‘Global Counterterrorism Approach’ & challenges of terrorism

In News

  • UNSC’s special briefing was recently held on the ‘Global Counterterrorism Approach’, which was convened by India.

More about the news

  • Indian External Affairs Minister’s listing of four hurdles to better counterterrorism cooperation listed at UNSC needs attention. The hurdles, as stated by him, are as follows:
    • State support for financing terror
    • Multilateral mechanisms that are opaque and agenda driven
    • Double standards and politicisation of countering terrorism according to where terror groups belong, and 
    • The “next frontier” (the use of emerging technologies such as drones and virtual currency by terrorists). 

Issues leading to terrorism as pointed out by India

  • Exiting Afghanistan & talks with the Taliban:
    • In their haste to exit Afghanistan in 2021 the UNSC’s permanent members, the U.S. and the U.K. struck the biggest blow to the sanctions regime by holding talks with the Taliban 
    • It has led to easing their path to power in Kabul and letting their handlers in Pakistan off the hook. 
  • Blocking the designations of terrorists:
    • A P-5 country (China) continues to block the designations of Pakistan-based terrorists, including five named this year, from the LeT and the JeM. 
  • Comprehensive Convention on International Terror:
    • Instead of uniting to accept India’s proposal, of 1996, of a Comprehensive Convention on International Terror to institute global practices on countering terror, the P-5 countries are polarised, and irrevocably so, over Russia’s war in Ukraine.
TerrorismAbout:An offence to intimidate a population or to compel a government or an international organisation to do or abstain from doing any act, which causes:Death or serious bodily injury to any person.Serious damage to public or private property, including a place of public use, a State or government facility, a public transportation system, an infrastructure facility or the environment.Damage to property, places, facilities, or systems resulting in or likely to result in a major economic loss.It encompasses a range of complex threats like organized terrorism in conflict zones, foreign terrorist fighters, radicalised ‘lone wolves’, etc.Impacts:On peace:It poses a major threat to international peace and security and undermines the core values of humanity, peace and growth.Destabilisation & loss of lives: In addition to the devastating human cost of terrorism, in terms of lives lost or permanently altered, terrorist acts destabilise governments and undermine economic and social development.Larger impacts:Terrorist acts often defy national borders.Terrorist attacks using CBRNE materials (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives) have catastrophic consequences on communities and infrastructure.


  • Recent global meets on terrorism:
    • In recent days, the world has been witnessing a flurry of meetings and conferences on the issue of countering terrorism worldwide.
      • Meetings of the United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee, the No Money for Terror Conference, and an Interpol Conference in which terrorism figured prominently.
  • No recognition for ideology driven extremism:
    • There is again no indication that the meetings took stock of the fact that ideology intertwined with religious extremism had become an even more potent threat than previously. 
  • Declining terrorist incidents but growing radicalisation:
    • Many of the past problems still remain. The declining level of serious terrorist incidents do not, however, translate into a decline in terrorism.
    • The incidents like the attacks of Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) and Mangaluru (Karnataka) may appear relatively insignificant, but are symptomatic of growing radicalisation
      • It is also suggestive of the fact that a sizeable base is being built in the southern region.
  • Keeping track of smaller links:
    • Constant and careful vigil by counter-terrorism experts is needed to keep track of not only these activities but also the kind of links that are being established (under the radar) by global terrorist outfits whose presence is not as widely advertised as that of al-Qaeda and the IS.

Suggestions & way ahead

  • No good or bad terrorism:
    • What is most needed by world leaders is not to treat some terrorists as good and others as bad, based on each nation’s predilections.
  • Reactivating the proposal for the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT):
    • The next step is to reactivate the proposal for the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) that has been on hold and finalise the list of items needed to check terrorism globally.
      • India first proposed this in the 1990s.
    • Once the CCIT is accepted by the UN, the war on terror would gain a new salience.
  • Need of coordinated efforts:
    • There is also a clear need for counter-terrorism agencies across the world to function in a more coordinated manner, exchanging both intelligence and tactics. 
  • Newer patterns of terror:
    • World needs to take stock of the newer patterns of terror such as ‘enabled terrorism’ and ‘remote control terrorism’.
      • Remote control terrorism: Violence conceived and guided by controllers thousands of miles away, positing the dangers of Internet-enabled terrorism. 
    • Counter-terrorism experts will again need to enlarge their expertise to accommodate multi-domain operations, and undertake terror ‘gaming’, all of which have become essential in today’s day and age.

India, China 17th round of Corps Commander Talks

In News

  • Recently, the 17th round of Corps Commander-level talks was held between India and China.

More about the news

  • Location of the talks:
    • The talks were held at the Chushul-Moldo border meeting point on the Chinese side.
  • Key highlights:
    • During the talks both sides agreed to continue dialogue through military and diplomatic channels and work out a “mutually acceptable resolution of the remaining issues at the earliest”.
    • The two sides exchanged views on the resolution of the relevant issues along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the western sector in an “open and constructive manner.
  • Significance of the talks:
    • The talks came 10 days after soldiers of the two armies clashed at the Yangtse area in the Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh, resulting in injuries on both sides.
    • Since the standoff began in May 2020, the two sides have so far held 16 rounds of talks. 
    • Both sides disengaged from Pangong Tso in February 2021, from patrolling in the Gogra-Hot Springs area. This is in addition to the disengagement from Galwan in 2020 after the violent clash there.
About the recent clash at Yangtse The Chinese troops unilaterally tried to alter the status quo on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Arunachal Pradesh.Soldiers of the two sides clashed in an area called Yangtse, in the upper reaches of Tawang sector in Arunachal Pradesh. The entire state itself, and within it, Tawang, are areas of serious contestation between India and China.Significance of Tawang:Historical:Tawang is the birthplace of the sixth Dalai Lama and an important pilgrimage centre for Tibetan Buddhists. The 14th Dalai Lama took refuge in Tawang after he crossed over from Tibet to India in 1959, spending some days in the monastery there before proceeding further.Agreed area:Within Tawang, there are three “agreed areas” of differing Indian and Chinese perceptions of the LAC. Yangtse, which is about 25 km from Tawang town, north of the Lungroo grazing ground, is one of these areas. As a result, it has been the site of regular “physical contact” between the Indian Army and the PLA, especially as the high ground is on the Indian side, giving it a commanding view of the Chinese side.

Areas of dispute between India & China

  • There are infirmities in India’s boundary with China, both in the east and the west.
    • In the Western sector: 
      • Here India shares a 2152 km long border with China, and territorial disputes over Aksai Chin region of Jammu and Kashmir, with both countries claiming the region as their own.
      • The recent dispute is around the region of the northern bank of Pangong Tso lake, Demchok and the Galwan Valley. 
    • In the middle sector: 
      • Here India roughly shares about a 625 km long boundary with China with a few minor disputes regarding Tibet. 
    • In the Eastern Sector: 
      • Here India shares a 1,140 km long boundary with China and this boundary line is called McMahon Line. 
      • The major dispute here is around the region of Tawang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Chumbi Valley (Dokalam Tri-Junction) which India shares with Bhutan.
  • China’s interest in Ladakh region:
    • China had never accepted the British-negotiated boundary agreements in northeastern Kashmir. 
    • China has traditionally been active in areas close to Ladakh given the significance of the Xinjiang-Tibet region in its domestic narrative. 
    • However, with its sights on an ageing Dalai Lama, and the issue of his succession, China may want to bring into focus its claims on Tawang, and the rest of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Issues:
    • Over 50,000 troops and heavy equipment continue to be deployed on both sides, close to the LAC. 
    • In the last two years, China has also undertaken massive construction of infrastructure, habitat and support structures to maintain its troops close to the LAC, altering the ground status.
      • There are roads, helipads and airfields being built right upto the passes.

Steps Taken by India

  • Developing Infrastructure: 
    • India has been improving its infrastructure in the border areas.
    • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) completed more than 100 projects in border areas, the majority of which were close to the border with China.
    • India is speeding up work on the Nimu-Padam-Darcha axis which is going to help troops move to Ladakh from other parts of the country.
  • Improved Surveillance: 
    • India is also improving its surveillance along the entire 3488-km boundary, and has been building new airstrips and landing areas.
  • Occupied key heights on the Kailash range: 
    • Towards the end of 2020, India outmaneuvered China to capture the previously unoccupied heights of the Kailash Range on the south bank of the lake.

Way ahead

  • The problems in Jammu and Kashmir have become trilateral in nature, especially after the India-China standoff at the LAC in eastern Ladakh. 
  • Therefore, the solutions to these problems, acceptable to all concerned, can only come out of a trilateral dialogue.
  • India has constantly stated that the relationship cannot go back to normal as long as the standoff situation continues, and has repeatedly called for restoration of status quo and restoration along the LAC.
Line Of Actual Control (LAC)The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.For India  the LAC is 3,488 km long, while China considers it to be only around 2,000 km.It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which includes Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the western sector in Ladakh.LAC in the eastern sector consisting of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim is called the McMahon Line which is 1,140 km long. Difference between LoC with Pakistan and LAC with China:The Line of Control (LoC) is delineated on a map signed by DGMOs of both armies and has the international sanctity of a legal agreement. In contrast, The LAC is only a concept, it is not agreed upon by the two countries, neither delineated on a map or demarcated on the ground.

One Nation, One Ration Card

In News

  • Recently, the Union Government has claimed that the ambitious scheme of the One Nation-One Ration Card across the country has brought a lot of relief to the poor.


  • Background: 
    • The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana launched to:
      • Ameliorate the hardships faced by the poor due to economic disruption caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic and 
      • To minimize its impact on food security
  • Progress of ONORC:
    • More spread: Now the scheme has been rolled out in all 36 States/UTs, which includes about 80 crore NFSA beneficiaries i.e. about 100 percent of the country’s NFSA population. 
    • Better reach: 
      • Since the launch of the ONORC scheme in Aug-2019, more than 93 crore portability transactions have been registered under the scheme, in which more than 177 LMT food grains have been distributed. 
      • During the year 2022, 39 crore portability transactions were done in 11 months, in which more than 80 LMT food grains have been distributed including inter-state and intra-state portability transactions of NFSA and PMGKAY.
  • Achievements:
    • Through Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY), the Central Government has provided free food grains to the poor, worth Rs 3.90 lakh crore, 
  • In March 2020, the distribution of additional free-of-cost foodgrains (Rice/Wheat) to about 80 Crore National Food Security Act (NFSA), Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) & Priority Households (PHH) beneficiaries at the scale of 5 Kg per person per month under the PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PM-GKAY).
    • The 7th Phase (October-December, 2022) of PMGKAY is ongoing in the States/UTs.
  • Various schemes including One Nation-One Ration Card, distribution of fortified rice, targeted public distribution and other schemes of the Center are being extended to all the beneficiaries
  • In order to increase the nutritional value of rice and its scope, the Government started implementing nutrition by providing fortified rice under all government schemes. 
  • The implementation of the first phase covering ICDS, PM Poshan in the States/UTs started in FY 2021-22. Under ICDS and PM Poshan, 17.51 lakh metric tonnes of fortified rice has been distributed.

About One Nation One Ration Card

  • Ministry: It was rolled out by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution in 2019.
  • Aim:
    • To ensure hassle-free delivery of subsidised food grains to all migratory beneficiaries anywhere in the country through nation-wide portability under National Food Security Act (NFSA).
    • To empower all National Food Security Act migrant beneficiaries to access foodgrains from any Fair Price Shop (FPS) of their choice anywhere in the country by using their same/existing ration card with biometric authentication.
      • A card bearing 10 digit number will be issued to the complaint state’s BPL card holders which will be linked to AADHAR database.
      • Beneficiaries can lift their entitled foodgrains from any electronic point of sale (ePoS) enabled FPS in the country through portability.
  • Objective: To empower all NFSA beneficiaries to become AtmaNirbhar for their food security anywhere in the country, through portability of their existing ration cards enabling them to seamlessly lift their entitled subsidised foodgrains from any Fair Price Shop of their choice.
  • ‘MERA RATION’ mobile application:
    • Another dimension under the ONORC plan is the ‘MERA RATION’ mobile application which has been rolled out to take maximum advantage of the ONORC plan.
    • The mobile app is providing a host of useful real time information to the beneficiaries and is available in 13 languages.

Significance/ Benefits

  • Subsidised food grains: The ONORC plan has significantly contributed in ensuring subsidised food grains to NFSA (National Food Security Act) beneficiaries, especially migrant beneficiaries.
  • Huge Internal Migration: According to the 2011 census, there are 45 crore internal migrants who accounted for 37% of the population.
  • Prevent Duplication and Double Benefits: It will help in reducing the number of dual ration cardholders.
  • It will be in sync with the motto of Minimum Government Maximum Governance.
  • Help in understanding migration pattern: The centralised FRP shop data may be used to formulate policies on intra- and inter-state migration.
  • Better efficiency of Food Distribution Schemes: As per the reply to an RTI, over 40,000 tonnes of food grains, including wheat and rice, have rotted in the last six years. With ONORC those left out due to migration can take that food.
  • Less Corruption and Exploitation: Different news articles have reported rampant corruption and exploitation for getting BPL cards by migrants in other states. It will reduce.
  • Empowering BPL Card Holders: ONORC will give the deprived people the choice to choose from corrupt and well functioning FRP shops.
  • Reduce Social Discrimination: It will reduce the role of social identities like caste, class and gender and power relations in availing the PDS facility by women and other disadvantaged classes.
  • Help towards fulfilling SDG 2 target of ending hunger by 2030: In the 2020 Global Hunger Index, India ranks 94th out of the 107 countries.
  • Nutritional Security: With cheap food grain available to migrants, there are chances of more expenditure towards fruits and vegetables.


  • Exclusion Errors:
    • As the ONORC is AADHAR linked there are chances of exclusion of people living in remote areas especially scheduled tribes.
    • As per the ‘2019 state of AADHAR survey’, 95 percent of the adults in the country have AADHAR.
    • It means the rest 5% may suffer from hunger due to non availability of AADHAR.
  • Operational Challenges:
    • Internet penetration is still less in India for the smooth functioning of ONORC.
    • Changes in Fingerprints have also been reported both due to genetics and due to constant wear and work-related wear and tear especially in case of labourers.
  • Logistics Issue: 
    • There is a quota allocated to every state for the purchase of food grains from FCI.
    • Constant migration may disturb that procurement pattern.
      • At places of emigration, food grain may get wasted.
      • While the places where immigration is dominant may face a PDS food crunch.
  • Split Families:
    • Many migrants leave their spouses and parents back home. Hence there will be a requirement to issue cards in parts.
    • Also there is a lack of comprehensive data on migrants and their families.
  • Domicile based Social Sector Schemes: 
    • There may be tensions over competition for state run social sector schemes due to Common Ration Card which is at present basis for availing such schemes.

Way Ahead

  • To meet Logistic Challenges and optimise the States Procurement:
    • Creation of dedicated ONORC e-platform based on Artificial Intelligence: It may be used to predict and issue the cards to migrants.
    • Use of railways data: As shown in the Economic Survey, the preliminary data regarding migration may be taken up from IRCTC.
    • Unorganised Sector Social Security Act 2008: It has provisions regarding documentation of unorganised informal sector workers at welfare boards.
  • To Handle Operational Challenges:
    • Impetus to BharatNet
    • Deeper Internet Penetration should be promoted
  • To eliminate Exclusion Errors:
    • Constant monitoring and empowerment of Village Panchayats at least in the initial phase.
    • Social Auditing may weed out any inclusion error and help in reducing exclusion error by recommending the names.

Drone Insurance Policy

In News

  • Recently, various companies such as HDFC Ergo, ICICI Lombard, Bajaj Allianz, and Tata AIG and public sector companies such as New India Assurance have launched its unmanned aircraft system insurance.

Drone market in India

  • India’s potential: Drones and allied component industries can boost India’s manufacturing potential by approximately $23 billion by 2030.
  • Market size: India’s drone manufacturing industry crossed annual sales of Rs 60 crore in FY 2021 and is expected to grow to Rs 900 crore by FY 2024. 

Drone Categories

  • Nano: Less than or equal to 250 grams.
  • Micro: Greater than 250 grams and less than or equal to 2 kg. 
  • Small: Greater than 2 kg and less than or equal to 25 kg.
  • Medium: Greater than 25 kg and less than or equal to 150 kg.
  • Large: Greater than 150 kg.

Drone flying restrictions in India

  • A micro drone may not fly higher than 60 metres above ground level (AGL) or faster than 25 metres per second.
  • A small drone may not fly higher than 120 metres above ground level or faster than 25 metres per second.
  • Drones that are medium or large must fly in compliance with the conditions outlined in the DGCA’s Operator Permit.
  • Prohibited zones are completely off-limits, whereas restricted areas require prior approval from the DGCA.

Area to fly a drone

  • Yellow (controlled airspace).
  • Green (no permission required).
  • Red (flying not permitted). 

Major Highlights of the insurance policy 

  • Regulation:
    • Insurance players are now offering drone coverage within the framework set by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI).
  • Participants: 
    • It will cover large aircraft to solo flying gliders. 
    • It will be offered to drone owners, operators, and manufacturers.
  • Policy coverage:
    • The policy covers physical damage to the aircraft and its theft. 
    • It also provides cover for accidental physical injury to the third party and/or damage to their property due to the aircraft’s operations.
    • It is designed to cover fixed wing, rotor wing and hybrid UAS that can be controlled remotely (with pilot intervention) or autonomous drones (without pilot intervention).
      • These aircraft are generally deployed for military and non-military applications, including surveillance, geography and infrastructure inspections and aerial photography.
    • It will provide coverage for the replacement or repair, accidental loss of or damage to the UAS arising from the risks covered, including disappearance if the UAS is unreported after the commencement of Flight.
  • Third-party liability coverage
    • It will cover legal liabilities like bodily damage or property damage claims to third parties arising out of the usage and operation of drones. 
Drone (Amendment) Rules 2022The requirement of a drone pilot licence has been abolished.No remote pilot certificate will be required for operating a drone up to two-kilogram for non-commercial purposes.The Remote Pilot Certificate issued by a Directorate General of Civil Aviation approved drone school through the single window Digital Sky platform will be sufficient for operating drones in the country.An individual owning any unmanned aircraft system manufactured in India or imported into India on or before 30th of November, 2021 must make an application to register and obtain a unique identification number and state the required details in form D-2 and the stipulated fee under Rule 46.To promote Made in India drones, the import of foreign drones has been prohibited in the country.

Regulations in the sector

  • Flying drones has been legalised in India since 2018: 
    • However, individuals need to take prior permission from civil aviation regulator DGCA to fly these remote-piloted aircraft. 
    • Nano drones, weighing less than 250 grams, have a permit exemption, subject to the condition they are flown at an altitude below 50 feet.
  • The Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) initially offered coverage to drones within a visual line of sight (VLOS) and during the day.
    • Later on the DGCA changed the guidelines to offer coverage beyond VLOS.
  • DGCA mandates third-party liability insurance for all drone operators. Whether you are operating a drone for commercial purposes, or personal use, flying without insurance is illegal and can lead to severe consequences. 
  • Except in the nano category and micro category only for non-commercial use, all drone activities must be done only after receiving prior approval from the Digital Sky online platform for a flight or series of flights. 
  • Globally: drones are classified as aircraft and aviation regulators have already stepped in to regulate the sector.
    • The Government of India has brought in policies (Drone Policy 1.0 in 2018 and Drone Policy 2.0 in 2019) which made the DGCA to come out with Regulations Civil Aviation Regulation CAR 1.0 in 2018 and Draft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems, 2020.

Way Forward

  • The aim is to Make India the drone hub of the world.
    • There is a need for innovative and competitive manufacturing capabilities and a strong action plan to help India become a global hub for drone manufacturing by 2030.
  • Need of the hour is to generate a strong demand, increasing manufacturing, drawing investments and facilitating exports.
  • The government is carving out drone corridors to facilitate delivery of cargo deliveries.

Samudrayaan Mission

In News

  • India is planning to explore deep sea resources with its Samudrayaan mission which is expected to be realised by year 2026.
    • The Indian Government launched the Samudrayaan mission in 2021

About Samudrayaan Mission

  • About the mission:
    • India will send three personnel to 6,000 metre depth in a vehicle called Matsya 6000 for the exploration of deep-sea resources like minerals.
      • MATSYA 6000 vehicle is being designed and developed by Chennai-based National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) which is an autonomous society under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
    • Few of the crucial components of manned submersibles are the development of Ti Alloy Personnel Spheres, Human Support and Safety Systems in Enclosed Space, Low-Density Buoyancy Modules, Ballast and Trim systems, and Low-Density Buoyancy Modules. 
  • Operation:
    • The vehicle has an endurance of 12 hours under normal operation and 96 hours in case of emergency for human safety.
  • Participation:
    • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), IITM, and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will actively participate in this mission.
  • Cost:
    • The Centre had approved the Deep Ocean Mission (DOM) at a total budget of ?4,077 crore for five years. 
  • Elite club of nations:
    • India will be joining the elite club of nations such as the US, Russia, Japan, France, and China to have niche technology and vehicles to carry out subsea activities.
The Deep Ocean MissionIt will run under the direction of the Ministry of Earth Sciences.It has a budget of USD 4,077 million over five years.Over the period of three years, the first phase is projected to cost Rs 2,823.4 crore (2021-2024). The Deep Ocean Mission will be a mission-mode initiative to support the blue economy aspirations of the Indian government.Sagarmala ProjectThe Sagarmala project is the strategic initiative for port-led development through the extensive use of IT enabled services for modernization of ports.

Why is it relevant for India?

  • India has a unique maritime position: a 7517 km long coastline, which is home to nine coastal states and 1,382 islands.
  • Blue Economy: The mission aims to boost the Central government’s vision of New India that highlights the Blue Economy as one of the ten core dimensions of growth.
    • It supports fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, livelihoods, and blue trade.

Significance of the mission 

  • Exploring mineral resources: Manned submersible facilitates the direct observation by the human in deep ocean in exploring mineral resources rich in Nickel, Cobalt, Rare Earths, Manganese etc. and collection of samples, which can be used for analysis.
  • Underwater engineering innovations: Mission has immediate spin-offs in the form of underwater engineering innovations in asset inspection, tourism and promotion of ocean literacy.

Palm-Leaf Manuscript Museum

In News

  • The Kerala government will inaugurate a palm-leaf manuscript museum with modern audio-visual technology at the Central Archives, Fort, in Thiruvananthapuram.

About the museum 

  • It is set up by the Archives Department.
  • Cost would be ?3-crore.
  • The museum has eight theme-based galleries where select manuscripts from one of the biggest palm-leaf collections in the country will be displayed.
  • The other galleries are:
    • Land and people.
    • Administration.
    • War and peace.
    • Education and health.
    • Economy.
    • Art and culture – the Mathilakom records (a collection of 3,000 cadjan manuscript rolls possessed by Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple). 

What is the Palm-leaf manuscript?

  • These are manuscripts made from dried palm leaves.
  • Palm leaves were used as writing materials in the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia reportedly dating back to the 5th century BCE.
  • Their use began in South Asia and spread to other regions, as texts on dried and smoke-treated palm leaves of Palmyra palm or the talipot palm.
  • Their use continued till the 19th century when printing presses replaced hand-written manuscripts.
  • One of the oldest surviving palm leaf manuscripts of a complete treatise is a Sanskrit Shaivism text from the 9th-century, discovered in Nepal, now preserved at the Cambridge University Library.

Sahitya Akademi Awards

In News

  • Sahitya Akademi, an organisation founded in 1954 for promotion of literature,announced various Awards for 2022.


  • Sahitya Akademi recognizes 24 Indian languages which includes Rajasthani ,English and 22 languages recognized under the 8th Schedule of the Indian constitution.
  • Sahitya Akademi Award is given to the most outstanding books of literary merit published in any of the major Indian languages recognised by the Akademi. The first Awards were given in 1955.
  • Sahitya Akademi ‘Yuva Puraskar’ was instituted in 2011, it recognises young writers under the age of 35.
  • Awards for translations of major works in other languages into one of the Indian languages were instituted in 1989.
  • Bhasha Samman Award was instituted in 1996, this is given to writers for significant contribution to Indian languages other than the above 24 major ones and also for contributions to classical and medieval literature.


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