On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

In News

  • Recently, 2023-24 Union Budget speech, the finance minister announced that the total central government budget for health will be roughly be Rs 615 for every citizen.

More about the news

  • About:
    • In her 2023-24 Union Budget speech, the finance minister announced that the total central government budget for health will be roughly Rs 86,175 crore ($10 billion) — that is, roughly Rs 615 for every citizen.
      • This is a 2.7 percent increase from the previous fiscal year and lower than the rate of inflation.
      • In real terms, the central government’s health spending has declined
  • Significance of budgetary spending on health:
    • The $10 billion spent by the central government may be a small fraction of overall health spending but it is consequential as it pays for:
      • Immunisation, newborn and child health and nutrition, maternal health, infectious disease control, health systems and training
    • This spending by the government purchases far more health than out-of-pocket or private spending by Indian citizens.

Issues with the lower budgetary allocations on health

  • Burden of healthcare in India:
    • Vaccinating a single child against all childhood illnesses costs at least Rs 1,600.
    • A day of hospitalisation at a public hospital is estimated at Rs 2,800.
      • At a private hospital, it is Rs 6,800. 
    • Add to these the expenses for supporting women through deliveries, control of infectious disease, primary healthcare, and much more.
    • It is, therefore, no surprise that the system fails the most vulnerable and they are forced to turn to the expensive private sector.
  • For elderly and sick: 
    • The poor, elderly and sick are already at a disadvantage and the burden of health expenditure makes this even worse.
  • Increasing poor and non-poor gap:
    • greater proportion of disposable incomes is taken away from a poor household as compared to a non-poor one, further broadening the gap between the two.
      • If sickness hits a working member of the household, she/he must often withdraw from active employment and their main source of income dries up at the time when they urgently need more money for treatment.
      • Households have to often sell or mortgage their productive assets, such as land and cattle, to cover the treatment costs.
  • This further reduces their capacity to bounce back. 
  • According to the WHO, 55 million people fall into poverty or deeper poverty every year due to catastrophic expenditures on health.
  • Lesser spending than the Lower and Middle-Income Countries:
    • India currently spends about Rs 8 lakh crore or about 3.2 percent of its GDP on health. 
    • This is much lower than the average health spending share of the GDP — at around 5.2 percent of the Lower and Middle Income Countries (LMIC).
    • Comparing the data:
      • Of this, the government (Centre and states put together) spends about roughly 1.1 percent of the GDP. 
      • Contrast this with the government health expenditure in countries like China (3 percent), Thailand (2.7 percent), Vietnam (2.7 percent) and Sri Lanka (1.4 percent).


  • Rationalising NHM spendings:
    • The National Health Mission allocates less than 3 percent to non-communicable diseases (NCD) flexipool.
      • In comparison, the allocation for communicable diseases is three times more.
    • The burden of disease from NCDs accounts for more than half of the total burden of disease. 
    • Greater focus on communicable diseases is driven by past epidemiological patterns and should be rebalanced now to pay attention to non-communicable diseases.
  • Balancing Urban and poor health care:
    • Public health and primary health care focus on rural areas. 
    • Urban areas have poorly developed infrastructure for primary care even if secondary and tertiary health care services are better.
      • For example, immunisation coverage is now lower in urban India than in rural India. 
    • A third of the country now lives in urban areas and greater resources are needed to improve health here.
  • Focussing on Health research:
    • Health research has been neglected for too long.
    • The bulk of the resources provided to the Indian Council of Medical Research goes towards maintaining a large payroll of scientists and the output is poor.
    • India should follow the example of countries where government-funded health research is conducted at academic institutions, and the government’s role is to make grants and not to carry out the majority of research.
      • Competitive funding will encourage the best research and the example of the Wellcome Trust/DBT-India Alliance in promoting the culture of competitive grants can be replicated across the system.

Way ahead

  • This is not an example of efficient use of resources when the country spends too little on health, too many people suffer the consequences of ill health.
  • The health (and education) of Indians is the most important determinant of what the country can achieve during the next 25 years of Amrit Kaal. 
  • We must find ways to both find more money for health, and also more health for the money to ensure that all Indians achieve their true potential.

Source: IE

India’s Space Debris

In News

  • Recently, the Ministry of Science and Technology informed the Rajya Sabha about the presence of India’s space debris


  • As per the government, India has 111 Payloads, 105 Space Debris Objects Orbiting Earth which can have an impact on the sustainability of outer space and future missions.
  • ISRO and academia has been carrying Research and studies on the potential and emerging threats from space debris since the early 1990s.
  • The ISRO System for Safe and Sustainable Operations Management (IS4OM) was established in 2022 to continually monitor objects posing collision threats and to mitigate the risk posed by space debris.
  • So far, 21 collision avoidance manoeuvres have been carried out by ISRO to avoid collision threats from other space objects.
  • Besides, the government is also taking measures to augment domestic capacity for space tourism. For example, ISRO has been conducting feasibility studies for a sub-orbital space tourism mission i.e., the Gaganyaan mission.
  • The Gaganyaan programme is engaged in the development of various technologies for human space missions with an objective to demonstrate human spaceflight capability to low earth orbit.
  • The government has also stressed that all the future missions will be taken up after the accomplishment of the Gaganyaan mission.

What is Space Debris?

  • About: Space debris refers to the artificial objects, including defunct satellites, spent rocket stages, and other man-made objects, that are in orbit around the Earth and pose a risk to operational spacecraft and astronauts.
  • Kessler Syndrome: It is a theoretical scenario in which a cascade of collisions between artificial objects in low Earth orbit leads to a rapidly increasing amount of space debris, making the use of near-Earth space impossible for an extended period of time.
    • The scenario was first proposed by Donald J. Kessler in 1978 and is considered a major concern for the long-term sustainability of human activities in space.
    • The potential for a Kessler Syndrome event underscores the importance of efforts to reduce the generation of space debris and to mitigate its impact on the operational space environment.
Important Missions on Removing Space Debris RemoveDebris: It is the European Space Agency’s debris removal demonstration mission in the low Earth orbit (LEO) that aims to test and validate multiple active debris removal technologies. e.Deorbit: It is an European Commission led mission that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing and deorbiting a non-functional satellite using a net and a harpoon. Debris Elimination and Reentry: It is NASA’s Debris Elimination and Reentry (DER) program aims to reduce the threat of re-entering debris and mitigate the growth of space debris. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC): IADC’s guidelines provide a set of best practices for reducing the generation of space debris and mitigating the impact of existing debris on operational spacecraft and infrastructure. Space Debris Capture Experiment: It is Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)’s experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing space debris using a device mounted on a spacecraft and to study the characteristics of space debris. Cleanup Mission: It is China National Space Administration’s (CNSA) to demonstrate the feasibility of cleaning up space debris using a combination of active and passive methods. Space Debris Removal System (SDRS): It is a proposed mission by the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos) to demonstrate the feasibility of removing space debris from low Earth orbit.

Challenges of Space Debris

  • Tracking and Monitoring: Space debris moves at high speeds and can be as small as a few millimeters, making it difficult to accurately track and monitor.
  • Removing Debris: Removing existing debris from orbit is technically challenging and expensive, and there are also legal and political obstacles to overcome.
  • Avoiding Collisions: Operational satellites and spacecraft must be programmed to avoid potential collisions with debris, which increases the risk of mission failure.
  • Predicting Debris Behaviour: It is difficult to predict the behavior of space debris, especially in the event of a collision or other disturbance.
  • Controlling the Growth of Debris: New debris is constantly being created from failed launches, satellite break-ups, and other events. Preventing the growth of debris requires international cooperation and strict regulations.
  • Protecting Human Spaceflight: Space debris can pose a threat to human spaceflight and astronauts, as even small pieces of debris can cause significant damage to spacecraft.
  • Balancing Economic and Political Interests: The issue of space debris raises important economic and political questions, such as how to allocate the costs of removing debris and who should be responsible for its removal.

Need for removing space debris

  • Protecting Active Satellites: Removing space debris will reduce the risk of collisions with operational satellites, protecting them from damage and ensuring their continued functionality.
  • Ensuring Safe Human Spaceflight: Space debris removal will create a safer environment for human spaceflight, reducing the risk of collision and damage to spacecraft.
  • Maintaining the Use of Outer Space: By removing space debris, we can maintain the use of outer space for scientific, commercial, and military purposes, ensuring its continued sustainability.
  • Protecting the Space Environment: Removing space debris will help to prevent the long-term impacts on the space environment, reducing the potential for a “debris belt” that could limit future missions.
  • Cost-Effective: Removing space debris is more cost-effective than constantly avoiding collisions and repairing or replacing damaged satellites.
  • Compliance with International Regulations: The need for removing space debris is recognized by international agreements, such as the Outer Space Treaty, which requires the responsible use of outer space and the prevention of harmful interference with other nations’ activities in space.

Way Ahead

  • In summary, the issue of space debris highlights the need for continued efforts to mitigate and prevent the growth of debris in orbit to ensure the sustainability and safe use of outer space for future generations.
  • The need to remove space debris is crucial for the continued safe and sustainable use of outer space. Efforts to remove debris should be a priority for the international community to ensure the continued growth and exploration of space.

Source: TH

Extended Reality (XR) Startup Program

In News

  • The Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY), and Meta have announced the list of 120 startups for the Extended Reality (XR) Startup Program.

Extended Reality (XR)

  • Extended reality (XR) is an umbrella term for any technology that alters reality by adding digital elements to the physical or real-world environment .
  • Extended reality includes VR(virtual reality), AR(augmented reality) and MR(mixed reality) as well as all future immersive technologies that enable an extension of reality while blending virtual graphics with real-world elements. 
  • Augmented Reality
    • Augmented Reality (AR) does not create a new reality, but it overlays digital images onto the real world with the help of a device like their mobile phone or tablet
    • Examples include Instagram filters, Snapchat’s lenses 
  • Virtual Reality
    • Virtual reality (VR) is a 3D,digital environment completely generated through computers.
      • In VR users can be fully immersed in simulated realities with the help of dedicated headsets capable of generating realistic  images and sounds just like in real life.
      • Some examples of VR include experiences generated by gadgets such as Oculus Rift, Samsung Gear VR.
  • Mixed Reality
    • Mixed Reality (MR) lies at the intersection of VR and AR. This technology blends real and virtual worlds to create complex environments where physical and digital elements interact in real time.
    • One example of MR could be a scene depicting finding of a new element by Tony stark in the IRON MAN movie .


  • Retail: XR can lead to new innovations which give customers the ability to try before they buy. Rolex has an AR app that allows people  to try on watches on their actual wrist. 
  • Remote work: XR can enable workers to connect to the office or with professionals located around the world in a way that makes both sides feel like they are in the same room.
  • Education & Training: The use of XR can help the students by providing the option to participate  in classes from all  across the globe from their own location. The training of employees and workers can be done remotely using XR.


  • AVGC Task Force: Headed by the Secretary, Ministry of I & B, the task force called for “National AVGC-XR Mission” to focus on content creation In India, 
  • XR Startup Program: It is a collaboration between Meta and MeitY Startup Hub (MSH) to support and accelerate XR technology startups.

Way Forward

The XR ecosystem and its applications represents a tectonic shift in progress of mankind, India needs to pursue a balanced approach weighing both uses and risks .The XR Startup Program is a right step in that direction.

Source: IE

Smuggling of Red Sanders

In  Context

  • Fact Sheet prepared by TRAFFIC, a global wildlife trade monitoring organisation has revealed  the issue of Red Sanders illegal trade.
    • TRAFFIC was established in 1976 by WWF and IUCN as a wildlife trade monitoring network to undertake data collection, recommendations on wildlife trade.


  • The CITES trade database has recorded 28 incidents of Red Sanders confiscation, seizure, and specimen from the wild being exported from India. 
  • It highlights the threats of rampant illegal logging and smuggling of trees especially in Chittoor, Kadapa, Nellore & Kurnool districts in Andhra Pradesh.
  • China remains the largest importer of the product, followed by Hong Kong and Singapore.

Red Sanders (Red Sandalwood)

  • About:
    • Red Sanders is a flora-species that is endemic to the tropical dry deciduous forest in Eastern Ghats region of Andhra Pradesh.
    • It is locally known as Yerra Chandanam, Rakta Chandanam.
    • It is a very slow-growing tree species that attains maturity after 25 – 40 years.
    • It is fire-hardy and resistant to droughts
  • High Demand & applications:
    • Red Sanders is under severe pressure from illegal logging and harvesting. It is in demand in both domestic and international markets.
    • Its rich hue and therapeutic properties are responsible for its high demand across Asia, particularly China, for use in cosmetics, medicinal products and high-end furniture/woodcraft.
    • While the red dye obtained from the wood is used as a colouring agent in textiles and medicines.
  • Conservation Status:
    • It is under ‘endangered list’ in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. 
    • It is listed in Appendix-II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wildlife Fauna and Flora (CITES).
    • Listed under Schedule IV of The Wildlife Protection Act.

Initiatives to Curb Illegal Trade

  • The export of Red Sanders from India is prohibited as per the Foreign Trade Policy.
  • Operation Rakth Chandan
  • Red Sanders Anti-Smuggling Task Force (RSASTF) established in 2014.

Way Ahead

  • The TRAFFIC called for declaring the Red Sanders harbouring forests within the species’ geographical range as ‘High Conservation Areas’, to provide an adequate legal framework for protecting the species and its habitat.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)  About: It is an international agreement between governments, whose aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species. Members: CITES has been among the conservation agreements with the largest membership, with 184 Parties. India became the 25th party in 1976. CITES is legally binding on the Parties. Permit System: All import, export and re-export of species covered under CITES must be authorised through a permit system. Appendixes: CITES Appendix I lists species threatened with extinction — import or export permits for these are issued rarely and only if the purpose is not primarily commercial.  CITES Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction but in which trade must be strictly regulated.

Source: TH

PM Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group launched in Mission Mode

In News

  • The Finance Minister announced the launch of a new scheme called the Pradhan Mantri PVTG (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups) Development Mission as part of the Union Budget 2023-24.

More about the Mission

  • A fund of Rs 15,000 crore for the next three years has been allocated for the socio-economic development of the group.
  • It will be launched as part of ‘Reaching The Last Mile’, one of the seven Saptarishi priorities enlisted in this year’s Budget. 
  • The PVTGs Mission aims to provide basic facilities like housing, water, road, telecom, education and health in PVTG areas across the country.
    • The scheme follows the strategic approach of Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana , which is need-based and strives to optimise utilisation of resources available under various programs and aims at specific outcomes.
  • Implementation: Among the ministries that are expected to be roped in to implement the PM-PVTG Mission the Rural Development Ministry, the Water Resources Ministry, the Education Ministry, the Health Ministry and the Women and Child Development Ministry.

Need for Special Support

  • Due to their vulnerability, PVTGs require greater support and development compared to other tribal groups. 
  • The more developed and assertive tribal groups often receive a larger portion of tribal development funds, leaving PVTGs in need of more targeted support.
  • The programme for the welfare of PVTGs began in the 1970s and there is an absence of a proper policy that considers their culture, practices, livelihood and other aspects of their lives for their welfare.

Who are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)? 

  • The Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) are those that depend on hunting for food, have pre-agriculture level technologies, zero or negative population growth, and extremely low levels of literacy and are in need of greater support and development.
  • Background: On the recommendation of the Dhebar Commission, the Central government began to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category in 1975, establishing 52 such groups. 
    • The list was expanded in 1993, when another 23 groups were added, for a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes spread across 17 states and one Union Territory (UT) in the country (2011 census), the highest number being found in Odisha.
  • Criteria for identification of PVTGs: 
    • Pre-agricultural level of technology
    • Low level of literacy
    • Economic backwardness
    • A declining or stagnant population.
Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana (VKY) The Scheme was launched in 2014 as a Central Sector Scheme by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs. The scheme aims at overall development of tribal people with an outcome-based approach, ensuring that all the intended benefits, goods and services through various programmes/schemes of Central and State Governments covered under the respective Tribal Sub-Plans actually reach them.



In News

  • The deadline for The Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Uttham Mahabhiyan (PM-KUSUM) scheme to install 30,000 MW solar power capacity in rural India by 2022, has now been pushed to 2026 due to Covid- 19.


  • It is a scheme by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy launched in 2019.
  • It is aimed at ensuring energy security for farmers in India, along with India’s commitment to increase the share of installed capacity of electric power from non-fossil-fuel sources to 40% by 2030 as part of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).

The Scheme consists of three components:

  • Component A: Addition of 10,000 MW of solar capacity through installation of small solar power plants of capacity up to 2 MW. Procurement Based Incentive (PBI) will be provided for the first five years by MNRE to DISCOMs, for buying the power from farmers/developers.
  • Component B: Installation of 20 lakh standalone solar powered agricultural pumps.
  • Component C: Solarisation of 15 lakh existing Grid-connected Agriculture Pumps.
  • Centre’s Assistance of 30%State Government subsidy 30%; Remaining 40% by the farmer will be provided in component B and C.
  • In North Eastern States, Sikkim, J&K, Himachal, Uttarakhand, Lakshadweep and A&N Islands, Centre’s assistance of 50%, State Government subsidy 30%, Remaining 20% by the farmer.

Expected Outcomes

  • Employment Generation: The scheme has direct employment generation potential upto 7.55 lakh jobs for skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Enhancing farmers’ income is one of the most important policy priorities of the Government. PM-KUSUM will serve this objective by replacing high cost diesel with less expensive solar energy.
  • Day-time power: Providing solar panels for irrigation under PM-KUSUM would result in day-time reliable power to farmers making irrigation easier for them and also avoiding overuse of water and power.
  • Reducing Carbon Emissions: PM-KUSUM will lead to reducing carbon emissions by as much as 32 million tonnes of CO2 per annum. 
  • Boost to domestic production: PM-KUSUM has a mandatory requirement for deploying domestically produced solar cells and modules under Component B and C. This will create demand for domestically produced solar cells and modules and thus give  fillip to domestic solar manufacturing.

Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s First Biodiversity Heritage Site

In Context

  • The Biodiversity Management Committee, the panchayat of Chumathang village, along with SECURE Himalaya Project recently resolved to declare Yaya Tso as Ladakh’s first Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS)  under the Biological Diversity Act.


  • Yaya Tso is also known as birds’ paradise for its beautiful lake and  is located at an altitude of 4,820 meters.
  • Yaya Tso is a nesting habitat for a large number of birds and animals, such as the bar-headed goose, black-necked crane and brahminy duck.
  • It is also one of the highest breeding sites of the black-necked crane in India.

Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS) 

  • These are areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems having rich biodiversity.
  • The Indian State Government can notify the Biodiversity Heritage Sites in consultation with local governing bodies under Section 37 of Biological Diversity Act of 2002.
  • India has 36 Biodiversity Heritage Sites spread across several states to date. The most recent addition was the Mahendragiri hill Biodiversity Heritage Site in Odisha.

About SECURE Himalaya

  • It is a part of “Global Partnership on Wildlife Conservation and Crime Prevention for Sustainable Development” (Global Wildlife Program) funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  • The project promotes sustainable management of alpine pastures and forests in the high range Himalayan ecosystems to secure conservation of globally significant wildlife and their habitats.


In News

  • Recently an eight-millimetre capsule has been recovered in Western Australia which was lost earlier.
    • It contained radioactive Caesium-137 which was released during the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters.

About Caesium

  • Caesium is a soft, flexible, silvery-white metal that can easily form bonds with chlorides to create a crystalline powder.
  • There is only one stable form of cesium naturally present in the environment, 133Cs (read as cesium one-thirty-three).
  • Nuclear explosions or the breakdown of uranium in fuel elements can produce two radioactive forms of cesium, 134Cs and 137Cs. Both isotopes decay into non-radioactive elements. 
  • Caesium-137 is the most common radioactive form of caesium which produces beta and gamma radiation, both of which are harmful to humans.

Health and Environment Concers

  • Health
    • Caesium-137 can cause serious illness when touched, leading to burns and acute radiation sickness.
    • External exposure of Caesium-137 can increase the risk of cancer because of the presence of high-energy gamma radiation. Prolonged exposure can even cause death.
    • Internal exposure to it through ingestion or inhalation allows the radioactive material to be distributed in the soft tissues, especially muscle tissue.
  • Environment
    • Cesium in air can travel long distances before settling to the ground or water. Most cesium compounds dissolve in water.
    • Cesium binds strongly to moist soils and does not travel far below the surface of the soil, most cesium compounds are very soluble.
                                                                Radioactivity Radioactivity is the phenomenon of the spontaneous disintegration of unstable atomic nuclei to atomic nuclei to form more energetically stable atomic nuclei. Radioactive decay is a highly exoergic, statistically random, first-order process that occurs with a small amount of mass being converted to energy.


Follow-on Public Offer(FPO)

In News

  • Recently, Adani Enterprises canceled its Rs 20,000 crore Follow-on Public Offer.
    • It came after the shares of the firm declined following allegations of accounting fraud by US short-seller Hindenburg Research.

What is a Follow-on Public Offering (FPO)?

  • A Follow-on Public Offering (FPO) is the issuance of shares to investors by a company listed on a stock exchange. 
  • FPOs are also known as secondary offerings.
  • Companies may use an FPO to reduce debt or raise more capital for expansion.
  • They typically occur after the company has completed an initial public offering (IPO) to make its shares available to the public.

Types of FPO’S

  • Dilutive FPO:
  • This is the process where the company issues additional fresh shares to the public to raise capital. 
  • It results in increasing the company’s total outstanding shares, decreasing the Earnings Per Share (EPS).
  • Non-Dilutive FPO:
  •  A non-diluted FPO is when the company’s largest shareholders, such as the founders or board of directors, offer the shares they hold privately to the general public. 
  • Unlike a diluted IPO, this method does not increase or decrease the company’s number of shares. 
FPO vs IPO IPO is the first issuance of shares by a company while an FPO is the issuance of shares by a company so they can raise additional capital after its IPO. Price: In an IPO, the price is either fixed or variable as a range, while in an FPO the price is dependent upon the number of shares as they increase or decrease and is market-driven. Issuance: The process for carrying out an FPO is similar to that of an IPO.              However, the FPO process is more cost-effective when compared to an IPO. Risk factor: Compared to FPO, the risk factors involved while investing in an IPO are far higher. 



In News 

  • Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd (MCL), the premier CPSE under the Ministry of Coal has introduced drone technology in coal mines.
    • Engaged in coal mining activities in Sundergarh, Jharsuguda and Angul districts of Odisha, Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd (MCL) contributes more than 20 % of the total coal produced in India.

About Technology

  •  The technology has been introduced through the launch of a web-based portal ‘VIHANGAM’ along with a drone and ground control system.
  • The portal allows an authorised person to access real-time drone video from the mine through a dedicated 40 Mbps internet lease line near the mines. 
  • There is a control station that flies the drone and the system can be operated through the portal from anywhere. 
  • Purpose:  It has been introduced in coal mines for environmental monitoring, volume measurement, and photogrammetric mapping of mines for digitalisation of the mining process
  • Other developments: Besides deploying state- of- art technology to further enhance record coal production, MCL has also stepped up the use of latest equipment to further enhance safety standards.
    • It has recently introduced Robotic Nozzle Water Sprayer in its coal stockyard. Coal companies use Robot-assisted firefighting and dust suppression advanced technology to carry out difficult and dangerous jobs.
    • The equipment can spray water up to 70 meters in the form of mist. The nozzle also termed as swivel nozzle, is installed on a water tanker of 28 kilolitres capacity.
Do you know? Coal is the most important and abundant fossil fuel in India. It accounts for 55% of the country’s energy needs. The country’s industrial heritage was built upon indigenous coal. Commercial primary energy consumption in India has grown by about 700% in the last four decades. 

IFFCO Nano Urea

In News

  • Union Home and Cooperation Minister will reach Deoghar in Jharkhand to lay the foundation stone of the IFFCO nano urea liquid fertiliser plant in Jasidih. 

About IFFCO Nano Urea

  • IFFCO Nano Urea is the only Nano fertilizer approved by the Government of India and included in the Fertilizer Control Order (FCO).
  • It is developed and Patented by IFFCO.
  • It is a nanotechnology-based revolutionary Agri-input that provides nitrogen to plants. Nano Urea is a sustainable option for farmers towards smart agriculture and combats climate change. 
  • Nano urea is non-toxic, safe for the user; safe for flora and fauna but it is recommended to use a face mask and gloves while spraying on the crop.
  • Effectiveness: The application of 1 bottle of Nano Urea can effectively replace at least 1 bag of Urea.
  • Benefits: It helps in minimizing the environmental footprint by reducing the loss of nutrients from agriculture fields in the form of leaching and gaseous emissions which are used to cause environmental pollution and climate change.
    • It promotes clean and green technology as its industrial production is neither energy-intensive nor resource-consuming.
Nanotechnology  It is the development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and develop new devices and material structures in the physical size range of 1-100 nanometres (nm), where 1 nanometre is equal to one billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology impacts all areas of our lives.  These include materials and manufacturing, electronics, computers, telecommunication and information technologies, medicine and health, the environment and energy storage, chemical and biological technologies and agriculture.


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