Bharatiya Sakshya Bill, 2023 

Syllabus :GS 2/Polity and Governance

In News 

  • Recently, the Union Home Minister introduced Bharatiya Sakshya Bill, 2023 .

About Bharatiya Sakshya Bill, 2023 

  • The Bharatiya Sakshya Bill that would repeal the current Indian Evidence Act of 1872.
  • Key provisions  :The bill makes electronic or digital records admissible as evidence, thereby they will have the same legal effect as paper documents.
  • It repeals five existing provisions of the Evidence Act, modifies 23 provisions, and adds one new provision.
  • The bill proposes amendments to 23 Sections and contains 170 Sections in total.
  • In the bill, the scope of expansion for secondary evidence to include copies made from the original by mechanical processes, counterparts of documents, and oral accounts of document contents has been done.
  • Through the bill, the government is aiming to introduce precise and uniform rules for dealing with evidence during the trial of cases.

Objectives and Need

  • The Indian Evidence Act has been repealed because it fails to ‘address the technological advancement undergone in the country during the last few decades.’
  • The new bill aims to align the laws with the contemporary needs and aspirations of the people.
  • It aims to ‘consolidate and to provide for general rules and principles of evidence for fair trial’


Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, 2023



  • The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, 2023 has been introduced in Lok Sabha, proposes changes to the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) which guides the criminal justice system.

Key provisions and processes proposed in the Bill 

  • Greater use of technology: Trials, appeal proceedings, recording of depositions including those of public servants and police officers, may be held in electronic mode. The statement of the accused too can be recorded through video- conferencing. Summons, warrants, documents, police reports, statements of evidence can be done in electronic form.
  • The search and seizure of articles and properties, the visit to a crime scene by a forensic expert, and the recording of the victim’s statement shall be audio-videographed, preferably on a mobile phone.
  • The name and address of an arrested accused and the nature of the offense will be maintained by a designated officer in each police station and district, and shall be “prominently displayed” including in digital mode in every police station and district headquarters.
  • Information to police too can be sent electronically, and it shall be taken on record on being signed by the person sending it, within three days.
  •  Communication devices: The Bill adds electronic communication including “communication devices” to the provision on summons to produce a document. On the directions of a court or police officer, a person is required to produce any document — and now devices — that is likely to contain digital evidence for the purpose of an inquiry.
  • Electronic communication is defined as “the communication of any written, verbal, pictorial information or video content transmitted (whether from one person to another, from one device to another or from a person to a device or from a device to a person).”
  • Use of handcuffs: A police officer may be permitted to use handcuffs while arresting a person if he is a habitual, repeat offender who escaped from custody, or has committed an organised crime, terrorist act, drug-related crime, illegal possession of arms, murder, rape, acid attack, counterfeit currency, human trafficking, sexual offence against children or offences against the state.
  • Specific safeguards: Section 41A of CrPC — which has a prominent safeguard against arrests — will get a new number, Section 35. It has an additional provision: no person can be arrested without prior permission of an officer, not below the rank of a deputy SP, in cases where the offense is punishable with less than three years, or if the person is infirm above 60 years of age.
  • On receiving information in cognizable cases where the offense attracts 3-7 years, the police officer will conduct a preliminary inquiry to ascertain whether there exists a prima facie case to proceed within 14 days.
  • Mercy petitions: There is a provision on procedures for the timeframe to file mercy petitions in death sentence cases. After being informed by jail authorities about the disposal of the petition of a convict sentenced to death, he, or his legal heir or relative can submit a mercy petition within 30 days to the Governor.
  • If rejected, the person can petition the President within 60 days. No appeal against the order of the President shall lie in any court.
  • Sanction to prosecute: A decision to grant or reject sanction to prosecute a public servant must be reached by the government within 120 days of receiving a request. If the government fails to do so, the sanction will be deemed to have been accorded. No sanction is required in cases including sexual offenses, trafficking, etc.
  • Arms in procession: Section 144A of the CrPC gives the district magistrate the power to prohibit the carrying of arms in any procession, mass drill or mass training, to preserve the public peace. 
  • While the provisions granting powers to the DM to pass orders in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger remain as they are in Section 144 of the CrPC, the provision to prohibit carrying arms does not find a mention.
  • Samples without arrest: The Bill has provisions for the magistrate to order any person to give samples of his signature, handwriting, voice or finger impressions for the purpose of investigation without being arrested.
  • Detention by police: There are provisions for police to detain or remove any person resisting, refusing or ignoring, or disregarding directions given as part of preventive action.
  • Trial in absence of the convict: The Code of Criminal Procedure currently provides for recording evidence in the absence of the accused, a trial in absentia is not permitted.However the Bill provides that if the accused is not present, the court can proceed to try him 90 days after the date on which charges are framed.


Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita Bill, 2023



  • TheBharatiya Nyaya Sanhita Bill, 2023 which will repeal and replace the more than 160-year-old Indian Penal Code (IPC), has been introduced in Lok Sabha.The Bill proposes the following changes.

IPC Section 420: Cheating

  • IPC Section 420 deals with Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property.
  • In proposed Bill, 2023: There is no Section 420 and the offense of cheating is covered under Section 316.

IPC Section 124A: Sedition

  • IPC Section 124A deals with Sedition.
  • In proposed Bill,2023: Section 124 in the proposed Sanhita relates to the offense of wrongful restraint.
  • The word sedition does not exist in the proposed Sanhita. Offenses of the nature described as “sedition” in the IPC are covered in Section 150 of the proposed Sanhita, as “Acts endangering sovereignty, unity and integrity of India”.It is a more detailed provision than IPC Section 124A.

IPC Section 302: Murder

  • IPC Section 302 prescribes the punishment for murder: “Whoever commits murder shall be punished with death or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.”
  • In proposed Bill,2023: Section 302 in the proposed Sanhita describes the offense of “Snatching”
  • In the proposed Sanhita, murder is covered under Section 99, which identifies the distinction between culpable homicide and murder.The punishment for murder is laid down in Section 101, which has two sub-sections.
  • Section 101(1) says: “Whoever commits murder shall be punished with death or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.”
  • Section 101(2) says: “When a group of five or more persons acting in concert commits murder on the ground of race, caste or community, sex, place of birth, language, personal belief or any other ground each member of such group shall be punished with death or with imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.”This second sub-section refers to murder by a group, which would include lynching.

IPC Section 307: Attempt to murder

  • IPC Section 307 says: “Whoever does any act with such intention or knowledge, and under such circumstances that, if he by that act caused death, he would be guilty of murder, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if hurt is caused to any person by such act, the offender shall be liable either to imprisonment for life, or to such punishment as is hereinbefore mentioned.”
  • In proposed Bill,2023: Section 307 in the proposed Sanhita describes the offense of robbery and the punishment for it.
  • Attempt to murder is covered under Section 107 of the proposed Sanhita, which also prescribes the punishment for the offense.

IPC Sections 375 and 376: Rape

  • IPC Section 375 defines the offence of rape, and what constitutes rape. It includes the key exception for “marital rape”: “Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under eighteen years of age, is not rape.”IPC Section 376 lays down the punishment for rape.
  • In proposed Bill,2023:The proposed Sanhita does not have a Section 376.
  • The offence of rape is defined under Section 63 of the proposed Sanhita. The seven conditions of forced sexual intercourse, which constitute the offence of rape under the IPC, have been retained in the proposed Sanhita.The exception for marital rape has also been retained

IPC Section 120B: Criminal conspiracy

  • IPC Section 120B deals with the punishment for criminal conspiracy.
  • In proposed Bill,2023: In the proposed Sanhita, Section 120 relates to “voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt on provocation”.
  • Criminal conspiracy in the proposed Bill is covered by Section 61(1): “When two or more persons agree to do, or cause to be done–– (a) an illegal act; or (b) an act which is not illegal by illegal means, such an agreement is designated a criminal conspiracy”. Section 61(2) of the proposed Sanhita lays down the punishment for criminal conspiracy.

IPC Section 505: Statements creating or promoting enmity

  • In the IPC, this section refers to “Statements conducing to public mischief”, and statements creating or promoting enmity, hatred or ill-will between classes.
  • In proposed Bill,2023: There is no section 505 in the proposed Sanhita.
  • Section 194 in the proposed Sanhita describes the offense of “Promoting enmity between different groups on ground of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony”.

IPC Section 153A: Promoting enmity between different groups

  • This section in the IPC covers the offense of “Promoting enmity between different groups on ground of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony”, and includes offenses committed in a place of worship, etc.
  • In proposed Bill,2023:Section 153 in the proposed Sanhita describes the offense of “Receiving property taken by war or depredation mentioned in sections 153 and 154”.

IPC Section 499: Defamation

  • This section of the IPC, defines defamation and IPC Section 500 lays down the punishment for defamation.
  • In proposed Bill,2023: The proposed new Sanhita does not have Section 499.
  • The offense of defamation is covered under Section 354 (1) of the new Sanhita. Section 354(2) of the proposed Sanhita describes the punishment for defamation, and includes “community service”. It says: “Whoever defames another shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both or with community service.”


Multilateral Development Banks

Syllabus: GS3/Economy 


  • The primary focus of India’s G-20 Presidency in 2023 has been to strengthen Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) in order to address shared global challenges.

Need to strengthen MDBs

  • Reformed and strengthened MDBs are essential to address the immense global challenges in today’s world like ensuring welfare of billions of people and the health of the planet; the SDGs are badly offtrack, with over 600 million people still living in extreme poverty.
  • The window for action is closing fast as there is an intense urgency to address problems of climate change and nature conservation and protection in all countries.
  • The threats of today can be transformed into an opportunity for tomorrow. The emerging growth story of the 21st century needs to be sustainable, resilient, and inclusive. It is a growth path that invests in people, secures livelihoods for those exposed to natural disasters, and builds on the innovations now available in green energy and digital technologies.
  • MDBs have a key role to support the needed reforms and resources. They work with governments and the private sector to create the conditions for investment and transformation. 
  • Further, MDBs are facing increasing demands from donor and borrowing countries to expand their lending operations beyond their core development mandates. 

The G20 Independent Expert Group on Strengthening MDBs

  • It has recommended that the multilateral development banks (MDBs) adopt a triple agenda,
    • adopting a triple mandate of eliminating extreme poverty, boosting shared prosperity, and contributing to global public goods;
    • tripling sustainable lending levels by 2030; and 
    • creating a third funding mechanism which would permit flexible and innovative arrangements for purposefully engaging with investors willing to support elements of the MDB agenda

What Is a Multilateral Development Bank (MDB)?

  • A multilateral development bank (MDB) is an international financial institution chartered by two or more countries for the purpose of encouraging economic development in poorer nations. 
  • They consist of member nations from developed and developing countries. 
  • MDBs provide loans and grants to member nations to fund projects that support social and economic development, such as the building of new roads or providing clean water to communities.
  • Types: There are two main forms of multilateral development banks- International institutions like IMF and World Bank and regional banks like ADB and AIIB.

Source: TH

RBI’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)

Syllabus: GS3/ Indian Economy & Related Issues

In News

  • The Reserve Bank of India’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) has decided to leave its policy rate unchanged.


  • The RBI has focused on its stance of ‘withdrawal of accommodation’ until all risks to inflation dissipate.
    • An accommodative stance means the central bank is prepared to expand the money supply to boost economic growth.
  •  Withdrawal of accommodation will mean reducing the money supply in the system which will rein in inflation further.

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)

  • About: The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) constituted by the Central Government under Section 45ZB  of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act, 1934.
    • The MPC is required to meet at least four times in a year. The quorum for the meeting of the MPC is four members.
  • Composition: The committee comprises six members. Out of the six members, three are internal — including the RBI governor who chairs the committee.
    • RBI’s deputy governor is the second internal member. 
    • The third member is one RBI official who is nominated by the central board of RBI. Usually, it is the executive director in-charge of monetary policy. 
    • The other three are external members who are appointed for four years.
  • Voting: Each member of the MPC has one vote, and in the event of an equality of votes, the Governor has a second or casting vote.
  • Significance of constituting the MPC: MPC was set up consequent to the agreement reached between Government and RBI to task RBI with the responsibility for price stability and inflation targeting.
    • The Reserve Bank of India and Government of India signed the Monetary Policy Framework Agreement.
  • Functions: The MPC determines the policy repo rate required to achieve the inflation target. It acts as a benchmark for all other interest rates in the economy.
    • Each Member of the Monetary Policy Committee writes a statement specifying the reasons for voting in favour of, or against the proposed resolution.
    • The statements along with the resolution adopted by the MPC is published as minutes of the meeting by RBI after 14 days of the said meeting.
  • Monetary Policy Report: Subsequent to the MPC meeting, once in every six months, the RBI is required to publish a document called the Monetary Policy Report to explain the sources of inflation and the forecast of inflation for 6-18 months ahead. 
Instruments of Monetary PolicyRepo Rate: The interest rate at which the Reserve Bank provides liquidity under the liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) to all LAF participants against the collateral of government and other approved securities.Standing Deposit Facility (SDF) Rate: The rate at which the Reserve Bank accepts non collateralized deposits, on an overnight basis, from all LAF participants. The SDF is also a financial stability tool in addition to its role in liquidity management. Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) Rate: The penal rate at which banks can borrow, on an overnight basis, from the Reserve Bank by dipping into their Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) portfolio up to a predefined limit (2 percent). This provides a safety valve against unanticipated liquidity shocks to the banking system. The MSF rate is placed at 25 basis points above the policy repo rate.Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF): The LAF refers to the Reserve Bank’s operations through which it injects/absorbs liquidity into/from the banking system. Reverse Repo Rate: The interest rate at which the Reserve Bank absorbs liquidity from banks against the collateral of eligible government securities under the LAF. Following the introduction of SDF, the fixed rate reverse repo operations will be at the discretion of the RBI for purposes specified from time to time.Bank Rate: The rate at which the Reserve Bank is ready to buy or rediscount bills of exchange or other commercial papers. The Bank Rate acts as the penal rate charged on banks for shortfalls in meeting their reserve requirements (cash reserve ratio and statutory liquidity ratio). Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR): The average daily balance that a bank is required to maintain with the Reserve Bank as a percent of its net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) as on the last Friday of the second preceding fortnight that the Reserve Bank may notify from time to time in the Official Gazette.Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR): Every bank shall maintain in India assets, the value of which shall not be less than such percentage of the total of its demand and time liabilities in India as on the last Friday of the second preceding fortnight, as the Reserve Bank may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify from time to time and such assets shall be maintained as may be specified in such notification (typically in unencumbered government securities, cash and gold).Open Market Operations (OMOs): These include outright purchase/sale of government securities by the Reserve Bank for injection/absorption of durable liquidity in the banking system.

Source: IE

Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana

Syllabus: GS2/ Health, GS4/ Ethics

In News

  • The Comptroller and Auditor-General in its performance audit report has exposed irregularities in the Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY). 

Issues Highlighted By CAG

  • It noted multiple cases of the Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) providing treatment for patients who had been declared dead. The patients earlier shown as “dead” continued to avail treatment under the scheme.
  • Also, thousands of people using the same Aadhaar or invalid mobile phone number. For instance, almost 7.5 lakh people in the scheme’s beneficiary database were linked with a single cell phone number: 9999999999.
    • In Tamil Nadu, 4,761 registrations were made against just seven Aadhaar numbers.
  • There are instances where the registered household sizes were unrealistically large, ranging from 11 to 201 members. Such discrepancies suggest a lack of proper validation controls during the beneficiary registration process.
  • CAG’s report unearthed systemic issues, including private hospitals performing public hospital-reserved procedures, infrastructural inadequacies, equipment shortages, and medical malpractice cases.
  • Absence of adequate validation controls, invalid names, unrealistic date of birth, duplicate PMJAY IDs.

Ayushman Bharat-PMJAY

  • About: 
    • It is a flagship scheme of Government of India launched as recommended by the National Health Policy 2017, to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). 
    • Ayushman Bharat is an attempt to move from a sectoral and segmented approach of health service delivery to a comprehensive need-based health care service. 
    • This scheme aims to undertake path breaking interventions to holistically address the healthcare system at the primary, secondary and tertiary level. 
    • It adopts a continuum of care approach, comprising of two interrelated components, which are –
  • Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs): 
    • They are envisaged to deliver an expanded range of services to address the primary health care needs, expanding access, universality and equity close to the community.
    • They cover both, maternal and child health services and non-communicable diseases, including free essential drugs and diagnostic services.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY)
    • Ayushman Bharat PM-JAY is the largest health assurance scheme in the world.
    • It aims at providing a health cover of Rs. 5 lakhs per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization to over 12 crores poor and vulnerable families ( 55 crore beneficiaries) that form the bottom 40% of the Indian population. 
    • The households included are based on the deprivation and occupational criteria of Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 for rural and urban areas respectively. 
    • It subsumed the existing Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) which had been launched in 2008. 
    • PM-JAY is fully funded by the Government and cost of implementation is shared between the Central and State Governments.

Source: TH

Facts In News

Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Kendras

Syllabus: GS2/ Health

In News

  • The Railways Ministry is going to establish Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Kendras at railway stations across the country.
    • The fifty stations for the pilot project have been identified.
    • PM Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana has achieved the target of opening 8,300 kendras for FY22. 


  • It aims to make available quality medicines to all at an affordable price. 
  • It will also create employment opportunities and generate avenues for entrepreneurs for opening Janaushadhi Kendras.
  • Create awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity to counter the perception that quality is synonymous with high price only.

PM Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana

  • It  is a campaign launched in  November, 2008 by the Department of Pharmaceuticals of the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.
  • It seeks to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through special kendra’s known as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra.
  • The Scheme is implemented by a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, viz., Pharma & Medical Bureau of India (PMBI).

World Health Organization – Good Manufacturing Practices (WHO-GMP) 

  • Good manufacturing practice (GMP) is a system for ensuring that products are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards. 
  • It is designed to minimize the risks involved in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be eliminated through testing the final product.

Source: AIR


Syllabus: GS3/Developments in Science and Technology


  • Russia’s space agency Roscosmos, which launched the Luna-25 recently said that its landing on the moon would not impede India’s Chandrayaan-3, launched on July 14, 2023.


  • India and Russia are both aiming to be the first ever country to land on the moon’s south pole– where no lander has ever successfully gone before.
  • The lunar lander of Luna-25  is expected to reach the moon on August 23, the same day on which Chandrayaan-3 is also expected to land on the lunar surface.
  • Luna-25 and Chandrayaan-3 have different landing areas planned and there is no danger that they will hamper each other’s functions or collide considering the ample space available. 
  • According to ISRO, there were six active lunar orbiters as of July 2023. Currently, the only operating rover is China’s Yutu-2 rover released by Chang’e 4, which operates on the far side of the moon.
  • The Russian side is open to cooperation on the participation of the Indian side in implementing the project of the International Lunar Research Station (ILRS). 

About the ILRS 

  • It is a planned lunar base, a scalable and maintainable comprehensive scientific experiment facility proposed by China and jointly built by many countriesincluding Russia.
  • It will operate autonomously on the lunar surface and lunar orbit for a long time, with short – term manned participation. 
  • It has the ability to support energy supply, central control, communication & navigation, space -earth round trip, lunar scientific research and ground support .
  • Vision:
    • Within 10-15 years, gather all human resources of different countries, races and civilizations, walk out of the cradle of the earth, 
    • jointly build and share and operate the first extraterrestrial home in the solar system, serves the community of human destiny on the surface of the moon,
    • In the future, human beings will set off from the moon again, rush to a wider universe, land on Mars and more distant planets, and further explore the mysteries of the solar system. 
  • International Lunar Research Station Cooperation Organization (ILRSCO): To jointly build ILRS project, jointly manage facilities, and share scientific research results. 
  • Headquarters: The HQ of ILRSCO will be located in Hefei Deep Space Science City, China.

Source: TH

Official Languages of UN 

Syllabus :GS 2/International 

In News 

  • Recently, the Government of India defended the use of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam in the G-20 logo as China raised  objections.

More in news 

  • China had objected to the use of non-UN languages like Sanskrit in any of the G-20 texts being negotiated.
  • The Ministry of External Affairs said it uses only the “English version” of the phrase — “One Earth, One Family, One Future” — in its summary documents and outcome statements.

About Official Languages of UN 

  • The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945
  • Currently made up of 193 Member States, the UN and its work are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter.
  • Multilingualism enables communication between the UN’s linguistically and culturally diverse Member States within the meeting rooms and halls of the UN.
  • By promoting tolerance, multilingualism also ensures increased participation of all Member States in the Organization’s work, as well as greater effectiveness, better outcomes and more involvement. 
  • There are six official languages of the UN.
    • These are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. 
  • The correct interpretation and translation of these six languages, in both spoken and written form, is very important to the work of the Organization, because this enables clear and concise communication on issues of global importance.
Do you know ?The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India lists 22 official languages. Fourteen were initially added to the Constitution. Sindhi was accorded official status in 1967, Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali in 1992, and Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santhali in 2004.The Constitutional provisions relating to the Eighth Schedule occur in article 344(1) and 351 of the Constitution.


National Space Innovation Challenge 2023

Syllabus: GS2/ Education


  • Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), NITI Aayog in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Navars Edutech successfully launched the National Space Innovation Challenge 2023.


  • NSIC 2023 is a National-level campaign designed to ignite next generation space enthusiasts to understand and contribute towards the growing Indian space economy and future space workforce.
  • It’s a National platform to get inspired by industry leaders, seek opportunities for exploration and showcase ones innovation to the world.

Objectives of the National Space Innovation Challenge (NSIC)

  • With the goal of fostering innovation and curiosity among school students across the nation, the Atal Innovation Mission announced the NSIC open for all the school students across the country.
  • It offers integrated content from Industry mentor videos, resources and challenges for Junior Scientists (Grade 5-8) & Senior Scientists (Grade 9 -12) which the students can use to ideate and submit a short research report on a solution across diverse topics like Space Junk Collection Robot, Reusable Rocket Design, Satellite Design, Indian Spaceship Design for Mars, and more.
  • To enable innovation among young school students to create awareness of and opportunities to participate in the space sector early, and in a way that will not only help them learn about the space sector but also create interesting projects and innovations that truly matter to the sector.


  • Students of Classes 5 to 12 are given an open platform where they can innovate and enable themselves to solve modern-day space technology problems from August 11 to September 20, 2023.
  • Students (from ATL and Non-ATL schools) can submit their entries on the automated technology platform implemented by Navars Edutech through the link.
  • Each student based on their interest and understanding, must select one problem which falls under any one of the Challenge themes.


Hydroponics Farming

Syllabus: GS3/Agriculture


  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bengaluru (IIHR) has developed Cocoponics, a variant of hydroponics, or the Soilless production of vegetables, using cocopeat as a substrate.

About Hydroponics

  • It is a viable alternative to traditional farming methods for soil less cultivation for enhancing productivity and water use efficiency. It is a sustainable and efficient way to grow crops.
  • At present, this technology is mostly confined to urban farming, rooftop gardening and commercial farming.


  • It is a variant of hydroponics, developed by Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bengaluru (IIHR), an institute under ICAR. It is soilless production of vegetables, using cocopeat as a substrate, which has been found to be comparatively more successful for many vegetable crops.
  • The IIHR has developed the complete production technology including a liquid nutrient formulation (Arka Sasya Poshak Ras) for soilless cultivation of zucchini, colour cabbage, chilli, brinjal, palak, amaranthus, coriander, cucumber, french bean, peas, cow pea, dolichos, ridge gourd, bottle gourd, okra, radish, tomato and exotic leafy vegetables viz., lettuce, parsley, broccoli, bok choy etc on Arka fermented cocopeat (substrate) under open as well as in protected conditions.


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