek fresh permission every time it enters that state in connection with investigation or for every case.When a general consent is withdrawn, CBI needs to seek case-wise consent for investigation from the concerned state government. If specific consent is not granted, the CBI officials will not have the power of police personnel when they enter that state.

Issues in functioning of CBI 

  • Legislative Problems:  The conduct or continuance of investigation into offences committed within the territory of a state, consent of the state is required which most of the time is delayed or even denied.
  • Administrative issues: Lack of infrastructure, sufficient manpower and modern equipment; in-human conditions, especially at the lowest rung; questionable methods of procuring evidence; officers failing to abide by the rule book; and lack of accountability of erring officers.
  • Political Issues: In May 2013, as multiple corruption scandals dogged the UPA government, the Supreme Court made an observation about the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) that has stuck to the agency ever since.
    • A Bench headed by Justice R M Lodha described the CBI as “a caged parrot speaking in its master’s voice” (Politicisation of CBI).
    • The observation was made in the context of government interference in the functioning of the CBI in its investigation of the coal blocks allocation cases. 
  • Transparency Issues: The CBI is exempted from the purview of the Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005.
  • Overlapping Functions: There is an overlap in jurisdictions of CVC, CBI and Lokpal in certain cases leading to problems. 

Way Forward

  • The role, jurisdiction and legal powers of the CBI need to be clearly laid down.
  • It will give it goal clarity, role clarity, autonomy in all spheres and an image makeover as an independent autonomous statutory body.
  • 2nd ARC: New legislation should be there for CBI’s governance
  • Parliamentary standing committee (2007): Strengthen Human & financial resources, better investments and more autonomy.

Competition Amendment Bill, 2023

In News

  • RecentlyRajya Sabha passed the Competition Amendment Bill, 2023. 


  • The Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2023  seeks to amend the Competition Act, 2002 which regulates competition in the Indian market and prohibits anti-competitive practices such as cartels, mergers and acquisitions that may have an adverse effect on competition. 
  • The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Act.


  • Penalties : The Bill seeks to defines ‘turnover’ for the purpose of penalty as global turnover derived from all the products and services by a person or an enterprise
    • The idea is to levy a penalty as a percentage of global turnover of the offending company, moving away from the current practice of levying a part of the local or relevant market turnover as penalty.
  • Decriminalisation : The Bill decriminalises certain offences under the Act by changing the nature of punishment from imposition of fine to civil penalties.
    • These offences include failure to comply with orders of the CCI and directions of the Director General related to anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominant position.
  • Expands CCI’s Scope: The new provisions expand the scope of CCI’s merger regulation by bringing deals worth more than ?2,000 crore requiring regulator clearance.
  • Settlement Mechanism:  The amendment introduces a scheme for commitment and settlement which is meant to reduce litigation by way of negotiated settlements.
    •  This scheme is available to cases of anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominance, but not to cartels.
  • Reducing US monetary Policy Influence: By reducing the use of the US dollar, countries can reduce the influence of US monetary policy on their own economies.

Significance :

  • Promoting Ease of Doing Business: The amendments to the Competition Act aim to reduce regulatory hurdles and promote ease of doing business in India. The amendments are expected to provide greater clarity to businesses operating in India and reduce the compliance burden for companies.
  • Enhancing Transparency: The inclusion of global turnover in the definition of “turnover” aims to enhance transparency and accountability in the Indian market. The amendment ensures that companies cannot escape penalties for competition law violations by shifting their revenue to other countries.
Competition Commission of IndiaCompetition Commission of India (CCI) is a statutory body of the Government of India responsible for enforcing the Competition Act, 2002, it was duly constituted in March 2009.The Act prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises and regulates combinations, which causes an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.The Commission consists of one Chairperson and six Members who shall be appointed by the Central Government.The commission is a quasi-judicial body which gives opinions to statutory authorities and also deals with Antitrust cases. 

Dial Up Internet

In News

  • Recently, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India repealed dial-up internet connection service norms.


  • Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialling a telephone number on a conventional telephone line.
  • Dial-up connections use modems to decode audio signals into data to send to a router or computer.
  • The regulations were issued when the dial-up service was the only service available for accessing low-speed internet.
  • Dial-up internet speeds were theoretically capable of reaching a maximum of 56 kilobits per second.
  • The telecom technologies have evolved to offer high-speed broadband service on  xDSL, FTTH, LTE,

Internet Users in India

  • According to the Internet in India report 2022 , There are 692 million active internet users in the country. Out of them, 351 million are from rural areas and 341 are from urban areas. As per Internet and Mobile Association of India, the number of internet users in India is likely to reach 900 million by 2025.
  • There are 346 million Indians engaging in  online transactions including digital payments and e-commerce. India has outnumbered the United States, where the population practising digital transactions is at 331 million.
  •  Around 762 million Indians have not adopted the Internet yet — including 63% from rural pockets of the country.
  • Number of male internet users is greater than female users across rural as well as urban areas.

Govt Initiatives

  • Prime Minister Wi-Fi Access Network Interface (PM-WANI) : The objective of the programme  is to provide public Wi-Fi service through Public Data Offices (PDOs) spread across the length and breadth of the country just like what PCOs (Public Call Offices) did for telephone spread in India.
  • Bharat Net Project: It is the world’s largest rural broadband connectivity programme using Optical fibre to create robust middle-mile infrastructure for taking  broadband connectivity to Gram Panchayats.
  •  National Broadband Mission : It aims to  facilitate universal and equitable access to broadband services across the country.


  • Right of Way Challenge: Due to variable and complex legal procedures across states, non-uniformity in levies, and approvals from the Forest Department, Railways, and National Highway Authority, the Right of Way has been a contentious issue for the Indian telecom sector.
  • Insufficient Fixed-Line Penetration: The Indian network does not have very much fixed-line coverage, while most developed countries have a high penetration of fixed lines (telephone lines connected to a nationwide telephone network via metal wires or optical fibers).
    • There are fewer than 25% of towers in India connected to fiber networks, compared to more than 70% in developed nations.
  • Lack of Rural Connectivity: In India, adequate tele density has been achieved, but there is a large discrepancy between penetration in urban (55.42%) and rural (44.58%) areas.
    • Getting into semi-rural and rural areas is challenging for service providers due to the huge initial fixed costs.

Way Forward

  • To realise the objectives of Digital India the creation of digital infrastructure and the development of digital skills must go hand in hand. The rural population needs to be empowered to make full use of digital opportunities

The demand for Scottish Independence

In News

  • Recently, the demand to hold a second referendum for Scotland’s independence was rejected by the British Prime Minister. 

More about the “demand for Scottish independence” 

  • Beginning of the independent Kingdom of Scotland:
    • The independent Kingdom of Scotland was formed in the 9th century and went on to fight wars to remain independent from the Kingdom of England
    • In 1603, the two kingdoms entered a personal union and were then ruled by the same monarchs
  • Acts of Union:
    • In 1707, due to economic and political vulnerabilities prevailing on both sides, the British and Scottish Parliaments passed the Acts of Union, entering into a political union under the name of “Great Britain”.
    • While Scotland could retain some of its decision making powers it did not get equal representation in the united Parliament, and longstanding cultural and political differences remained. 
  • Parliament of Scotland: 
    • Demands for self-governance soon began to sprout.
    • This eventually led to two referendums in 1979 and 1997, resulting in the formation of a new devolved Parliament of Scotland in 1999. 
    • Devolved issues:
      • This Parliament was given the mandate to form legislation on devolved issues such as health, transport, education, and so on. 
    • Reserved issues:
      • While the power to legislate on defence, foreign policy, trade, immigration, and currency was reserved. 
  • 2014 – Referendum for independence:
    • The last referendum for independence took place in 2014, where 55% of Scots voted to stay in the three-centuries-old union while 45% voted to walk out.
  • Current scenario:
    • A large proportion of Scots see independence from the U.K. as the question of self-determination and identity. 
    • Scotland accounts for 8% of Britain’s population and economy and one-third of its landmass.

Why the demand for independence?

  • Right of independence:
    • The Scottish National Party (SNP) government says that people who live in Scotland should have the right to decide if they want to be an independent country. 
    • To relinquish doubts over the future of Scotland after independence, the SNP has been coming out with White Papers on its vision for “building a new Scotland”
  • North Sea revenue:
    • It currently gets a bloc grant from the British government for a large part of its annual expenditure which it plans to substitute with oil revenues from the North Sea once its gets independence. 
    • It says that instead of using the North Sea oil revenues to invest in future generations, the U.K. is using them to fund its current expenses, which undermines the interests of Scots
  • Rejoining EU:
    • It also plans to rejoin the EU, to expand its trade in the bloc, and to receive other associated benefits. 
    • The SNP also plans to keep using the British pound Sterling as its currency after independence.
  • Scotland is different from the U.K.:
    • It also argues that Scotland is different from the U.K. in that its electoral system is already fairer and more proportionally represented than the U.K. 
    • It says it stands for different things like
      • More open immigration policies, 
      • A faster push for green transition, 
      • Free university education and geriatric care, 
      • Taxation on higher earners, and 
      • Inclusion of the LGBTQ community. 
    • It also believes that the U.K. could make other decisions like Brexit in the future that would undermine Scottish interests.

The U.K.’s stand

  • No clearer picture:
    • The British government believes that the SNP has failed to give a clearer picture on how issues of pensions and healthcare would work in an independent Scotland. 
  • On rejoining EU:
    • It has also warned Scotland that if it rejoins the EU, it would lead to the creation of a hard border between Scotland and Britain. 
  • The Economic Affairs Committee of Westminster: 
    • Before the 2014 referendum, the Economic Affairs Committee of Westminster had highlighted that the retaining of the sterling as Scottish currency would be problematic as the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of England, which forms policy for the U.K., could not entertain the interests of a separate country
    • It also said that Scotland would find it difficult to assume its share of U.K.’s public debt, which runs into billions. 
    • Besides, the decommissioning of North Sea Oil would also have economic and trade implications for Britain.
  • Perceptions of Englishness:
    • Aside from impacts on the Defence and trade strategy, critics pointed out that perhaps the “biggest impact” of Scotland leaving the centuries-old Union in the current geopolitical environment, would be on “perceptions of Englishness among the English themselves, who make up 85% of the U.K.’s population, and the projection of Englishness as a national identity” to the world.

Way ahead

  • In November 2022, however, the U.K.’s top court ruled that such a referendum could not take place. 
  • Refusing to give up her party’s push for independence, SNP’s top leadership declared a new strategy that the party will make the next British general election or the Scottish Parliamentary election as a “de facto referendum” for independence, where SNP would stand on the sole issue of independence.
  • For others, the priority is to first build support for independence among Scottish citizens.
    • As recent polls show that the support for a ‘yes’ vote on independence has dropped to 39% in the country, less than it was during the 2014 referendum.

Sagar-Setu Mobile App

In News

  • Union Minister for Ports, Shipping and Waterways Shri Sarbananda Sonowal today launched the App Version of National Logistics Portal (Marine)  ‘Sagar-Setu’.


  • The SAGAR-SETU app of the National Logistics Portal (Marine) will provide real-time information on vessel-related information, gate, container freight stations, and transactions, enabling digital transactions for payments.
  • The app will boost maritime trade, enhance the economy of the country, and increase the visibility of operations and tracking.

Benefits for Traders

  • Improve convenience with reduced turnaround time for approval and compliances.
  • Increase visibility of operations and tracking.

Benefits for Service Providers

  • Help in tracking of records and transactions offered
  • Receive notification of service requests.
National Logistics Portal (Marine)National Logistics Portal (Marine) is a national maritime single window platform encompassing complete end-to-end logistics solutions to help exporters, importers, and service providers exchange documents seamlessly and transact business. Maritime India Vision 2030 (expected to supersede the Sagarmala Scheme) aims to build ports and digitize maritime infrastructure within the country.

Nagri Dubraj rice gets Geographical Indication Tag

In News

  • The Geographical Indication Registry granted Chhattisgarh’s aromatic rice, Nagri Dubraj, a geographical indication (GI) tag.
    • The Morena and Rewa Mango (both Madhya Pradesh) have also given the Tag.

About Nagri Dubraj Rice

  • It is produced by a women’s self-help group. The women’s self-help group “Maa Durga Swasahayata Samuh ” of Nagri in Dhamtari district has been harvesting Dubraj.
  • It is an indigenous variety and has small grains, is very soft to eat after cooking, and is known as the Basmati of Chhattisgarh because of its fragrance.

What is a GI Tag?

  • GI or Geographical Indication Tag is used for products which have specific geographical origin or have qualities that can be attributed specifically to the region.
    • A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
  • The GI tags are issued as per the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, of 1999. 
  • It is a part of the intellectual property rights that comes under the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
  • This tag is valid for a period of 10 years following which it can be renewed.

Benefits of Getting GI Tag

  • It confers legal protection to Geographical Indications in India
  • Prevents unauthorised use of a Registered Geographical Indication by others.
  • It provides legal protection to Indian Geographical Indications which in turn boost exports.
  • It promotes the economic prosperity of producers of goods produced in a geographical territory.

Provisional Tax collections

In News

  • Recently, the Finance Ministry released  provisional data regarding FY 2022-23 Tax collections. 


  • India’s net direct tax collections have risen 17.63% in 2022-23 to touch ?16.61 lakh crore, exceeding the revised estimates target for the year by 0.7%.
  • Corporate tax contribution to  gross direct tax  was ?10.04 lakh crore, just a tad higher than the ?9.61 lakh crore paid by taxpayers as personal Income Tax and Securities Transaction Tax (STT).
  • At a gross level, the share of personal income tax and STT to the tax kitty has touched 48.9% in 2022-23 compared to around 47.4% in 2021-22, while corporate tax accounted for just 51.1% in the year gone by as opposed to 52.6% in 2021-22.
  • The growth in corporate tax collections was also lower than personal income tax. The gross corporate tax collection  had risen 16.9% in the year, while personal income tax and STT yielded a growth of 24.23%.
  • Gross tax collections grew 20.33% to ?19.68 lakh crore in 2022-23, compared to ?16.36 lakh crore in the previous financial yearTax refunds jumped at a sharper 37.4% year-on-year to a little over ?3.07 lakh crore from ?2,23,658 crore in 2021-22.
  • Gross corporate and personal tax collections along with STT, have registered  20.38% growth from ?16.32 lakh crore to ?19.65 lakh crore.

Reasons for gains :

  • Incorporation of Data accumulation tools by the tax department  lead to taxpayer data being pulled and automatically adjusted
  • expansion of tax deduction and tax collection at source [TDS and TCS] provisions to track transactions from the source through the value chain
  • Increase in Tax base through implementation of GST.

Explanation for the terms:

  • Revised Estimates: Budget estimates are prepared for a year,before the completion of a year A survey is conducted of the allocations  of the financial year which takes stock of how much of the allocated funds have been used, how much is left/ collected,what all activities have been planned and so on.  After this, the initial budget estimates are revised and these numbers are now called revised estimates.
  • Gross Direct tax : Direct taxes are those where   the burden can’t be shifted by the taxpayer to someone else. After Tax collections the tax authority may offer refunds for various reasons like wrong application,mistimed deductions,Appeals etc. net collections are gross collections minus refunds.

Einstein Tile

In News

  • Recently  Mathematicians have discovered  an “einstein tile”


  • An “einstein tile” – a shape that could be singularly used to create a non-repeating (aperiodic) pattern on an infinitely large plane. Here, “einstein” is a play on German ein stein or “one stone” – not to be confused with Albert Einstein, the famous German physicist.
  • A periodic tiles are a set of tile-types whos copies can form Patterns without repition
  • In 1961, mathematician Hao Wang conjectured that aperiodic tilings were impossible. But his student, Robert Berger, disputed this, finding a set 104 tiles, which when arranged together will never form a repeating pattern.
  • In the 1970s, Nobel prize-winning physicist Roger Penrose found a set of only two tiles that could be arranged together in a non-repeating pattern ad infinitum. This is now known as Penrose tiling and has been used in artwork across the world.
  • But since Penrose’s discovery, mathematicians have been looking for the “holy grail” of aperiodic tiling – a single shape or monotile which can fill a space up to infinity without ever repeating the pattern it creates.
  • Mathematicians call this the einstein problem in geometry. This problem has stumped mathematicians for decades and many felt that there was simply no answer to this problem.
  • The recent discovery named “the hat” answers this problem.


  • aperiodic tiling will help physicists and chemists understand the structure and behaviour of quasicrystals, structures in which the atoms are ordered but do not have a repeating pattern
  • The newly discovered tile might become  a springboard for innovative art.


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