India, a rapidly growing economy and home to a significant portion of the global population, plays a crucial role in achieving sustainable development worldwide.

During the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27), India submitted its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

As the fourth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, India’s strategy aims to address climate change concerns and steer the nation towards a net-zero status by 2070.


India’s Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy outlines sector-specific low-carbon pathways to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.

Notably, a key aspect of the strategy is the phase-down of coal-based power generation, which has been a subject of criticism from developed countries and climate-focused organizations.

The strategy entails several measures to achieve net-zero status:

  • Decarbonizing the electricity and transport sectors.Redesigning urban spaces for better energy and resource efficiency.
  • Enhancing energy and material efficiency across industries.
  • Revitalizing forests to act as carbon sinks.
  • Fostering climate-oriented research and development.

Features of Long-term Strategy:

The long-term strategy prioritizes rational utilization of national resources to minimize environmental impact.
It focuses on increasing the use of biofuels, such as ethanol blending in petrol, e-vehicle penetration, and green hydrogen fuel adoption.

Integrated planning of cities is emphasized to mainstream adaptation and enhance energy and resource efficiency. This includes implementing green building codes and innovative waste management practices.

Transition to a low-carbon development pathway aims to ensure energy security, access, and employment opportunities are not compromised.

However, this transition entails costs related to the development of new technologies, infrastructure, and other transactional aspects.

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs):

NDCs differ from long-term strategies as they contain specific actions or targets to be achieved by 2030, while long-term strategies reveal low-carbon pathways towards achieving net-zero status by 2070.

The 2015 Paris Agreement requires countries to submit both short-term and long-term climate action plans.
Short-term climate action plans, or NDCs, must be updated every five years and cover actions to be taken over 5- or 10-year periods.

India’s NDC includes three main targets for 2030:

  • 45% reduction in emission intensity compared to 2005 levels.
  • 50% share of renewables in electricity generation.
  • Creation of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sink through forests.


India’s Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy outlines a comprehensive plan to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.

The strategy encompasses interventions in crucial sectors like energy, transport, urban design, industries, and forestry, supported by focused research and development efforts.

To achieve decarbonization, India will expand the share of renewable energy, optimize fossil fuel utilization, and prioritize demand-side management in the energy sector.

The transportation sector will undergo electrification, transition to cleaner fuels, and implement intelligent traffic systems, while other sectors will have similar targeted approaches.


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