Srinivasa Ramanujan & National Mathematics Day

In News

  • National Mathematics Day is celebrated every year on December 22 to mark the birth anniversary of legendary mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan.

More about the National Mathematics Day 

  • In 2012, former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh declared December 22 as National Mathematics Day 
    • The year 2012 was also celebrated as the National Mathematics Year. 
  • Aim:
    • The day is celebrated with the aim to make people aware of the importance of mathematics and advancements and developments made in the field.

About Srinivasa Ramanujan

  • Birth:
    • Srinivasa Ramanujan was born in 1887 in Erode, Tamil Nadu in a humble Iyengar Brahmin family.
  • Early life:
    • He had developed a liking for mathematics at a very young age, mastering trigonometry at 12.
    • He was eligible for a scholarship at the Government Arts College in Kumbakonam in 1903.
      • But, due to his dislike for non-mathematical subjects, he failed exams there.
  • Madras Port Trust:
    • In 1912, Ramanujan started working as a clerk in the Madras Port Trust. 
    • There, his mathematical genius was recognised by some of his colleagues and one of them referred him to Professor GH Hardy of Trinity College, Cambridge University.
  • Beginning of career in Mathematics:
    • Srinivasa Ramanujan’s journey to being a genius started when he sent a letter to Professor GH Hardy where he mentioned about 120 mathematical theorems. 
    • Bachelor of Science degree:
      • He joined Trinity College a few months before World War 1 started. 
      • In 1916 Ramanujan was awarded the Bachelor of Science degree. 
    • Elected to the London Mathematical Society:
      • In 1917, he was elected to the London Mathematical Society. 
    • Fellow of the Royal Society in London:
      • On May 2, 1918, he became a fellow of the Royal Society in London, one of youngest people to receive such an honour. 
    • Elected as a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge:
      • The same year (1918) in October he became the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
  • Contribution to the field of Mathematics:
    • Ramanujan was a self-taught mathematician and is considered one of the greatest Indian mathematicians of all time.
    • During his short but impactful lifespan, Ramanujan worked on theorems that seemed impossible to solve.
      • He is known for the work he did in the folllowing areas
        • Continued fractions, 
        • Riemann series, 
        • Elliptic integrals, 
        • Hypergeometric series and 
        • Functional equations of the zeta function.
  • Return to India & death:
    • In 1919, Ramanujan returned to India. 
    • A year later, in 1920 on April 26th, he breathed his last owing to deteriorating health in Kumbakonam, Madras. 
    • He was just 32 years old. 
  • Legacy:
    • Man who knew infinity:
      • Srinivasa Ramanujan is also known as the ‘man who knew infinity’. Ramanujan who did not receive any formal education in Mathematics has made several important contributions to the field of Mathematics.
      • His biography ‘The Man Who Knew Infinity’ by Robert Kanigel depicts his life and journey to fame.
        • A film of the same name was released in 2015.
    • Stamp & Math Park in India:
      • The 2012 India stamp also featured Srinivasa Ramanujan. 
      • On the National Mathematics Day in 2017, the Ramanujan Math Park was opened in Kuppam, in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh.
    • Ramanujan Yatra:
      • In 1920, Vigyan Prasar organised events under the name “Ramanujan Yatra” which included a series of talks held monthly on Ramanujan’s work.
    • The Ramanujan Machine of Israel:
      • In early 2021, a team of Israeli scientists announced a software tool called The Ramanujan Machine.
        • It creates mathematical conjectures which are equations without proof.
        • Mathematicians then prove or disprove these conjectures, thereby establishing theorems. 
      • Conjectures & Ramanujan:
        • Conjectures in mathematics shed light on newer frontiers that otherwise lurk in tenebrous corners. 
        • Srinivasa Ramanujan was famous for such conjectures. 
        • From 1904 till his passing in 1920, Ramanujan, recorded more than 3,000 equations that were mostly conjectures because he did not supply proof. 
Scholarships for Mathematics learning in IndiaNational Board For Higher Mathematics — Masters Scholarships:The National Board for Higher Mathematics provides scholarships to students pursuing mathematics.INSPIRE-SHE:The Department of Science and Technology awards the Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) scheme Scholarship for Higher Education (SHE). Under this, scholarships are offered to students at the undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) studies.Aicte – Swanath Scholarship Scheme For Students (Degree):Awarded by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), this scholarship is to support orphans, children whose parents died due to COVID-19, wards of armed forces and central paramilitary forces who were martyred. It is an attempt to provide every such child an opportunity to study further in AICTE approved institutions and courses.

Maharashtra-Karnataka Border Dispute

In Context

  • Recently, tensions rose along the Maharashtra-Karnataka border after vehicles from both states were attacked and defaced.

More about the Maharashtra-Karnataka border dispute

  • Beginning in reorganisation of states:
    • The Maharashtra and Karnataka boundary dispute has its origins in the reorganisation of states along linguistic lines via the State Reorganisation Act, 1956.
      • MES (Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti): The MES (Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti) came into existence in 1948.
      • It had the sole aim of pushing for integration of Belgaum with Maharashtra during the reorganization of states.
    • Maharashtra’s demand:
      • Since its creation on May 1, 1960, Maharashtra has claimed that 865 villages, including Belagavi (then Belgaum), Carvar and Nipani, should be merged into Maharashtra. 
      • Significance of the demand:
        • The claim of the pro-Marathi groups is that Belagavi is a largely Marathi-speaking region with many parts being exclusively Marathi speaking.
        • It claims that the region should be a part of Maharashtra instead of Karnataka which is a Kannada-speaking state.
  • Karnataka’s stand:
    • Karnataka, however, has refused to part with its territory.

Union Government’s attempts to resolve the issue

  • Mahajan Commission:
    • In October 1966, the Centre constituted the Mahajan Commission headed by the then Supreme Court Chief Justice Meher Chand Mahajan, at the insistence of Maharashtra. 
    • Recommendations of the commission:
      • While rejecting Maharashtra’s claim over Belagavi (then Belgaum), the commission recommended 247 villages/places, including Jatt, Akkalkote and Solapur, to be made part of Karnataka. 
      • It also declared 264 villages /places, including Nippani, Khanapur and Nandagad, to be made part of Maharashtra.
    • Rejection by Maharashtra:
      • The commission’s report was outrightly rejected by Maharashtra. 
      • Reason:
        • Successive governments in Maharashtra maintained that the commission had not adequately addressed its concerns, Karnataka saw the commission ruling in its favour.
    • Several attempts were subsequently made to resolve the row but in vain. 

Current status of the dispute

  • Petition in the Supreme Court:
    • In 2004, the Maharashtra government filed a petition in the Supreme Court, staking claim over Marathi-speaking villages in Karnataka, which contested the claim. 
    • Exploiting public sentiments, Karnataka changed the name of Belgaum to Belagavi and made it the second capital of the state.
  • Need of legal solution:
    • Both Karnataka and Maharashtra reckon that the complex issue will not be resolved politically, and requires a legal solution.

Issue of political benefits 

  • Both Maharashtra and Karnataka have used the border dispute to stoke regional sentiments during elections.
    • In Maharashtra, the boundary dispute is part of every political party’s election manifesto. 
    • It even features in the governor’s annual address to the joint session of the state legislative assembly and council. 
    • Setting aside their ideological differences, political parties in Maharashtra have found a common cause in the Maharashtra-Karnataka boundary row. 
Inter-state border disputes in IndiaAssam-Mizoram:The border dispute between Assam and Mizoram is a legacy of two British-era notifications of 1875 and 1933.The 1875 notification differentiated Lushai Hills from the plains of Cachar and the other demarcated boundary between Lushai Hills and Manipur.Assam, on the other hand, wants the boundary demarcated in 1986 (based on the 1933 notification).Assam-Meghalaya:Assam and Meghalaya have a longstanding dispute in 12 stretches of their 884-km shared border.Disputed areas for resolution identified are:Three areas contested between West Khasi Hills district in Meghalaya and Kamrup in Assam.Two between RiBhoi in Meghalaya and Kamrup-Metro.One between East Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya and Cachar in Assam.Assam Nagaland:As with the case of Assam–Mizoram, the Assam-Nagaland dispute, has a decades-old history which was worsened by the creation of Nagaland as a separate state in 1963.Territorial claims of Nagaland in Assam include parts of Golaghat district, Jorhat district and Sibsagar district in the Disputed Area Belt (DAB).Haryana-Himachal Pradesh:The Parwanoo region has had the spotlight over the border dispute between the two states. It is next to the Panchkula district of Haryana and the state has claimed parts of the land in Himachal Pradesh as its own.Himachal Pradesh-Ladakh: Himachal and Ladakh lay claim to Sarchu, an area on the route between Leh and Manali. Sarchu is in between Himachal’s Lahul and Spiti district and Leh district in Ladakh.Arunachal Pradesh-Assam: Arunachal’s grievance is that the re-organisation of North Eastern states unilaterally transferred several forested tracts in the plains that had traditionally belonged to hill tribal chiefs and communities to Assam.

Way ahead

  • Significance of special rights:
    • Carving out political units that neatly correspond with various linguistic groups is impossible in India. 
    • As a result, almost all States have linguistic minorities that are accorded special rights. 
  • Need of harmony:
    • It is wise to defer to the Court’s decision on any dispute, but harmony can be achieved only through embracing and promoting a political culture that is respectful of diversity that cannot be neatly demarcated.

Maritime Anti-Piracy Bill

In News

  • Recently, Rajya Sabha passed the Maritime Anti-Piracy Bill to combat maritime piracy.

Key Points

  • The Bill will provide for:
    • An effective legal instrument to combat maritime piracy. 
    • Stringent punishment to those convicted of such crimes.
    • The issue of death penalty as an “exceptional case” and the quantum of punishments envisaged are in line with the gravity of offences.
  • Need of the Bill:
    • Increasing involvement of crew members:
      • Between 2008 and 2011 – 27 maritime incidents, with 288 Indian nationals involved. 
      • Between 2014 and 2022 – 19 piracy cases with 155 Indian crew members involved.
    • Applicability: 
      • IPC is not valid for foreigners in international waters i.e., beyond 12 nautical miles.
    • Piracy: 
      • Incidences of piracy operations are shifting towards the east and south, which increases their proximity to India’s west coast.

Comparison of Anti-Maritime Piracy Bill, 2019 & 2022 Amendments

 Bill, 20192022 Amendments
Applicability of theBill
The Bill applies to all parts of the sea adjacent to and beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India, i.e., beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline.The Bill will apply to high seas which includes EEZ and all waters beyond the jurisdiction of any other state (country other than India)
Punishment for PiracyPenalty for committing any act of piracy: (i) imprisonment for life, or (ii) death, if the act or attempt of piracy includes attempted murder, or causes death. The penalty is being amended to: (i) imprisonment which may extend to imprisonment for life, or fine, or both, or (ii) death or imprisonment for life, if the act or attempt of piracy includes attempted murder, or causes death.
Punishment for attempt to commit or aid piracyUp to 14 years of imprisonment and a fine  up to 10 years of imprisonment, or fine, or both.
Punishment for participating, organising or directing others to commit piracyUp to 14 years and a fine. up to 14 years, or fine, or both
Personnel authorised for arrest and seizure(i) a warship or military aircraft of the Indian Navy, (ii) a ship or aircraft of the India Coast Guard, or (iii) ships or aircraft on government service, and authorised for such purpose. Only authorised personnel may carry out arrest and seizure. These personnel include: (i) officers and sailors assigned to warships or military aircraft of Indian Navy, or (ii) officers and enrolled persons of Coast Guard, (iii) officers of the central or state government authorised for any ship or aircraft. 
Power to carry out arrest and seizure on grounds of suspicion Bill provides for arrest and seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft, by: (i) a warship or military aircraft of the Indian Navy, (ii) a ship or aircraft of the Indian Coast Guard, or (iii) ships or aircraft on government service, and authorised for such purpose. 
Only authorised personnel may carry out arrest and seizure. These personnel include: (i) officers and sailors assigned to warships or military aircraft of Indian Navy, or (ii) officers and enrolled persons of Coast Guard, (iii) officers of the central or state government authorised for any ship or aircraft. It adds that Authorised Personnel may carry out arrest and seizure on grounds of suspicion.
Disposing seized propertyNothing mentioned in the BillThe ship or property seized will be disposed of only by a Court order. 
Jurisdiction of Designated CourtTerritorial jurisdiction of designated courts will be specified by the central government after consulting with the Chief Justice of India.Adds that port or place of disembarkation within India of the person suspected or accused will be taken into account while deciding jurisdiction of the Court.
Power of Designated Court to try a person while absent from the Court Court may try a person even if the person is not physically present in the Court. Provision deleted
People who may carry out piracyThe Bill defines piracy as any illegal act of violence, detention, or destruction committed against a ship, aircraft, person or property, for private purposes, by the crew or  passengersof a private ship or aircraft.Adds ‘any person’ under the definition of people who may carry out piracy.
Definition of shipWas not explained in the BillDefines ship as (i) vessel or water craft, and (ii) seaplanesand other aircraft capable of being used as means oftransportation in water.


  • In the absence of a specific law or a legal provision in the Indian Penal Code or the Criminal Procedure Code on piracy, this Bill would provide an effective legal instrument to combat maritime piracy.
    • It would enable discharge of obligations under the UNCLOS which India had signed in 1982 and ratified in 1995.
  • Ensuring maritime security is key to safeguarding India’s security and economic well-being.
    • The security of sea lanes of communication is critical as more than 90 percent of India’s trade takes place by sea routes and more than 80 percent of the country’s hydrocarbon requirements was sea-borne.


  • Use of Death Penalty: Section 3 of the Bill provides that if a pirate causes death or makes an attempt to cause death, he shall be punished with the death penalty. Even the Indian Penal Code (IPC) does not permit death sentences where an attempt has been made which might result in causing death.
  • Difficulty in Extradition: The Bill provides for presumption of guilt of the accused in case certain conditions are satisfied, for example recovery of arms and ammunition from possession of the accused, evidence of use of force in connection with offence, etc. Members said extradition of the accused may be difficult due to this provision.
  • Issues regarding geographical applicability of the Bill: Controversies exist over overlapping jurisdiction of territorial waters, i.e. 12 nautical miles and EEZ i.e. 200 nautical miles.

Way Ahead

  • The government should consult the security experts and other stakeholders to draft a comprehensive and compact bill, which can be implemented smoothly.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)The convention is also sometimes referred to as the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty. UNCLOS came into operation and became effective from 16th November 1982.India became a signatory to the UNCLOS in 1982.It replaced the four Geneva Conventions of April, 1958, which respectively concerned the territorial sea and the contiguous zone, the continental shelf, the high seas, fishing and conservation of living resources on the high seas.As per UNCLOS, the sea is divided into 4 parts:Territorial watersContiguous ZoneExclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)Continental ShelfIt defines a distance of 12 nautical miles (approx. 22 km) from the baseline as Territorial Sea limit and a distance of 200 nautical miles distance as Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) limit.EEZ is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

Rise in Organ Donations

In News

  • Recently, as per the data presented by the government in Parliament it says that organ donation numbers rose back in 2021 again after a fall during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Major Highlights of the data

  • Highest in last 5 years: The number of donations in 2021 were close to the highest in the last five years (12,746, in 2019) as per the data.
  • Organ wise data:
    • Organs donated by the kin of those who suffered brain death or cardiac death have remained lower than the number of donations from living persons. 
    • Organs like kidney and liver donated by living family members are comparatively higher.
  • State wise data:
    • There is also a geographical skew in deceased donations
    • Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka account for more than 85% of the total deceased donations.
      • Reason for the geographical skew could be that most organ transplant and harvesting centres are concentrated in these geographies.
Current mechanism of Donating organs The availability of an organ is reported by the hospital to the state organ and tissue transplant organisation that matches it with recipients locally.If a match isn’t found, it is referred to the regional organ and tissue transplant organisation and then to National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO). National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) is a national level organisation set up under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in Safdarjung Hospital New Delhi.How can an individual become a donor? To become a registered organ donor, we can take a pledge on the NOTTO website or mail a filled-in Form 7 of the Transplantation of Human Organs Act.In addition to registering, it is important for donors to explain their beliefs to the members of their family. This is because even with a donor card, the family’s consent is sought for organ donation after the death of the individual. If the family refuses, the organs are not harvested.

What is the need to increase deceased donations?

  • Demand-Supply gap: There is a gap in the number of organs needed and the number of transplants that happen in the country.
  • Lack of organs: India conducts the third highest number of transplants in the world in absolute numbers.
    • Yet, of the estimated 1.5-2 lakh persons who need a kidney transplant every year, only around 8,000 get one. 
    • Of the 80,000 persons who require a liver transplant, only 1,800 get one. 
    • And of the 10,000 who need a heart transplant, only 200 get it.
  • Higher demand: Demand is on the rise because of the increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases.
    • Organs like heart and lungs can be retrieved only from deceased donors.
  • Wastage of resources: without deceased donations a precious resource is wasted.
    • Nearly 1.5 lakh persons die in road traffic accidents every year in India, many of whom can ideally donate organs. 
    • Although donations are possible after the heart stops working, almost all organs are currently harvested from brain dead persons.
  • Global Comparison: India has an organ donation rate of about 0.52 per million population. In comparison, the organ donation rate in Spain is 49.6 per million population which is the highest in the world.
  • Registration process: In India where a person must register to be an organ donor and the family must consent to it after death. Spain has an opt-out system where a person is presumed to be a donor unless otherwise specified.

Way Forward/ How can deceased donations be increased?

  • Transplant coordinators: the larger hospitals that are capable of harvesting organs in India do employ transplant coordinators to explain and guide the families through the process. But still at present, only 2.6 organs from a deceased donor are transplanted against eight organs.
  • Harvesting organs from those who have had cardiac death instead of brain death can also increase the numbers.
    • But the problem is that the organs must be harvested very quickly after cardiac death because the circulation of blood carrying oxygen to organs stops. 
    • However, in India, by the time the family members are informed of the death, and they come from different parts of the city it is too late.
  • Need for awareness: The need of the hour is to generate more awareness about organ transplant so that people register as donors.
    • Routine events should be organised to increase awareness. We can also reach out to school children for this purpose. 
  • Building Trust: There is a need to have faith that the donated organs are helping others. 
  • Good transport networks between cities and states can help boost organ donation. The government is working to improve coordination among the Road, Railway, and Aviation Ministries to facilitate the creation of green corridors for faster transportation of organs. 

Appropriation Bills

In News

  • Recently, the Opposition slammed the Central Government during continued discussion on the Appropriation Bills in Rajya Sabha.


  • Issues raised by the Opposition: 
    • Funds: 
      • Gross miscalculation of expenditure in the Budget.
      • There was misplaced focus when the funds were allocated.
    • Women:
      • Focused attention on Gender budgeting to address concerns of women impacted by the Covid pandemic. Private as well as Government initiatives like MGNREGA are impacted.
      • The Covid phase is over now but those women who were pushed into domestic spheres, data shows, suffered domestic violence.
      • There should be more budgetary allocation for women.
      • There should be a multi-fold increase in funds to tackle violence against women.
  • Case to learn from:
    • In West Bengal, one in every four MSMEs is led by women.

About Appropriation Bill

  • It is a money bill that allows the government to withdraw funds from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet its expenses during a financial year.
  • As per Article 114(3) of the Constitution, no amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund without the enactment of such a law by Parliament.
  • The whole process beginning with the presentation of the Budget and ending with discussions and voting on the Demands for Grants requires a fairly long time.
  • The Lok Sabha is, therefore, empowered by the Constitution to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of the financial year pending completion of procedure for the voting on the demands.
  • However, if during the course of the financial year, the funds so appropriated are found to be insufficient, the Constitution provides for seeking approval from the Parliament or State Legislature for supplementary grants.

Key Features

  • The exclusive feature of the Appropriation Bill is its automatic repeal clause, whereby the Act gets repealed by itself after it meets its statutory purpose.
  • Amendment:
    • No amendment can be proposed to an Appropriation Bill which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the decision of the Speaker as to whether such an amendment is admissible is final
    • An amendment to an Appropriation Bill for the omission of a demand voted by the House is out of order.
  • In other respects, the procedure in respect of an Appropriation Bill is the same as in respect of other Money Bills.


  • The Appropriation Bill is first passed by Lok Sabha and then sent to Rajya Sabha.
  • Rajya Sabha has the power to recommend any amendments to this Bill.
  • However, it is the prerogative of the Lok Sabha to either accept or reject these recommendations.
  • An Appropriation Bill is passed by the Parliament/state legislature and then it is presented to the President/Governor.
  • After the assent by the President/Governor to the bill, it becomes an Act.

Way Ahead

  • There is a need for better planning on agricultural spending. Too little agriculture research and sustainable agriculture expenditure is happening when sustainable agriculture is the need of the hour for climate crisis mitigation.
  • When there is stagnation, the government spending should go up and the interest rates should come down.
Consolidated Fund of IndiaIt is the most important of all government accounts.This fund was constituted under Article 266 (1) of the Constitution of India. All revenues received by the government by way of direct taxes and indirect taxes, money borrowed and receipts from loans given by the government flow into the Consolidated Fund of India.All government expenditure is made from this fund, except exceptional items which are met from the Contingency Fund or the Public Account. Importantly, no money can be withdrawn from this fund without the Parliament’s approval.The Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India reports to the Union and State Legislatures any discrepancies that occur between the amounts appropriated for a particular head of expenditure and what was actually spent at the end of the financial year.These reports provide an indication of unrealistic budget estimates made by various departments. Any expenditure in excess of what was approved requires regularization by the Parliament/State Legislature.

Left Wing Extremism

In News

  • Recently, the Minister of State for Home Affairs gave a reply to a Written Question on ‘Eradication of Left-Wing Extremism’ in Rajya Sabha.


  • Naxalism is an instance of left-wing terrorism: severely or slightly affecting almost 9 out of total 28 states of India and is an acknowledged potential threat for internal peace and security of this country.
    • The term ‘Naxal’ derives from the name of the village Naxalbari in West Bengal, where the movement had its origin. 
    • The Naxals are considered far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. 
    • Their origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist).
      • Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. 
    • In later years, it spread into less developed areas of rural southern and eastern India: such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
  • Globally it all started with the communist political and economic thought put forward by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.
  • The term Naxalism or Naxal or Naxalvadi is intrinsic to the country of India however it heavily borrows its ideology from Maoism: a form of Marxism-Leninism developed by Mao Tse Tung or Mao-Zedong, the person responsible for anti-capitalist revolutionary regime specific to China. 
Data/ FactsIncidents of LWE violence have reduced by 77% from a high of 2213 in 2010 to 509 in 2021.Deaths (Civilians + Security Forces) have reduced by 85% from a high of 1005 in 2010 to 147 in 2021.

Major Challenges/ Reasons for growth of LWE

  • Exploitation and oppression of dalits, adivasis and landless people, living in interior areas due to feudal agrarian system and strong interface of caste and class.
  • Total alienation of the population: due to virtual absence of health care, drinking water, roads, electricity and educational facilities in the interior areas, from the Government machinery.
  • Inadequate Police Force, in all the Naxal affected districts: The density of police force per sq km is just about 30 per cent of the average need. Not only this, the training and equipment profile, which goes to create the desired capability and capacity of the security force, is far from satisfactory.
  • It will be unfair to blame the Government alone for the lack of development: Naxalites themselves do not want any developmental activity to succeed, they do not allow construction of roads and want the area to remain as such for their designs to succeed and the tribals to remain dependent on them.
  • Naxalites are able to raise adequate funds for their cadres and other needs. It is estimated that their annual income runs into nearly 14 billion rupees.
  • Support from tribals: the tribal population is the biggest supporter of the Naxal regime and there is only one reason that can be attributed for the same.

Steps taken by the Government

  • National Policy and Action Plan to address LWE: This policy envisages a multi-pronged strategy involving security related measures, development interventions, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, etc.
  • Improving infrastructure: More than 11,600 km roads have been constructed in LWE affected areas.
  • Installation of mobile towers: For improving telecommunication connectivity, 2,343 mobile towers have been installed and work orders issued for another 2,542.
  • Special Central Assistance (SCA) scheme: Under this scheme, various types of projects have been undertaken like road repair, improvement in health infrastructure, education related projects, rural infrastructure projects etc.
  • Skill Development Scheme: towards educational empowerment, 47 Industrial Training Institutes and 68 Skill Development Centers have been approved under “Skill Development Scheme in 47 Districts affected by LWE”.
  • Financial inclusion: 1,258 Bank Branches, 1,348 ATMs and 22,202 Banking Correspondents have been established in Most LWE Affected Districts and 4,903 Post Offices have been opened in 90 LWE affected districts in the last seven years.
  • Road Connectivity Project for LWE Affected Areas (RCPLWEA): This Scheme is being implemented through the Ministry of Rural Development. 12,100 km of roads with an estimated cost of Rs 12,021 crore have been sanctioned. Of these 6,561 km of road have been completed.
  • Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs): This scheme is being implemented through the Ministry of Tribal Affairs for tribal education.
  • Others:
    • Greyhounds: It was raised in 1989 as an elite anti-Naxal force.
    • Operation Green Hunt: It was started in 2009-10 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the Naxal-affected areas
    • SAMADHAN doctrine is the one-stop solution for the LWE problem. It encompasses the entire strategy of government from short-term policy to long-term policy formulated at different levels.
    • ROSHNI is a special initiative under Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana launched in 2013 for training and placement of rural poor youth from 27 LWE affected districts in 09 States.

Way Forward

  • As per the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are state subjects and therefore, it is the primary duty of the State Governments to prevent, detect, register and investigate crime and prosecute the criminals.
  • Combined efforts of the Government of India and State Governments have resulted in significant improvement in the security situation in LWE affected states.
  • Provisions of Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA) are being applied wherever required: Critical UAPA cases are also being handed over to National Investigation Agency (NIA) for investigation as per requirement.
  • Representative from Amongst Them: the longest problem of improper administration can be solved when the naxalites are given a chance of electing their own.
  • Providing Economical Encouragement to the Tribal Communities: A feasible solution for inclination of the tribal community towards the naxalites can include providing the tribal people with a much higher level of economic and political security as compared to what the naxalites have to offer.

Stabilisation Fund

In Context 

India is planning a stabilisation fund to keep prices of credits in its planned carbon market above a certain threshold, ensuring that they remain attractive for investors and that the market succeeds in cutting emissions.

About Stabilisation fund

  • Money in the fund would be used by a market regulator to buy carbon credits if prices fell too low.
    • Consistent investor interest in credits and a floor under the price would be needed because sharp falls in the market could discourage industries from reducing carbon dioxide emissions
  • Planning envisages the market becoming fully operational in 2026, covering 37% of the country’s emissions.
    • In creating a carbon market, a country sets a limit on emissions and then allocates a corresponding quantity of tradable permits, or credits, to emitters. 
  • Market landscape: The Indian market would cover emissions of carbon dioxide and also five other greenhouse gases valued in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalence.
    • In a part of the planned market to be called the compliance market, participation would be obligatory for entities in a dozen sectors, such as oil refining, steel, aluminium and cement, the sources said. 
    • Another part, the voluntary market, would be open to other entities.
  • India’s carbon market is being set up in two phases, according to the government’s presentation slides.
    • In the first phase, between 2023 and 2025, the existing energy-savings certificates will be converted to carbon credits.
  • India’s Commitment: India has committed to cutting its ratio of greenhouse emissions to the gross domestic product by 2030 to 45% of its 2005 level and to net zero by 2070.
Do you Know?the World Bank had shown interest in financing the carbon market if a stabilisation mechanism were created. The bank extended an $8 million grant to India in 2016/17.The World Bank continues to remain committed to supporting India in developing a carbon trading market and other instruments to help scale up financing for key climate transitions

Nominated members in Rajya Sabha

In News 

Nominated Rajya Sabha member and athlete P.T. Usha is now on the panel of Vice-Chairman of the House.


  • Article 80(1)(a) read with Article 80(3) of the Constitution of India provides that the President can nominate to Rajya Sabha, 12 persons having special knowledge, or practical experience in respect of literature, science, art and social service. 

 Role of nominated members

  • Nominated members of Rajya Sabha enjoy all the powers and privileges to which the elected MPs are entitled. 
  • They can take part in the proceedings of the House in the normal manner, even though there has been criticism that several nominated members have poor attendance and do not appear to show much interest in legislative work.
    • In this context, cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, actor Rekha, and businesswoman Anu Aga have faced criticism in recent years.
  • Nominated members are not allowed to vote in the election of the President.
    • They do have the right to vote in the election of the Vice-President.


  • Rajya Sabha gives “an opportunity, perhaps, to seasoned people who may not be in the thickest of the political fray, but who might be willing to participate in the debate with an amount of learning and importance which we do not ordinarily associate with the House of the People”.

Five Great Lakes of North America

In News

Scientists are building a sensor network to detect the trends in the water chemistry of Lake Huron, one of the five Great Lakes of North America.

  • It is the first step towards developing a system that would be capable of measuring the carbon dioxide and pH levels of the Great Lakes over several years.

More In News

  • It is known that the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide has caused the world’s oceans to turn more acidic. 
  • Recently, it has been observed that by 2100, even the Great Lakes — Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario — might approach acidity at around the same rate as the oceans.

About Great Lakes

  • They are believed to have been born some 20,000 years ago when the Earth started to warm and water from melting glaciers filled the basins on its surface.
  • The Great Lakes are, from west to east:  Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario. 
  • They are a dominant part of the physical and cultural heritage of North America.
    • The Great Lakes basin encompasses large parts of two nations, the United States and Canada.
  • They drain into the Gulf of St Lawrence in the North Atlantic through the St Lawrence River.
  • They contain a fifth of the world’s total freshwater and are a crucial source of irrigation and transportation. 
  • They also serve as the habitat for more than 3,500 species of plants and animals.
Acidification of water bodiesAcidification of oceans or freshwater bodies takes place when excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere gets rapidly absorbed into them. Acidification may lead to a decrease in native biodiversity, create physiological challenges for organisms, and permanently alter the structure of the ecosystem, scientists say. It would also severely impact the hundreds of wooden shipwrecks that are believed to be resting at the bottom of these lakes, 


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