Flooding from Glacial Lakes

In News

  • According to a new study, around 15 million people across the world face the risk of sudden and deadly flooding from Glacial lakes.

What are Glacial Lakes?

  • A glacial lake is a body of water that originates from a glacier. It typically forms at the foot of a glacier but may form on, in, or under it.
  • They are commonly divided into two main groups: ice-contact lakes which are characterized by the presence of glacier ice terminating in lake water and distal lakes which are somewhat distant, but still influenced by, the presence of glaciers and/or ice sheets.

What are Glacial Lake Outbursts?

  • As glacial lakes grow larger in size, they become more dangerous because they are mostly dammed by unstable ice or sediment composed of loose rock and debris. 
  • In case the boundary around them breaks, huge amounts of water rush down the side of the mountains, which could cause flooding in the downstream areas. This is called glacial lake outburst floods or GLOF.
  • These lakes are often found in steep, mountainous regions, which means landslides or ice avalanches can sometimes fall directly into the lakes and displace the water, causing it to over-top the natural dam and flood downstream.
  • In 2013 Uttarakhand’s Kedarnath witnessed flash floods along with a GLOF caused by the Chorabari Tal glacial lake, killing thousands of people.

Major Findings of the Study

  • Increase in the number of GLOFs: Flooding from glacial lakes are expanding and rising in numbers due to global warming.
    • More than half of those who could be impacted live in four countries: India, Pakistan, Peru and China.
    • 15 million people live within the 50 km danger zone of glacial lakes.
  • Most exposed population: Populations in High Mountains Asia (HMA) — a region stretching from the Hindu Kush all the way to the eastern Himalayas — are the most exposed and on average live closest to glacial lakes with around one million people living within 10 km of a glacial lake.
  • India and Pakistan: India and Pakistan make up one-third of the total number of people globally exposed to GLOFs — around three million people in India and around two million people in Pakistan
    • The number and size of glacial lakes in these areas aren’t as large as in places like the Pacific Northwest or Tibet, but they are highly vulnerable and densely populated which makes that the highest GLOF region globally.  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan is the most dangerous catchment in the world.
  • Peru: Peru ranks third globally in danger levels. In the past two decades, due to climate change, glacial lakes across the Andes have increased by 93 per cent, in comparison to 37 per cent in high-mountain Asia. 

National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) Guidelines

  • These guidelines aim to enable concerned ministries or departments of State/UT, central governments and other stakeholders to take concerted action for preparedness, prevention, mitigation, and response to GLOFs. 
  • These Guidelines also emphasize awareness and capacity building of the relevant stakeholders. 
  • These guidelines also direct the government to focus on research and development in the GLOF. 

Way Ahead

  • Limiting climate change and keeping warming under 1.5 degree Celsius is a big step as this will help slow the growth of glacial lakes, but a certain amount of ice loss is already ‘locked in’ – if we stopped all emissions today GLOF hazard will continue to increase for several decades.
  • There is a need to find effective measures by working with national and regional governments, as well as communities themselves. 

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti

In News

  • Shiv Jayanti also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti was observed on February 19th, 2023.
    • This year will mark the 393rd birth anniversary of the great leader. 

About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

  • About:
    • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is one of the most revered rulers in India and is credited to have founded the Maratha Empire in the 17th century
  • Early days:
    • Shivaji Maharaj was born in the hill fort of Shivneri now located in Pune city of Maharashtra.
      • Shivaji is believed to have been named after a local deity called the goddess Shivai.
    • Shivaji’s mother, Jijabai was the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindkhed. His father Shahajiraje Bhosale was a prominent Sardar in the Deccan
    • From an early age, he showed leadership qualities and a keen interest in politics.
  • Alliance & hostilities:
    • Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Golkonda, the Sultanate of Bijapur and the European colonial powers
    • Shivaji’s military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence, capturing and building forts, and forming a Maratha navy.
      • The Maratha Navy guarded the Jaigad, Sindhudurg, Vijaydurg and other forts along the coast of Maharashtra.
  • Shivaji’s famous guerilla tactics:
    • Shivaji’s armed forces had some major limitations. 
      • He did not have the man or horsepower compared to most of his enemies, especially during the early stages of his life. 
      • This meant that in conventional battle, he would have seldom stood a chance against his foes.
      • Guerilla tactics: 
        • His men would travel in small, highly mobile and heavily armed attachments, wreak havoc in the often sluggish Mughal or Adil Shahi armies, loot supplies and treasure, and quickly retreat.
  • Significance of forts in the history of Shivaji Maharaj:
    • For a long time in history, before air power took centre stage in military tactics and strategy, forts were crucial to the defence of any country.
    • Geographical factors:
      • Unlike the plains of Northern India, suited to conventional battle with large standing armies, the terrain of the Maratha country was different. 
      • With the Arabian Sea on one side, the Konkan plains in the centre and the Western Ghats overlooking the plains, in the 17th century much of the region was covered in thick jungles.
      • Warfare in such terrain is qualitatively different, with large conventional armies prone to getting bogged down. 
    • Thus, growing up in the hills and valleys around Pune, Shivaji understood the salience of hill forts in controlling the land. 
    • Over his storied life, he captured multiple such forts, including Torna (when he was only 16), Rajgadh, Sinhagadh and Purandar.
    • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, at the time of his death, is said to have control of over 200 forts across his territories, with some estimates putting the number over 300.
  • Coronation:
    • In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad.
  • Administration & civil rule:
    • Shivaji Maharaj not only constructed a well-structured administrative organisation but also made a liberal civil rule for people living in the area.
    • He assigned separate responsibilities to the ministers and each of them was made responsible for his work to him.
      • He had a council of ministers (Asht Pradhan) to advise him on the matters of the state but he was not bound by it.
    • He also believed in religious tolerance and gave equal respect to all religions.
    • He made no office hereditary.
    • In general, he did not assign jagirs to his civil and military officers.
  • Art & Culture:
    • The historical figure was not only a great warrior but also a patron of art and culture
    • He encouraged literature and music, and his court was a centre of creativity and intellectualism. 
  • Death:
    • The brave warrior died in 1680 but is still known for his courage and intelligence.
  • Contemporary accounts:
    • Shivaji was admired for his heroic exploits and clever stratagems in the contemporary accounts of English, French, Dutch, Portuguese and Italian writers.

Celebration of Shiv Jayanti during India’s independence movement

  • The celebration of Shiv Jayanti was set by Jyotirao Govindrao Phule, also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, in 1870, and since then, people have been celebrating the day with great zeal.
  • The celebrations were carried on by the great liberation fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The freedom fighter was also given the credit for drawing attention to the Maratha King’s contributions to the public during the freedom struggle.
    •  He portrayed Shivaji as the “opponent of the oppressor”, with possible negative implications concerning the colonial government.


  • The Indian Navy’s INS Shivaji is named after him.
  • The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus in Mumbai is also named after him.
  • Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Memorial National Committee -Conceptualised & pioneered in 1981 by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi.

Chinese muscularity in the South China Sea

In News

  • China has continued to assert claims to a wide swath of the South China Sea for a decade.

Dispute of the South China Sea 

  • Location of South China Sea:
    • It is bounded on the northeast by the Taiwan Strait (by which it is connected to the East China Sea), on the east by Taiwan and the Philippines; on the southeast and south by Borneo, the southern limit of the Gulf of Thailand, and the east coast of the Malay Peninsula; and on the west and north by the Asian mainland. 
  • About the dispute:
    • Southeast Asian countries like China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia and Taiwan have had disputes over the contentious South China Sea region for centuries
    • The two primary points of contention are:
      • The Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands in the sea.
      • Nine-dash line:
        • Beijing stakes claim to most of the region and at the heart of this claim is the U-shaped ‘nine-dash line’ that includes as much as 90 percent of these waters. 
        • This dotted line was adopted from Chinese maps in the 1940s, and represents Beijing’s claim over the sea and all the land features that are contained within the line.
  • Significance of the region:
    • The South China Sea (SCS) is important not just to its littoral countries
    • It has been a transit point for trade since early medieval times, contains abundantly rich fisheries, and is a repository of mineral deposits and hydrocarbon reserves.

China’s dominance in the region

  • Claim of sovereignty:
    • China currently claims ‘indisputable sovereignty’ over the South China Sea, and some Chinese officials refer to it as the country’s ‘blue national soil’ — a term used to refer to the country’s offshore waters.
    • Each of the dashes (of the nine-dash line), according to both the Chinese and the Taiwanese, represents the median line between the islands within the South China Sea and the large landmasses comprising the sea’s littorals.
  • Dominance display:
    • Growing Chinese muscularity in the SCS is visible in the following ways:
      • Increased patrolling and live-fire exercising by Chinese naval vessels; 
      • Rmming and sinking of fishing vessels of other claimant countries; 
      • Renaming of SCS features; and 
      • Building of runways, bunkers, and habitation for possible long-term stationing of personnel on the atolls claimed by China.
    • Chinese exploration and drilling vessels compete aggressively with those of other littoral countries in the disputed waters.
  • China’s New Maritime Law for the South China Sea:
    • In a bid to regulate foreign ships, China notified new maritime rules warranting vessels to report their information while passing through what China sees as its “territorial waters”.
      • Operators of submersibles, nuclear vessels, ships carrying radioactive materials and ships carrying bulk oil, chemicals, liquefied gas and other toxic and harmful substances are required to report their detailed information upon their visits to Chinese territorial waters”.

UNCLOS’ Tribunal verdict

  • In 2016, an arbitral tribunal constituted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)  in The Hague concluded that
    • China’s historic rights claim over the maritime areas (as opposed to land territories and territorial waters) inside the nine-dash line has no lawful effect if it exceeds what it is entitled to under the UNCLOS.
    • It held that none of the features of the Spratlys qualified them as islands, and there was no legal basis for China to claim historic rights and to the resources within the ‘nine-dash line’
    • The award implied that China violated the Philippines Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
    • It noted that China had aggravated the situation by undertaking land reclamation and construction, and had harmed the environment and violated its obligation to preserve the ecosystem
  • China’s dismissal of the vedict:
    • China dismissed the award as “a political farce under the pretext of law.”

Settlement options for surrounding nations

  • Given the power equations, not a single country challenged China, which agreed to settle disputes bilaterally, and to continue work on a Code of Conduct with countries of the ASEAN
  • While avoiding military confrontation with China, the countries are seeking political insurancestrengthening their navies, and deepening their military relationships with the United States.

Options for India & way ahead

  • The SCS carries merchandise to and from India. It follows that India has a stake in the SCS, just as China has in the Indian Ocean.
  • Defence diplomacy & Strategic Partnerships: 
    • India must continue to actively pursue its defence diplomacy outreach in the Indo-Pacific region:
      • Increase military training and conduct exercises and exchanges at a higher level of complexity, 
      • Extend Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief activities,
      • Share patrolling of the Malacca Strait with the littoral countries, etc. 
    • The Comprehensive Strategic Partnerships that India has concluded with Australia, Japan, Indonesia, the U.S., and Vietnam could be extended to Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore.
  • Enhancing the military capacity of Andaman and Nicobar:
    • India must also buttress the military capacity of the tri-service Andaman and Nicobar Command. 
    • These have immense geo-strategic value, as they overlook Asia’s maritime strategic lifeline and the world’s most important global sea lane. 
    • In this time of turbulence, India cannot afford to continue undervaluing one of its biggest assets.
United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)The UNCLOS is an international treaty which was adopted and signed in 1982. It replaced the four Geneva Conventions of April, 1958, which respectively concerned the territorial sea and the contiguous zone, the continental shelf, the high seas, fishing and conservation of living resources on the high seas.The Convention has created three new institutions on the international scene:the international Tribunal for Laws of the Seathe International Seabed Authoritythe Commission on the Limits of Continental ShelfExclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)Under the Law of the Sea Convention, all states have a right to 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to exploit the resources of the sea and seabed, as measured from their land territories. Where these zones overlap, countries are obliged to negotiate with other claimants.

Source: TH

India and Egypt Joint Working Group Meeting on Counter-Terrorism

In News 

  • Recently, the third meeting of the Joint Working Group on Counter-Terrorism was held in New Delhi.

Key Takeaways

  • Both sides strongly condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including cross-border terrorism.
  • The two sides reviewed threats posed by terrorist groups globally and in their respective countries and regions.
  • Deliberations on steps needed for counter-terrorism priorities and actions undertaken to counter terrorism, violent extremism conducive to terrorism, radicalization, and terror financing.
  • Security cooperation is decided as priority pillars of the India-Egypt strategic partnership in the future.
  • The two sides underscored the need for taking concerted actions against all the UNSC designated terrorist entities.
  • They called upon all countries to take immediate, sustained, irreversible and verifiable actions to ensure that no territory under their control is used as a terrorist safe haven and to bring to justice perpetrators of terrorist attacks.
  • Both countries have called upon all countries to work towards rooting out terrorist networks, infrastructure, their financing channels and preventing cross-border movement of terrorists.

Future Collaboration

  • Both sides agreed to further strengthen bilateral counter-terrorism collaboration, including through training and capacity building efforts, exchanges of good practices, and information sharing.
  • The Joint Working Group to counter-terrorism cooperation including in the United Nations and the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF).

Importance of Egypt for India

  • Historical friends: India and Egypt have a history of close contact from ancient times with the relationship between the two countries was strengthened by President Nasser and Prime Minister Nehru, leading to a Friendship Treaty in 1955.
  • Political Relations: Both countries share a close political understanding based on a long history of contacts and a diplomatic relation at the Ambassadorial level was made on August 18, 1947.
  • Strategic location: Egypt is strategically located at the crossroads of Africa, the Middle East, and Europe making it an important gateway for India besides being a key partner for India’s engagement with the African continent.
  • Energy security: Egypt is an important source of oil and gas with Indian companies have invested in oil and gas exploration and production in Egypt, and there is significant potential for further cooperation in this area.
  • Economic relation: India and Egypt have strong economic ties, with bilateral trade of approximately USD 7.26 billion in 2021-22 and both countries are working to increase their trade volume to USD 10 billion by 2023.
  • Trade: India-Egypt has annual trade worth US $ 4.4 billion with US $ 2.2 billion of Indian exports and US $ 2.19 billion of Indian imports.
    • India’s top exported items to Egypt:  Meat (19.9% ), Tobacco and Manufactured Tobacco(5.5%), Motor Cars(4.2%) and Cotton Yarn (4.1%).
    • India’s top imports from Egypt: crude oil, fertilizers, chemicals, and textiles
  • Defense engagements: Both countries participated virtually in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) Defence Ministers Conclave at Bengaluru. Recently, the first-ever joint exercise between Indian Army and Egyptian Army, Cyclone 2023, began its special heliborne operations at Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
  • Indian community: There are around 3200 people in Egypt with the majority of Indians located in Cairo, but there are also a small number of families in Alexandria, Port Said and Ismailia.
  • Geopolitical partner: India sees Egypt as a key partner in its “Act East” policy, which aims to increase engagement with Southeast Asia and the broader Indo-Pacific region.

Challenges in the India-Egypt relationship

  • Limited sector: The two countries face economic challenges owing to fluctuations in oil prices which forms a large share in trade volume and thus there is a need to diversify their economies and create jobs.
  • Economic challenges: Despite the significant trade between the two countries, there are still some issues. For example, Indian companies have faced challenges in investing in Egypt due to bureaucratic hurdles and a lack of transparency in the business environment.
  • Political instability: Egypt has seen significant political upheaval in recent years, which has created some uncertainty in the relationship between the two countries. For example, the issue of Jerusalem.
  • Security challenges: Both India and Egypt face security challenges related to terrorism and extremism. 
  • Cultural differences: India and Egypt have different cultures and traditions, which can sometimes create challenges in building stronger relations. 

Way Ahead

  • Despite some challenges in the India-Egypt relationship, both countries have shown a commitment to improving ties and addressing these issues in a constructive manner. 
  • With continued cooperation and dialogue, the relationship between India and Egypt is likely to grow stronger in the coming years.

 Source: TH

Genetically Modified Trees

In News

  • Genetically modified trees have been planted in the United States for the first time in a low-lying tract of southern Georgia’s pine belt.


  • The poplars have been genetically engineered to grow wood faster while absorbing more carbon dioxide from the air.
  • Living Carbon, the San Francisco-based biotechnology company is behind the modified trees, which attempts to help fight climate change.
  • Critics have however expressed concern that opening the door to commercial plantings still requires in-depth research on repercussions and long-term impacts on native ecosystems.
  • At present, the commercial cultivation of GM trees is not allowed in India.

What are Genetically Modified Trees?

  • Genetically modified trees, also known as GM trees, are trees that have been genetically modified using biotechnology.
  • These are done to enhance their desired traits, such as faster growth, disease resistance, or ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  • These trees are created by introducing foreign genes into their DNA through techniques like gene editing or gene gun method.


  • GM trees have the potential to mitigate the effects of climate change by absorbing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  • They can also be used for commercial purposes, such as producing timber or pulp more efficiently.


  • The long-term effects of GM trees on the environment and ecosystems are not yet fully understood.
  • There are concerns about the potential risks of cross-pollination with wild or non-GM trees, which could lead to unintended consequences.
  • Critics argue that GM trees could harm biodiversity and increase the use of harmful pesticides and herbicides.
  • Government has strict regulations on GM crops before they can be approved for commercial use which often kills the research incentives for developing new crops.

Government schemes: Promoting the R&D of genetically modified (GM) crops

  • National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP): This scheme is implemented by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and provides funding for research and development in the field of agriculture, including the development of GM crops.
  • National Food Security Mission (NFSM): It is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and aims to increase food grain production and productivity in India with research on GM crops to achieve the mission’s objectives.
  • Biotechnology Industry Partnership Program (BIPP): It is implemented by the Department of Biotechnology and provides funding for public-private partnerships in the field of biotechnology and GM crops.
  • National Biotechnology Development Strategy (NBDS): This is a long-term strategy implemented by the Department of Biotechnology to promote biotechnology research and development in India.
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY): This scheme is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and aims to promote the development of agriculture and allied sectors.
Government rules on GM in India
In India, the use of GM trees is regulated under the Environment Protection Act, 1986, and the Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export, and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells, 1989. While the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is responsible for granting approval for the field trials of GM trees in India. The GEAC considers various factors, such as the potential risks to the environment and human health, before granting approval for field trials. GM crops that are allowed in India:Bt Cotton: It is genetically modified to produce a toxin that kills the bollworm, a common pest that damages cotton crops.Bt Brinjal: It is genetically modified to produce a toxin that kills the fruit and shoots borer, a common pest that damages eggplant crops.Herbicide-tolerant crops: These are genetically modified to tolerate specific herbicides that can be sprayed to kill weeds without harming the crop.GM Mustard: It is genetically modified to produce a hybrid seed that has high yield and is resistant to pests and diseases.

Source: TH

New NITI Aayog CEO

In News

  • Former IAS officer BVR Subrahmanyam was appointed the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of NITI Aayog by the government.

About NITI (National Institution for Transforming India) Aayog

  • NITI Aayog was formed via a resolution of the Union Cabinet on 1 January 2015. 
  • Functions: As the apex think tank of India’s government, NITI Aayog provides both directional and policy inputs. 
    • It is developing itself as a state-of-the-art resource centre with the necessary knowledge and skills that will enable it to act with speed, promote research and innovation, provide strategic policy vision for the government, and deal with contingent issues.
  • Objectives: The numerous objectives of the NITI Aayog include fostering cooperative federalism, evolving a shared vision of national development priorities, sectors and strategies with the active involvement of states, and developing mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these progressively at higher levels of government.

Governing Council of NITI Aayog

  • The Governing Council is the premier body tasked with evolving a shared vision of national priorities and strategies, with the active involvement of States, in shaping the development narrative. 
  • It comprises the Chief Ministers of all the States and Union Territories with legislatures and Lt Governors of other Union Territories. The Prime Minister is the chairman of the Governing Council.

Gut Microbes & Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

In News

  • New Research suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in relieving symptoms of  autism spectrum disorders.

What are Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

  • ‘Autism spectrum disorder’ (ASD) is the term for a group of neurodevelopmental disorders where children exhibit  impaired social interactions, lack verbal and nonverbal communication skills, and display restricted and repetitive behaviours.
  • These characteristics can adversely affect one’s cognitive abilities and, over time, diminish one’s quality of life.

Research Findings

  • Research indicates the presence of various gastrointestinal problems, like constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence, and bloating in children with ASD.
  • Taking forward the learnings of  the “second human genome project”, which has found that The gut microbiome has a big impact on immune modulation and metabolic activities. This research observed that abnormal  antigen trafficking happens through an impaired intestinal barrier (caused by an imbalance in the gut biomeallowing the antigens to reach the brain, triggering a chain of events that worsen ASD symptoms.
    • Immune modulation refers to the efforts of the immune system to ensure that its response is proportionate to a threat.
  • The researchers suggest reinstating  balance in the gut microbiome with techniques like faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) could lessen many problems children with ASD face and improve their quality of life.
    •  Faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is a medical process to restore balance in the gut microbiome by  transplanting stool samples from healthy individuals into the large intestines of affected children.

Dustlik 2023


  • Recently, the fourth edition of Exercise DUSTLIK between India and Uzbekistan commenced at Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand.
  • The Indian army contingent is represented by the GARHWAL RIFLES.

Exercise DUSTLIK

  • DUSTLIK is a biennial training exercise held between the armies of India and Uzbekistan.
  • It aims at enhancing military capability to undertake multi-domain operations in a Sub Conventional scenario under United Nations Mandate.
  • The first edition of the joint military exercise took place in Tashkent in 2019.


  • It is a doubly landlocked country located in Central Asia. 

    Image Courtesy: Operation World

  • Key Facts:
    • It is surrounded by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. 
    • Its capital and largest city is Tashkent.

India-Uzbekistan Political and  Bilateral relations

  • India was one of the first countries to acknowledge the state sovereignty of Uzbekistan after its independence in 1991.
  • The bilateral relations encompass political and strategic issues, defence and security, trade and investment, energy, agriculture, Science & technology, education, and people-to-people ties.           
  • The diplomatic relations between the two nations have completed 30 years in 2022.
  • Uzbekistan and India have signed Agreements/MOUs/ Protocols/Joint Statements in trade, investment, education, civil aviation, tourism, science & technology, telecommunications, agriculture, and IT.                                


Anubhuti Divyang Park

In Context

  • Recently, the Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways laid the Foundation Stone of the world’s largest and unique Divyang Park – Anubhuti Inclusive Park in Nagpur, Maharashtra.


  • Anubhuti Inclusive Park is being built for disabled children and general citizens in the Pardi campus of Nagpur.
  • The objective is to convey the message of inclusion in the country and the whole world.
  • Features
    • It is the world’s first inclusive disabled park.
    • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India.
    • The park will have adapted facilities for all 21 types of disabilities like a touch and smell garden, hydrotherapy unit, water therapy, and independent room for mentally challenged children, and mother.
  • In 2016, the central government passed the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act for the rights of persons with disabilities. The law gives the disabled the right to live with dignity.
Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016The Act replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. It fulfils the obligations to the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), to which India is a signatory. It was enacted in 2016 and came into force from April 2017.Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept.The types of disabilities covered are 21 and the Central Government has the power to add more types of disabilities.The Act provides for penalties for offences committed against persons with disabilities and also violation of the provisions of the new law.Special Courts will be designated in each district to handle cases concerning the violation of the rights of PwDs.


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