The Constitution of India inherits many of the provisions from the Government of India (GOI) Act 1935 as
well as borrows many provisions from the Constitution of major countries like USA, Ireland, British etc.
However, the most profound influence was that of GOI Act 1935 as more than half of the provisions of
Constitution bear close resemblance to GOI Act 1935.
Some of features of the Act that formed the nucleus of the present constitution are:

  1. Provincial Autonomy: This Act provided autonomy to the provinces and restricted interference
    of Centre in the provincial subjects. This forms the nucleus of present Indian Federation.
  2. Distribution of power among center and states: The act provided for separate lists i.e. Federal
    list, Provincial list and Concurrent list for dividing power among center and states.
  3. Federal Legislature: Under the GOI Act, 1935, the Central Legislature was bicameral, consisting of
    Federal Assembly and Council of States. Today’s parliament works on similar two-house system.
  4. Office of Governor: The governor on the advice of Viceroy took total control over the provincial
    government at the time of political breakdown. This continues even today in the form of
    Emergency provisions (President rule).
  5. Judiciary: The GOI Act, 1935 provided for the establishment of a Federal Court which would
    interpret the Act and adjudicate disputes relating to the federal matters. Today’s Indian judiciary is
    similar to the one established in GOI Act 1935.
    However, many of the features which form the nucleus of the constitution do not find mention in the GOI
    Act 1935 such as:
  6. GOI Act 1935 did not have the provision for fundamental rights. Fundamental Rights are inspired
    from the Constitution of USA.
  7. Under 1935 act the power to amend the law was with the British Parliament. The constitution
    confers the power of amendment to the Indian parliament.
  8. The court established under GOI ACT was not supreme court as the supreme adjudicator was the
    Privy Council. Supreme court under constitution is the highest court of the land.
  9. The GOI Act 1935 extended the franchise to only 14% of population. The constitution provided
    for adult franchise.
  10. The concept of separate electorate was extended through GOI Act 1935. However, Indian
    constitution embraced secularism.
    Thus, GOI Act 1935 was selectively adopted by India to suit its requirement. The Act was blended with the
    constitutions of other counties. Thus, there are provisions taken from other sources too which form the
    nucleus of the Constitution.


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