Intensified Mission Indradhanush 4.0


Recently, the Ministry of Health virtually launched Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0.

  • India is implementing the largest immunisation programme globally where it annually covers more than three crore pregnant women and 2.6 crore children through the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

GS II- Health, Government Policies & Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0
  2. About Mission Indradhanush (MI)
  3. Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0
  4. Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0 Scheme
  5. Universal Immunization Programme

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0

  • It will ensure that Routine Immunization (RI) services reach unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children and pregnant women.
  • Children up to two years will be covered in this drive.
  • While the pace of routine immunisation has slowed down due to Covid-19 pandemic, IMI 4.0 will immensely contribute in filling the gaps and make lasting gains towards universal immunisation.
  • Three rounds of IMI 4.0 will be conducted in 416 districts, including 75 districts identified for Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav across 33 States/UTs.
  • These districts have been identified based on vaccination coverage as per the latest National Family Health Survey-5 report, Health Management Information System (HMIS) data and burden of vaccine-preventable diseases.

About Mission Indradhanush (MI)

  • Mission Indradhanush (MI) was launched in December 2014 and aims at increasing the full immunization coverage to children to 90%.
  • It targets to immunize all children below two years of age either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated as well as all pregnant women.
  • It includes seven vaccine preventable diseases namely Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Childhood Tuberculosis, Polio, Hepatitis B and Measles.
  • In addition to this vaccine for Japanese Encephalitis, Haemophilus influenza type B, inactivated polio vaccine, Rotavirus and Rubella are also being provided in selected states.

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0

  • To boost the routine immunization coverage in the country, Government of India has introduced Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0 to ensure reaching the unreached with all available vaccines and accelerate the coverage of children and pregnant women in the identified districts and blocks from December 2019-March 2020.
  • The IMI 2.0 aims to achieve targets of full immunization coverage in 272 districts in 27 States and at block level (652 blocks) in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar among hard-to-reach and tribal populations.
  • With the launch of Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0, India has the opportunity to achieve further reductions in deaths among children under five years of age and achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of ending preventable child deaths by 2030.

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0 Scheme

  • Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0 Scheme aims to each the unreached population with all the available vaccines under Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) and thereby accelerate the full immunization and complete immunization coverage of children and pregnant women.
  • It will have two rounds this year which will be conducted in 250 pre-identified districts/urban areas across 29 States/UTs.
  • Beneficiaries from migration areas and remote areas would be targeted as they may have missed their vaccine doses during the pandemic.

Universal Immunization Programme

  • The Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • In 1985, the Programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)’.
  • UIP prevents mortality and morbidity in children and pregnant women against 12 vaccine-preventable diseases. But in the past, it was seen that the increase in immunization coverage had slowed down and it increased at the rate of 1% per year between 2009 and 2013.
  • To accelerate the coverage, Mission Indradhanush was envisaged and implemented since 2015 to rapidly increase the full immunization coverage to 90%.
Objectives of the Universal Immunization Programme
  • Rapidly increasing immunization coverage,
  • Improving the quality of services,
  • Establishing a reliable cold chain system to the health facility level,
  • Introducing a district-wise system for monitoring of performance, and
  • Achieving self-sufficiency in vaccine production.

Russia Says Some Troops Pulling Back From Areas Near Ukraine


Russia said some of its military units were returning to their bases after exercises near Ukraine, following days of U.S. and British warnings that Moscow might invade its neighbour at any time.


GS-II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About the Russia – Ukraine crisis
  2. Recent Developments
  3. Russia’s moves
  4. What are Russia’s and the West’s interests in Ukraine?
  5. What are the Minsk agreements on the Ukraine conflict?
  6. Conclusion: For a peaceful resolution

About the Russia – Ukraine crisis

  • Despite being an independent country since 1991, as the former Soviet republic Ukraine has been perceived by Russia as being part of its sphere of influence.
  • Ukraine was one of the republics within the USSR during the cold war days, and has remained a strong ally of Russia ever since, till 2013.
  • While it was planning to sing an association agreement with the European Union in 2013, Russia sternly objected to it, leading to tensions.
  • Russia subsequently annexed “Crimea” (Russian speaking province in Ukraine) by force and declared its sovereignty over it with people’s support.
  • The Russo-Ukrainian War is an ongoing and protracted conflict between Russia and Ukraine that began in 2014, centred around the status of the Ukrainian regions of Crimea and Donbas.
  • The resultant conflict has so far claimed about 10,000 lives and displaced millions with no lasting resolution in sight.
  • Though the 2014-15 Minsk peace accords prohibited air strikes and heavy artillery firing, the dispute still prevails as a low-intensity combat.

Recent Developments

  • From the beginning of April 2021, Moscow has allegedly deployed thousands of troops as well as tanks and artillery near Ukraine’s eastern border. It has also mobilised troops in the annexed Black Sea region of Crimea.
  • This was enough to send a shock wave among the political elite in Ukraine, forcing them to appeal to the U.S. and NATO and ask for an intervention, if needed.
  • In April 2021, NATO Secretary General invited Ukrainian Foreign Minister to the NATO headquarters for a meeting of the NATO-Ukraine Commission on the security situation in Ukraine.
  • It was reaffirmed that NATO would continue to provide significant political and practical support to Ukraine.
  • Besides powerful rhetoric from NATO, Ukraine seems to be desperate to receive more commitments and concrete actions.
  • The Ukrainian President has also used the current tension as an opportunity to push for NATO membership, arguing that ‘this is the only way to end the war in Donbas’.

Russia’s moves

  • Arguably, the cornerstone of the Russia-Ukraine conflict is insufficient communication, especially on the part of Russia. A deficit of explicit messages from Moscow creates room for misinterpretations and exaggerations on the part of Ukraine and its western supporters.
  • From the Russian perspective, the current ‘military build-up’ can be viewed as another round of muscle flexing and an attempt to perpetuate the narrative of a powerful and capable Russia.

What are Russia’s and the West’s interests in Ukraine?

  • Ukraine and Russia share hundreds of years of cultural, linguistic and familial links. As part of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was the second-most powerful Soviet republic after Russia, and was crucial strategically, economically and culturally. Ever since Ukraine split from the Soviet Union, both Russia and the West have vied for greater influence in the country in order to keep the balance of power in the region in their favour.
  • For many in Russia and in the ethically Russian parts of Ukraine, the shared heritage of the countries is an emotional issue that has been exploited for electoral and military purposes.
  • For the United States and the European Union, Ukraine is a crucial buffer between Russia and the West. As tensions with Russia rise, the US and the EU are increasingly determined to keep Ukraine away from Russian control.
  • Efforts to induct Ukraine into NATO have been ongoing for many years and seems to have picked up pace recently. Russia has declared such a move a “red line”, with Moscow worried about the consequences of the US-led military alliances expanding right up to its doorstep.

What are the Minsk agreements on the Ukraine conflict?

  • Ukraine and the Russian-backed separatists agreed a 12-point ceasefire deal in Minsk, the capital of Belarus in 2014.
  • Its provisions included prisoner exchanges, deliveries of humanitarian aid and the withdrawal of heavy weapons.
  • The agreement quickly broke down, with violations by both sides.
  • Representatives of Russia, Ukraine, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the leaders of two pro-Russian separatist regions signed a 13-point agreement in 2015 in Minsk.
  • The deal set out a series of military and political steps that remain unimplemented.
  • An immediate and comprehensive ceasefire,Withdrawal of all heavy weapons by both sides, Monitoring and verification by the OSCE, Dialogue on interim self-government for the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, and An exchange of hostages and prisoners are the primary points.

Conclusion: For a peaceful resolution

  • All the stakeholders in the ongoing crisis should focus on establishing a constructive dialogue among themselves using clear and unambiguous language.
  • The only way forward is to seek a peaceful resolution to the Russia-Ukraine conflict rather than exacerbating the reality and using quid pro quo tactics.
  • Both countries do need support from the global community, but not in a military form. There is a need for a platform (similarly to the Minsk Agreements) that will facilitate negotiation, mutual consensus and possible compromises, as well as engagement with mediators.
  • The long-term solution should be sought out in order to break the vicious cycle of animosity and misunderstanding.

Anti-lynching Bills


Bills passed against lynching in the past four years by at least three States ruled by BJP rivals and one by the party itself have not been implemented, with the Union government taking the view that lynching is not defined as a crime under the Indian Penal Code (IPC).

  • The Union Home Ministry informed Parliament in 2019 that there was “no separate” definition for lynching under the IPC, adding that such incidents could be dealt with under Sections 300 and 302 of the IPC which pertain to murder.

GS II- Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. Details
  2. What is lynching?
  3. What is the Mob Lynching Law in India?
  4. Causes for Mob Lynching
  5. Government steps so far


In 2017, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) collected data on mob lynching, hate crimes and cow vigilantism, but the figures were not published and the work was discontinued as these crimes are not defined and the data were found to be unreliable.

Jharkhand: On December 22, It passed the Prevention of Mob Violence and Mob Lynching Bill, 2021, providing for punishment ranging from three years to life imprisonment. The Bill awaits the Governor’s assent.

Rajasthan: On August 5, 2019,It passed the Rajasthan Protection from Lynching Bill, 2019, providing for life imprisonment and a fine ranging from ₹1 lakh to ₹5 lakh to those convicted in cases of mob lynching leading to the victim’s death.

West Bengal: On August 30, 2019, It passed the West Bengal (Prevention of Lynching) Bill, 2019, that proposes a jail term from three years to life imprisonment for those involved in assaulting and injuring a person and also defines terms such as “lynching” and “mob”. The government also proposed to set up the West Bengal Lynching Compensation Scheme.

Manipur: In 2018, the Manipur Assembly passed the Manipur Protection from Mob Violence Bill, recommending life imprisonment for those involved in mob violence if it led to death. The Bill is still being examined by the Ministry. The Ministry examines State legislation on three grounds — repugnancy with Central laws, deviation from national or central policy, and legal and constitutional validity.

What is lynching?

  • Collective lynching is an extreme act by a group of violent people who attack another person, sometimes leading to the informal execution of one person.
  • India has witnessed mob lynching for centuries.
  • Statistics on mob lynching in India show that India has not been very successful in handling the problems of mob violence.

Causes for Mob Lynching:

  • Intolerance: People are intolerant in accepting the acts of law and go on to punish the alleged person assuming the act to be immoral.
  • Biases: Biases based on various identities like caste, class, religion, etc: mob lynching is a hate crime that is rising due to the biases or prejudices among various castes, classes of people, and religions.
  • Rise of Cow Vigilante: It is one of the crucial reasons that agitate the growing rise in mob lynching activities.
  • Lack of Speedy Justice: Inefficient working of justice rendering authorities is the primary reason why people take law into their own hands and have no fear of the consequences.
  • The Inefficiency of Police Administration: Police officers play an important role in protecting the life of the people and maintaining harmony among the people but due to their ineffective investigation procedure, this hate crime is rising day by day.
Types of Mob-lynching: 
  • Communal based
  • Witchcraft
  • Honour killing
  • Bovine-related mob lynching
  • Suspicion of Child lifting
  • Theft cases

What is the Mob Lynching Law in India?

  • Mob lynching is a violation of article 21 of the Indian constitution as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • There is no specific definition of mob lynching in the IPC. Mob Lynching is considered a crime under Section 300 and 302 of the IPC.
  • In 2018, the Supreme Court cited the lynching of the mob as a “horrendous act of mobocracy.”
  • The bill against communal violence was approved by the Supreme Court in 2018 considering the provisions of Manav Suraksha Kanoon (MASUKA).
    • MASUKA is a law against mob lynching, which gave the legal definitions of Mob, Lynching and Victim.
  • In addition, the Court ordered the Central and State governments to draft laws and guidelines to deal with compensation for victims, fast-track trials, and appropriate actions against the offender.

Government steps so far

  • States such as Manipur, West Bengal and Rajasthan have passed laws against mob lynching.
  • The State Law Commission of UP recommended jail terms ranging from seven years to life imprisonment for those convicted for mob lynching. In its draft legislation, the commission also recommended, “up to three year term for dereliction of duty by a police officer or a district magistrate.”
  • Two high-level committees have been constituted by the Central government to suggest ways and legal framework to effectively deal with incidents of mob violence and lynching.
  • One of the committees is being headed by Union Home Minister and the other by Union Home Secretary.
  • Central government on its part has asked states to appoint a nodal officer in each district to prevent the incidents of mob violence and lynching



India plans to prepare digital maps of all its 6,00,000 villages and pan-India 3D maps will be prepared for 100 cities.


GS II- Government Policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. About SVAMITVA
  2. Benefits


  • SVAMITVA (Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas) scheme is a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, State Panchayati Raj Departments, State Revenue Departments and Survey of India.
  • It is a Central Sector Scheme
  • Aim: To provide the ‘Record of Rights’ to village household owners possessing houses in inhabited areas in villages with issuance of legal ownership rights (Property cards/Title deeds).
  • It is a scheme for mapping the land parcels in rural inhabited areas using drone technology and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS).
  • The mapping will be done across the country in a phase-wise manner over a period of four years – from 2020 to 2024.
  • It is being implemented with the collaborative efforts of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Survey of India (SoI), State Revenue Department, State Panchayati Raj Department and National Informatics Centre.
  • States need to sign Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with SoI for implementation of the scheme


  • The scheme will help in streamlining planning and revenue collection in rural areas and ensuring clarity on property rights.
  • The scheme will enable creation of better-quality Gram Panchayat Development Plans (GPDPs), using the maps created under this programme.
  • The Gram Panchayats are constitutionally mandated for preparation of Gram Panchayat Development Plans (GPDP) for economic development and social justice.
  • The GPDP is based on a participatory process in convergence with schemes of all related Central Ministries/Line Departments related to 29 subjects listed in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution.
  • Present Coverage Area: The program is currently being implemented in six states – Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Karnataka HC: Ban on Online Gaming Unconstitutional


Recently, a division bench of the Karnataka High Court delivered a judgment striking down major portions of the Karnataka Police (Amendment) Act, 2021, a new law that was introduced by the State government to ban online gambling and skill-based gaming platforms like rummy, poker and fantasy sports that involved any wagering or risking of money on an uncertain event.


GS II- Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. Why are States resorting to banning online gaming?
  2. On what grounds did the Karnataka High Court strike down the online gaming law?
  3. Way Forward

Why are States resorting to banning online gaming?

  • Online games like rummy and poker are addictive in nature;
    • When played with monetary stakes leads to depression, mounting debts and suicides.
  • Reportedly, there have been a few instances where youngsters, faced with mounting debts due to losses in online games have committed other crimes like theft and murder.
  • Some experts also believe that online games are susceptible to manipulation by the websites operating such games and that there is a possibility that users are not playing such games against other players, but against automatic machines or ‘bots’, wherein there is no fair opportunity for an ordinary user to win the game.

On what grounds did the Karnataka High Court strike down the online gaming law?

  • The Karnataka High Court struck down the amendments to the Karnataka Police Act on three major grounds:
    • Violation of fundamental rights of trade and commerce
    • liberty and privacy
    • Speech and expression;
  • The law being manifestly arbitrary and irrational insofar as it did not distinguish between two different categories of games, i.e.
    • Games of skill
    • Chance
  • Lack of legislative competence of State legislatures to enact laws on online skill-based games.
  • The court held that games where substantial effort, knowledge and skill is required are different from games of mere luck or chance.
  • Relying upon previous judgments of the Supreme Court which had held rummy, fantasy sports and betting on horse-racing to be games of skill, the High Court ruled that online games involving skill, regardless of whether money is staked on them or not enjoy protection of right to trade and commerce, unlike gambling or betting.
  • The court also held that playing online games could help in building the character of an individual and enjoying online gaming could also fall within the contours of freedom of expression and right to liberty and privacy guaranteed under the constitution.
  • The judgment also noted that State governments have been granted powers under the constitution to make laws for ‘gambling and betting’ but interpreted the word ‘betting’ for this purpose to mean betting on gambling games, i.e. betting on games of chance and not games of skill.
Other States :
  • Apart from Karnataka, a similar law introduced by the Tamil Nadu government was struck down by the Madras High Court in August 2021.
  • In September 2021, the Kerala High Court had also quashed a notification issued by the State government specifically banning the game of online rummy when played for stakes.

Way Forward

  • An outright ban may not entirely curtail the playing of such online games, with or without stakes.
    • Telangana, which was the first State to ban online games for stakes in 2017 has seen a spurt of illegal or underground online gambling apps, most of which originate from China or other foreign countries, and except payments from players through dummy companies or hawala channels.
    • Both the Enforcement Directorate (ED) and local cybercrime authorities have tried to crack down on such apps but with limited success.
  • Shifting of users to grey or illegal offshore online gaming apps not only results in loss of tax revenue for the State and job opportunities for locals, but results in users being unable to avail remedies for any unfair behaviour or refusal to pay out winnings.
  • Experts believe that instead of a complete ban,
    • One could look at licensing and regulating the industry with various checks and balances such as diligent KYC and anti-money laundering processes,
    • Barring minors from accessing real money games,
    •  Placing weekly or monthly limits on the money that can be staked or time that can be spent,
    • Counselling for addictive players and allowing self-exclusion of such players etc.

The Fate of the Afghan Reserves in the United States


On February 11, U.S. President Joe Biden signed an executive order declaring that $7 billion of the frozen Afghan reserves will be used for the humanitarian needs of the Afghan people and for compensating the victims of terrorism in the U.S.  The announcement has effectively blocked the Taliban administration in Kabul from accessing the funds. The Taliban has branded the move as theft.


GS II- International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. Source of the Afghan funds in the U.S.
  2. Domestic situation of Afghanistan
  3. U.S. argument on taking control of the reserve
  4. How are the reserves relevant for victims of terrorism in the U.S.
  5. Taliban’s response

Source of the Afghan funds in the U.S.

  • At the time of the fall of Kabul to the Taliban in August 2021, at least $9 billion belonging to Afghanistan was parked abroad in various countries.
    • The USA held around $7 billion and others like Switzerland, Germany, the United Arab Emirates and two other countries held the rest.
  • The money belonged to Da Afghanistan Bank (DAB).
  • The U.S. Government had frozen the funds but there was speculation about its fate since the Taliban returned to Kabul.
  • The complication is partly also due to the fact that the Taliban has not received any international recognition in the past six months since the fall of Kabul.
    • Key regional powers like India have urged the international community to go slow in recognising the militants who continue to have figures like Sirajuddin Haqqani who remain in the terror blacklist of the United Nations. To make matters worse, the Taliban has so far failed to get the seat reserved for Afghanistan at the United Nations.
  • U.S. government is also in possession of some of the gold deposits of Afghanistan that dates back to the days of the Government of King Zaheer Shah.

Domestic situation of Afghanistan

The economic situation in Afghanistan crashed immediately in the aftermath of the takeover by the Taliban as

  • Supply lines were disrupted
  • Inflation shot up prices across the country.
  • An unusual draught came as an additional burden.

As the revenue system inside the country collapsed, the Taliban administration found itself incapable of proceeding along the lines as described in the February 29, 2020 agreement between the U.S. and the Taliban delegation in Doha, Qatar.

Taliban-U.S. agreement:
  • It had envisaged that an Afghan Islamic Government as determined by intra-Afghan dialogue would be formed when Taliban joins the mainstream Government.
  • The U.S. had pledged in that agreement that it will “seek international cooperation for reconstruction” of Afghanistan.
  • But in view of the military takeover by Taliban and in the absence of any “intra-Afghan dialogue”, the agreement’s financial sections were not activated.
  • However, Taliban has been demanding that the $9 billion belongs to the Afghan people and the U.S. should return the money.

U.S. argument on taking control of the reserve

  • White House officials claimed that “fundamentally, these reserves, including the $7 billion in the U.S., ….are proceeds of the sustained and significant international assistance” that Afghanistan received in the previous two decades during the rule of President Hamid Karzai and President Ashraf Ghani.
  • According to official U.S. sources, the move was not sudden as they have been deliberating over the past several months how some of that amount could be used to support the humanitarian needs of the Afghan people.
  • The U.S. has declared that it will access around $3.5 billion for supporting the humanitarian needs of the Afghan people (through international aid agencies).
  • This contribution is expected to be channelled through international aid and relief agencies like the World Food Programme that are involved in providing food support to Afghanistan.

How are the reserves relevant for victims of terrorism in the U.S.

  • Taliban has long been in focus in the courts of the United States where victims of the 9/11 attacks have often claimed damages from the group for providing support to Osama Bin Laden’s Al Qaeda network which carried out the attacks across locations in the United States.
  • A group of 150 family members of people killed in the 9/11 attacks sued the Taliban and Al Qaeda in 2010. These families have urged the U.S. government to allow them access to the funds.
  • The White House official said that the transfer of the funds to these families of victims will depend on the court order.
  • The declaration of the court in New York will therefore finally determine the future course of the funds.

Taliban’s response

  • Taliban spokespersons have described President Biden’s announcement as “unilateral”.
  • Suhail Shaheen, the “Permanent Representative-designate for the United Nations” of the Taliban has assured that the reserve of the Da Afghanistan Bank does not belong to “governments or factions” and is a “property” of the Afghan people.
  • It is meant for implementation of “monetary policy, facilitation of trade and boosting of the financial system of the country.”
  • He described the U.S. move as an act of “injustice” against the Afghan people.

What is Public Order: Constitutional Provision for Curbing Freedoms


The Karnataka High Court is hearing a challenge to the constitutionality of the state government’s ban on students wearing a hijab in educational institutions. In recent hearing, the judges heard an argument on whether the state can justify the ban on the ground that it violates ‘public order’.


GS II- Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:
  1. What is public order?
  2. How does it relate to the hijab ban?
  3. How has public order been interpreted by courts?

What is public order?

  • Public order is one of the three grounds on which the state can restrict freedom of religion.
  • It is also one of the grounds to restrict free speech and other fundamental rights.
  • Article 25 of the Constitution guarantees to all persons right to freedom and conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion subject to restrictions
    • Public order
    • Morality
    • Health.
  • Public order is normally equated with equated with public peace and safety.
  • According to List 2 of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, the power to legislate on aspects of public order rests with the states.

How does it relate to the hijab ban?

  • According to the government order issued under the Karnataka Education Act, 1983, public order is one of the reasons for not allowing students to wear a headscarf in educational institutions along with “unity” and “integrity.”
    • The petitioners have asked the state to show how the mere wearing of a hijab by students could constitute a public order issue.
  • The second argument made is that the government cannot delegate to college committees the function of determining whether the hijab was detrimental to public order.
  • The government order states that while individual college committees are free to determine the uniform, in the absence of such rules the government order banning the headscarf would apply.

How has public order been interpreted by courts?

  • What affects public order is contextual and is determined by the state. But courts have broadly interpreted it to mean something that affects the community at large and not a few individuals.
    • Ram Manohar Lohia vs State of Bihar (1965): The Supreme Court held that in the case of ‘public order’, the community or the public at large have to be affected by a particular action. “The contravention of law always affects order but before it can be said to affect public order, it must affect the community or the public at large.
  • In the Karnataka case, the petitioners have argued: “Public order is not every breach of law and order. Public order is an aggravated form of disturbance that is much higher than a law and order issue.”


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